A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament
A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament: For the Use of Biblical Students is one of the books of Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener, biblical scholar and textual critic. In this book Scrivener listed over 3,000 Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, as well as manuscripts of early versions, it was used by Gregory for further work. The book was published in four editions; the first edition, published in 1861, contained 506 pages. The second edition was expanded into 626 pages. Two first editions were issued in one volume; the first volume was edited in 1883, the second in 1887. The fourth edition was issued in two volumes; the fourth edition of the book was reprinted in 2005 by Elibron Classics. The text of the first edition was divided into nine chapters and three Indices were added at the end. All plates were placed at the end of book; the main part of the work are descriptions of the manuscripts. Scrivener concentrated his attention on the most important manuscripts; the cursive manuscripts were too numerous to be minutely described as per the uncials.
Scrivener described them with all possible brevity, dwelling only on a few which presented points of special interest and used a system of certain abbreviations. Lists of this abbreviations was included just before the Catalogue of cursive manuscripts. Examples of abbreviations, include: Act. — MS. of Acts and Catholic epistles Am. — the Ammonian Sections Eus. — the Eusebian Canons Eus. t. — a table of the Eusebian Canons Carp. — Epistula ad Carpianum κεφ. — the numbers of the κεφαλαια majora stand in the margin κεφ. t. — the tables of the κεφαλαια are prefixed to each book τιτλ. — the τιτλοι are given at the head or foot of the page lect. — the book is adapted for Church-reading by notices of the proper lessons, feasts etc. in the margin, or above, or below men. — a menology, calendar of Saints' Days, is found at the beginning or end of the book syn. — Synaxarion, a calendar of the daily lessons throughout the year is given mut. — the copy described is mutilated pict. — the copy is illuminated with pictures prol.
— contains prolegomena before the several books In every next edition of the Plain Introduction this system of abbreviations was expanded. At the end of lists the manuscripts are described more shortly, in two columns, only numbers of the manuscripts, with the corresponding number of other system of catalogization: In the preface to the first edition, the editor announced: The following pages are chiefly designed for the use of those who have no previous knowledge of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament, he asks the reader's indulgence for the annexed list of Addenda et Corrigenda, both by reason of the peculiar character of his work, the remoteness of West Cornwall from Public Libraries. He might have suppressed the greater part of them, but that he has tried to be accurate, sees no cause to be ashamed of what Person has well called "the common lot of authorship." He has only to add that he has not consciously borrowed from other writers without due acknowledgement, to return his best thanks to the Rev. H. O. Coxe for important aid in the Bodleian, to Henry Bradshaw Esq.
Fellow of King's College, for valuable instruction respecting manuscripts in the University Library at Cambridge. Falmouth, September, 1861. In 1873 Dean Burgon in The Guardian published several articles with some suggestions and encouragement for preparing the second edition of Plain Introduction. Burgon gave a photograph of the Codex Basilensis for the sake of the next edition; the second edition was published in 1874. The number of chapters was still the same. Many corrections to the third section of the second chapter were made after suggestions of: H. Bradshaw, Vansittart and Burgon. In preface to the first edition, the editor announced: The first edition of this work, published in 1861, was received so favourably that the author has felt bound to bestow his utmost care upon a minute and thorough revision of his book, in the hope of bringing up the information it contains to the existing state of knowledge. In this endeavour he has been assisted as well by Canon Lightfoot, to whom he is indebted for that section of the third chapter which treats of Egyptian versions of the New Testament, as by much unsought for and most welcome help on the part of those scholars who are named in p. 164, note.
Without wishing to speak harshly of writers who are not scrupulous in such matters, he has always thought it became him to borrow from no quarter without making a full and frank avowal of the fact. The author will be much rejoiced if this new edition shall be judged not less worthy than its predecessor to become a text book in Universities and Theological Celleges. S. Gerrans, August, 1861. In August, 1874, Ezra Abbot sent to Scrivener a letter: the rough draught of which covered forty odd pages, devoted to the correction of apparent errors and a statement of overlooked facts in the first edition of the Plain Introduction; the letter came too late to be used in preparing the body of the second edition of Scrivener's work. Abbot's studies argumented the number of suggestions in those portions of the book devoted to describing the extant manuscripts
Constantin von Tischendorf
Lobegott Friedrich Constantin Tischendorf was a world-leading biblical scholar in his time. In 1844 he discovered the world's oldest and most complete Bible dating from 325, with the complete New Testament not discovered before; this Bible is called Codex Sinaiticus, after the St. Catherine's Monastery at Mt. Sinai, where Tischendorf discovered it; the codex can be seen either in the British Library in London, or as a digitalised version on the Internet. Textual disputes are resolved when the two oldest books, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus, agree with each other. Tischendorf was made an Honorary Doctor by Oxford University on 16 March 1865, an Honorary Doctor by Cambridge University on 9 March 1865 following this find of the century. While a student gaining his academic degree in the 1840s, he earned international recognition when he deciphered the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, a 5th-century Greek manuscript of the New Testament; the Codex Sinaiticus contains a 4th-century manuscript of New Testament texts.
Two other Bibles of similar age exist, though they are less complete: Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican Library and Codex Alexandrinus owned by the British Library. The Codex Sinaiticus is deemed by some to be the most authoritative surviving New Testament manuscript, as no older document is as complete as the Codex; the content of the "oldest Bible of the world" has been digitised. Throughout his life Tischendorf sought old biblical manuscripts, as he saw it as his task to give theology a Greek New Testament, based on the oldest possible scriptures, he intended to be as close as possible to the original sources. Tischendorf's greatest discovery was in the monastery of Saint Catherine on the Sinai Peninsula, which he visited in May 1844, again in 1853 and 1859. In 1862 Tischendorf published the text of the Codex Sinaiticus for the 1000th Anniversary of the Russian Monarchy in both an illustrious four-volume facsimile edition and in a less costly text edition, to enable all scholars to have access to the Codex.
Tischendorf pursued a constant course of editorial labours on the New Testament, until he was broken down by overwork in 1873. His motive, as explained in a publication on Tischendorf's Letter by Prof. Christfried Boettrich, was to prove scientifically that the words of the Bible were trustfully transmitted over centuries. Tischendorf was born in Lengenfeld, near Plauen, the son of a physician. Beginning in 1834, he spent his scholarly career at the University of Leipzig where he was influenced by JGB Winer, he began to take special interest in New Testament criticism. Winer's influence gave him the desire to use the oldest manuscripts in order to compile the text of the New Testament as close to the original as possible. In 1838 he took the degree of Doctor of Philosophy became master at a school near Leipzig. After a journey through southern Germany and Switzerland, a visit to Strassburg, he returned to Leipzig, set to work upon a critical study of the New Testament text. In 1840 he qualified as university lecturer in theology with a dissertation on the recensions of the New Testament text – the main part of which reappeared the following year in the prolegomena to his first edition of the Greek New Testament.
His critical apparatus included variant readings from earlier scholars – Elsevier, Georg Christian Knapp, Johann Martin Augustin Scholz, as recent as Karl Lachmann – whereby his researches were emboldened to depart from the received text as used in churches. These early textual studies convinced him of the absolute necessity of new and more exact collations of manuscripts. From October 1840 until January 1843 he was in Paris, busy with the treasures of the Bibliothèque Nationale, eking out his scanty means by making collations for other scholars, producing for the publisher, Firmin Didot, several editions of the Greek New Testament – one of them exhibiting the form of the text corresponding most to the Vulgate, his second edition retracted the more precarious readings of the first, included a statement of critical principles, a landmark for evolving critical studies of Biblical texts. A great triumph of these laborious months was the decipherment of the palimpsest Codex Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus, of which the New Testament part was printed before he left Paris, the Old Testament in 1845.
His success in dealing with a manuscript that, having been over-written with other works of Ephrem the Syrian, had been illegible to earlier collators, made him more well known, gained support for more extended critical expeditions. He now became professor extraordinarius at Leipzig, where he was married in 1845, he began to publish Reise in den Orient, an account of his travels in the east. Though he was an expert in reading the text of a palimpsest, he was not able to identify the value or meaning of the Archimedes Palimpsest, a torn leaf of which he held and after his death was sold to the Cambridge University Library. From Paris, he had paid short visits to the England. In 1843 he visited Italy, after a stay of thirteen months, went on to Egypt and the Levant, returning via Vienna and Munich. In 1844 Tischendorf travelled the first time to Saint Catherine's Monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai in Egypt, where he found the oldest complete known Bible. Of the many pages which were contained in an old wicker basket (the kind that the monastery hauled in its visito
Codex Guelferbytanus A
Codex Guelferbytanus A designated by Pe or 024, ε 33, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels, dated palaeographically to the 6th century. The manuscript is lacunose; the codex contains the text of the four Gospels in a fragmentary condition on 44 leaves. Written in two columns per page, 24 lines per column, it does not contain in genere accents. Sometimes it uses breathings, but wrongly, it has errors of iotacism in the Alexandrian way. Contents Matthew 1:11-21; the notation of the Ammonian Sections is given in the margin of text, but without reference to the Eusebian Canons. The nomina sacra attested in this uncial fragment are ΙΣ ΧΣ, ΚΣ ΘΣ, ΥΣ, ΠΗΡ, ΠΝΑ, ΙΛΗΜ, ΑΝΟΣ, ΔΑΔ; the number "forty" is written with an abbreviation — Μ. All the abbreviations are marked with the superscript bar, it is a palimpsest. The whole book is known as Codex Guelferbytanus 64 Weissenburgensis; the upper text contains Isidore of Seville's Origines. The Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type.
Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method in Luke 20 it has mixed text. According to Scrivener the codex agrees with AB united 50 times, sides with B against A 29 times, accords with A against B in 102 places; the manuscript was held in Bobbio, Weissenburg and Prague. The Duke of Brunswick bought it in 1689; the manuscript became known to scholars in the latter half of the 18th century. Franz Anton Knittel discovered it in the Ducal Library of Wolfenbüttel. Knittel recognized two palimpsest Greek texts of the New Testament in the codex and designated them by A and B. F. A, he published the Gothic text of the codex at Brunswick in 1762. The lower Greek text was collated and edited by Tischendorf in 1860; the codex is located at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel. List of New Testament uncials Textual criticism Constantin von Tischendorf, Monumenta Sacra inedita VI, pp. XIII-XV, XVII, XVIII, 249-338. G. Cavallo, "Ricerche sulla maiuscola biblica", p. 92. U. B.
Schmid, D. C. Parker, W. J. Elliott, The Gospel according to St. John: The majuscules, pp. 39–44. Digitalized Codex Guelferbytanus 64 Weissenburgensis at the Herzog August Bibliothek
The Codex Argenteus is a 6th-century manuscript containing a 4th century translation of the Bible into the Gothic language. Traditionally ascribed to bishop Ulfilas, it is now established that the Gothic translation was performed by several scholars under Ulfilas's supervision. Of the original 336 folios, 188—including the Speyer fragment discovered in 1970—have been preserved, containing the translation of the greater part of the four gospels. A part of it is on permanent display at the Carolina Rediviva library in Sweden; the "Silver Bible" was written for the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great, either at his royal seat in Ravenna, or in the Po valley or at Brescia. It was made as a special and impressive book written with gold and silver ink on high-quality thin vellum stained a regal purple, with an ornate treasure binding. After Theodoric's death in 526 the Silver Bible is not mentioned in inventories or book lists for a thousand years. Parts of the "Codex Argenteus", 187 of the original 336 parchment folia, were preserved at the former Benedictine abbey of Werden.
The abbots at Werden had a seat in the Imperial Diet. While the precise date of the "Silver Bible" is unknown, it was discovered at Werden in the 16th century; the codex, or the remaining part of it, came to rest in the library of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II at his imperial seat in Prague. At the end of the Thirty Years' War, in 1648, after the Battle of Prague, it was taken as war booty to Stockholm, Sweden, to the library of Queen Christina of Sweden. After her conversion to Catholicism and her abdication, the book went to the Netherlands among the property of Isaac Vossius, her former librarian, in 1654. In the 1660s, it was bought and taken to Uppsala University by Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, who provided its present lavishly decorated binding; the codex remains at the Uppsala University Library in the Carolina Rediviva building. On 5 April 1995, parts of the codex that were on public display in Carolina Rediviva were stolen; the stolen parts were recovered one month in a storage box at the Stockholm Central Railway Station.
The details of the codex's wanderings for a thousand years remain a mystery. In 1998 the codex was dated to the sixth century, it was determined that the manuscript had been bound at least once during the sixteenth century. The final leaf of the codex, fol. 336, was discovered in October 1970 in Speyer, Germany, 321 km south-east of Werden. It was found at the restoration of the Saint Afra chapel, rolled around a thin wooden staff, contained in a small reliquary originating in Aschaffenburg; the leaf contains the final verses of the Gospel of Mark. First publication mentioning Gothic manuscript appeared in 1569 by Goropius Becanus in his book Origines Antwerpianae:So now let us come to another language, which the judgement of every man of distinguished learning at Cologne identifies as Gothic, examine the aforesaid Lord's Prayer written in that in a volume of great age belonging to the monastery of Werden in the district of Berg, about four miles from Cologne; this was kindly made available to me, with his notable generosity towards all researchers, by the most reverend and learned Maximilien Morillon, from among the papers of his late brother Antoine.
In 1597, Bonaventura Vulcanius, Leiden professor of Greek, published his book De literis et lingua Getarum sive Gothorum. It was the first publication of a Gothic text altogether, calling the manuscript "Codex Argenteus": In regard to this Gothic language, there have come to me brief dissertations by an unidentifiable scholar - shattered planks, as it were, from the shipwreck of the Belgian libraries, but he was not only the first who enabled the learned world to make the acquaintance of the Gothic translation of the Gospels in Gothic script, but the first who connected this version with the name of Ulfilas: With all due respect to these writers, I should think that the use of Gothic scripts existed among the Goths long before the time of Wulfila but that it was he who first made it known to the Romans by translating the Holy Bible into the Gothic language. I have heard that a manuscript copy of this, a ancient one, written in Gothic capital letters, is lurking in some German library. In this his book Vulcanius published two chapters about the Gothic language which contained four fragments of the Gothic New Testament: the Ave Maria, the Lord's Prayer, the Magnificat and the Song of Simeon, gave first the Latin translation the Gothic in Gothic characters, a transliteration of the Gothic in Latin characters.
In 1737, Lars Roberg, a physician of Uppsala, made a woodcut of one page of the manuscript. Another edition of 1854–7 by Anders Uppström contained an artist's rendition of another page. In 1927, a facsimile edition of the Codex was published; the standard edition is. The manuscript is written in an uncial script in the Gothic alphabet created by Ulfilas; the script is uniform, so much so that it has been suggested that it was made with stamps. However, two hands have been ident
A lacuna is a gap in a manuscript, text, painting, or a musical work. A manuscript, text, or section suffering from gaps is said to be "lacunose" or "lacunulose"; some books intentionally add lacunas to be filled in by the owner as a game or to encourage children to create their own stories. Weathering and other damage to old manuscripts or inscriptions are responsible for lacunae—words, sentences, or whole passages that are missing or illegible. Palimpsests are vulnerable. To reconstruct the original text, the context must be considered. In papyrology and textual criticism this may lead to competing interpretations. Published texts that contain lacunae mark the section where text is missing with a bracketed ellipsis. For example, "This sentence contains 20 words, nouns," or, "Finally, the army arrived at and made camp." Unfinished work Leiden Conventions Redaction
Bobbio is a small town and commune in the province of Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. It is located in the Trebbia River valley southwest of the town Piacenza. There is an abbey and a diocese of the same name. Bobbio is the administrative center of the Unione Montana Valli Trebbia e Luretta. Bobbio is located in the heart of Val Trebbia, a valley described by Ernest Hemingway as "the most beautiful in the world"; the town is nestled at the foot of Monte Penice, 1,460 metres above sea level, on the left bank of the river Trebbia. Its history is identified with the Abbey founded in 614 by St. Columbanus an Irish missionary, as a result it became one of the principal centers of religious culture in medieval Italy, home to a famous library and basilica; the possessions of the abbey in the Lombard and Carolingian eras spanned the north of Italy. Bobbio is a coveted tourist destination known for its history of art and culture, for nature lovers, for its ancient monuments, it has from antiquity been a crossroads between different cultures such as the Piacentine, Ligurian and Pavian.
The historical center and heart of the city has maintained the characteristics of the medieval village. One town landmark, the Ponte Vecchio, called Ponte Gobbo known as the Devil's Bridge, is an ancient stone bridge of Roman origin, which crosses the river Trebbia in eleven irregular arches; the Shrine of Our Lady of Penice, located on top of Monte Penice, dominates the landscape, is popular in winter for its ski resorts. Historians have speculated that Bobbio was the town in which Leonardo da Vinci completed the Mona Lisa. Carla Glori in December 2011 has published her book "Enigma Leonardo:decifrazioni e scoperte" where the background of the portrait has been identified as the landscape of Bobbio. Bobbio is 45 kilometres from Piacenza and from there it can be reached by the state road n. 45, which connects Piacenza to Genova. From Pavia the route to Bobbio is via Pass Penice. From Bobbio, the road to Piacenza is only a few minutes from Barberino Orrido, an overlook of the river Trebbia. Continuing in the same direction you enter the village of Mezzano Scotti, a few kilometers afterwards, the little village called Perino.
It is an ideal starting point for visiting the Perino Valley or the ancient characteristic villages of Aglio and Pradovera. On the same road but in the direction of Genova and 4 kilometres from Bobbio is San Salvatore, a little village with a wonderful view of the river's meanderings. A few kilometers upstream is Marsaglia and Brugnello, with the ancient Church of Brugnello overlooking the river Trebbia. From Bobbio, taking the state road n. 461 for Pavia after 12 kilometres you reach Passo Penice where there is a ski resort on the top of the Monte Penice. This is the location of the ancient Virgin Penice Sanctuary with a view of the region. On the other side of the river just 10 kilometres from Bobbio is the village of Coli, situated between beautiful pine woods and pasture fields; the river Trebbia is the backbone of its surrounding territory. It flows 120 kilometres to reach the river Po, its waters are fresh and run between stones and rocks outlining a twisting journey through wonderful overhanging and spectacular waterfalls.
The Trebbia valley is one of the most interesting geological areas in Italy, well known among international scholars. Common activities on the river include: hiking, sunbathing, canoeing and fishing Trouts and chubs can be found in the river; the territory around Bobbio is characterized by the Apennines, apart from outlining a splendid landscape, influence the climate. On the surrounding mountains you can find cultivated fields and pastures, the woods are habitats for a number of critters and where a great variety of trees and flowers grow. Known to the ancients as Bobium or Ebovium, the town underwent many settlements from the Neolithic Age up to the contemporary one. Several archaeological finds testify to the presence of Liguri and from the 4th century BC the Romans, but the history of Bobbio is tied to the existence of the Abbey founded in 614 by the Irish monk Saint Columbanus, who received the district from the Longobard King Agilulf. Bobbio Abbey increased its possessions and became one of the principal seats of culture and religion of Northern Italy and a center of learning during the Middle Ages, was renowned for its famous Scriptorium and Library.
In the 10th century there were 700 codices. The monastery was suppressed by the French in 1803; this monastery is in part the model for the great monastery in Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose. In 1014 Bobbio was erected a City and Episcopal See and surrounded by city walls that form the Contea of Bobbio; the city lay in the region of Liguria but in 1230 Piacenza conquered Bobbio and its dominion lasted until the 14th century when the Contea of Bobbio passed, under the rule of the Malaspina, under the rule of the Visconti, the dukes of Milan. In 1387 the city formed the Contea of Bobbio and Voghera; the town became part of the dom
Duchy of Brunswick
The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick, it was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire, it was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany; these holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. When several sons of a Duke competed for power, the lands became divided between them; the unifying element of all these territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II.
Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. Albert the Tall 1269–1279. Received the southern half of Brunswick-Lüneburg as Prince of Wolfenbüttel while his brother John became Prince of Lüneburg. Albert's sons first ruled jointly, but in 1291 divided the Wolfenbüttel territory: Henry the Admirable became Prince of Grubenhagen 1291–1322 Albert II the Fat became Prince of Göttingen 1286–1318 William received Wolfenbüttel proper but died in 1292. Wolfenbüttel fell to his brother Albert II. Otto the Mild 1318 -- 1344, son of Albert II, was Prince of Prince of Göttingen. After his death his son Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367. Magnus the Pious became Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1344–1369. Magnus' son Magnus II with the Necklace, Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1369–1373, claimed the Principality of Lüneburg against Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg.
The War of the Lüneburg Succession continued until 1388. Frederick 1373–1400, son of Magnus II, conquered Lüneburg in 1388. Succeeded by his brothers: Henry the Mild, 1400–1408 Bernard, 1409–1428. Returned control of Wolfenbüttel to his nephew, Henry's son. William the Victorious 1428–1432, nephew. Was deprived by his brother: Henry the Peaceful 1432–1473, moved the residence to Wolfenbüttel. William the Victorious 1473–1482, again. William regained control of Wolfenbüttel after his brother's death, left the Principality to his two sons: Frederick III 1482–1484. Imprisoned and deprived of power by his younger brother: William IV 1484–1491. Took control of all of Wolfenbüttel ceded Wolfenbüttel to his sons. Died 1495. Co-rulers, sons of William IV: Eric I 1491–1494. Divided the territory in 1494, taking Calenberg. Henry IV 1491–1514. Sole ruler in Wolfenbüttel from 1494. Henry V 1514–1568. Son of Henry IV. Converted to Lutheranism. Julius 1568–1589. Son of Henry V. Acquired Calenberg in 1584 on the death of his cousin Eric II.
Henry Julius 1589–1613, son. Frederick Ulrich 1613–1634, son. Last of the male descendants of Albert the Tall. On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. Wolfenbüttel was awarded to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Augustus 1635–1666 Augustus's sons succeeded him, sometimes ruling together: Rudolph Augustus 1666–1704 Anthony Ulrich 1685–1702, 1704–1714. Disputed with Hanover. Deposed 1702–1704 for allying with France in the War of the Spanish Succession. Converted to Catholicism 1709. Anthony Ulrich's sons succeeded him in sequence: Augustus William 1714–1731 Louis Rudolph 1731–1735 Ferdinand Albert March–September 1735. Grandson of Augustus the Younger. Charles I 1735–1780. Son of Ferdinand Albert. Moved the ducal court from Wolfenbüttel to Braunschweig in 1753. Charles William Ferdinand 1780–1806. Son of Charles I. Died in battle at Jena. Frederick William 1806–1807, 1813–1815. Son of Charles William Ferdinand. During the Napoleonic Wars, from 1806 to 1813, France occupied Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Died in battle at Quatre Bras. Frederick William's son Charles became the first Duke of independent Brunswick; the territory of Wolfenbüttel was recognized as a sovereign state by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It had been a portion of the medieval Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. the Elector of Hanover, but the Wolfenbüttel line retained its independence from Hanover. The Wolfenbüttel principality had for the period from 1807 to 1813 been held as part of the Kingdom of Westphalia; the Congress turned it into an independent country under the name Duchy of Brunswick. The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William, was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover. First, the young duke had a dispute over the date of his majority. In 1827, Charles declared some of the laws made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts.
After the German Confederation intervened, Charles was forced to accept those laws. His administration was considered misguided. In the aftermath of the July Revolution in 1830, Charles had to abdicate, his absolutist governing style had alienated the nobil