Atkinson County, Georgia
Atkinson County is a county located in the southeastern portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,375; the county seat is Pearson. The county was formed in 1917 from parts of Clinch Counties, it is named for William Yates Atkinson, Democratic governor of Georgia from 1894 to 1898. In 2003 it had the highest illiteracy rate of any U. S. county at 36%. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 345 square miles, of which 339 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. The vast majority of Atkinson County is located in the Satilla River sub-basin of the St. Marys-Satilla River basin; the entire narrow western border area, in a line parallel to the western border and running through Willacoochee, is located in the Alapaha River sub-basin of the Suwannee River basin. A small southeastern corner of the county is located in the Upper Suwannee River sub-basin of the same Suwannee River basin. Coffee County - north Ware County - east Clinch County - south Lanier County - southwest Berrien County - west As of the census of 2000, there were 7,609 people, 2,717 households, 1,980 families residing in the county.
The population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 3,171 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.79% White, 19.61% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.03% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. 16.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,717 households out of which 38.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county the population was spread out with 30.30% under the age of 18, 10.90% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 9.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,470, the median income for a family was $32,688. Males had a median income of $24,763 versus $18,434 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,178. About 18.10% of families and 23.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.10% of those under age 18 and 31.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,375 people, 2,983 households, 2,159 families residing in the county; the population density was 24.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,522 housing units at an average density of 10.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.2% white, 17.3% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.3% Pacific islander, 0.3% Asian, 17.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.1% were English, 16.0% were Irish, 7.5% were American.
Of the 2,983 households, 41.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.6% were non-families, 22.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.29. The median age was 33.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $33,834 and the median income for a family was $34,859. Males had a median income of $29,286 versus $25,705 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,456. About 19.8% of families and 28.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.4% of those under age 18 and 21.3% of those age 65 or over. The county is serviced along with Georgia by the Satilla Regional Library System. Pearson Willacoochee Axson Guthrie Heights Henderson Still Kirkland Leliaton Oberry Sandy Bottom Morrisville National Register of Historic Places listings in Atkinson County, Georgia list of places Atkinson County Sheriff's Office Atkinson County historical marker
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
CoreCivic the Corrections Corporation of America, is a company that owns and manages private prisons and detention centers and operates others on a concession basis. Co-founded in 1983 in Nashville, Tennessee by Thomas W. Beasley, a Republican Party chairman, Robert Crants, T. Don Hutto, it received initial investments from the Tennessee Valley Authority, Vanderbilt University, Jack C. Massey, the founder of Hospital Corporation of America; as of 2016, the company is the second largest private corrections company in the United States. CoreCivic manages more than 65 state and federal correctional and detention facilities with a capacity of more than 90,000 beds in 19 states and the District of Columbia; the company's revenue in 2012 exceeded $1.7 billion. By 2015, its contracts with federal correctional and detention authorities generated up to 51% of its revenues, it operated 22 federal facilities with the capacity for 25,851 prisoners. By 2016, Corrections Corporation of America along with GEO Group were running "more than 170 prisons and detention centres".
CCA's revenues in 2015 were $1.79bn. CCA has been the subject of much controversy over the years related to apparent attempts to save money, such as hiring inadequate staff, extensive lobbying, lack of proper cooperation with legal entities to avoid repercussions. CCA rebranded itself as CoreCivic amid the ongoing scrutiny of the private prison industry. Corrections Corporation of America was founded in Nashville, Tennessee, on January 28, 1983, by Thomas W. Beasley, Doctor Robert Crants and T. Don Hutto. Beasley served as the chairman of the Tennessee Republican Party. A founding member of its board of directors was Maurice Sigler, the former chairman of the United States Board of Parole; the initial investment came from Jack C. Massey, co-founder of the Hospital Corporation of America. An early investor prior to the IPO was Vanderbilt University, where Beasley had completed his law degree. Additionally, the Tennessee Valley Authority was another early financial backer. According to a 2013 CCA video and Beasley were the chief founders.
Hutto had years of experience in corrections and was president-elect of the American Correctional Association. The two men met with representatives of the Federal Bureau of Prisons and Immigration and Naturalization Service, which operated under U. S. Department of Justice from 1933 to 2003, to discuss a potential joint venture for a facility to detain illegal aliens in Texas. CCA was awarded a contract in late 1983 by the U. S. Department of Justice for the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement; this was the "first contract to design, build and operate a secure correctional facility." This is considered to have marked the beginning of the private prison industry. CCA had to have the facilities ready by early January 1984, ninety days from the signing of the contract. Hutto and Beasley flew to Houston and after several days, negotiated a deal with the owner of Olympic Motel—a "pair of nondescript two-story buildings" on "I-45 North between Tidwell and Parker"—to hire their family and friends to staff the re-purposed motel for four months as a detention facility.
On Super Bowl Sunday at the end of January, Hutto processed the first 87 undocumented aliens at this facility, CCA received its first payment. The company opened its first facility, the Houston Processing Center, in 1984; the Houston Detention Center was built to house individuals awaiting a decision on immigration cases or repatriation. In 1984, CCA took over the operations of the Tall Trees non-secure juvenile facility, for the Juvenile Court of Memphis and Shelby County. Two years CCA built the 200-bed Shelby Training Center in Memphis to house juvenile male offenders. In 1989, it opened the New Mexico Women's Correctional Facility in New Mexico. In the 1980s, CCA officials met with representatives of the Mitterrand administration in France, they did not win any contracts there for CCA prisons. In 1990, CCA opened the first medium-security operated prison, the state-owned Winn Correctional Center, in Winn Parish, Louisiana, it opened the Leavenworth Detention Center, operated for the U. S. Marshals Service, in 1992.
This 256-bed facility was the first maximum-security private prison under direct contract to a federal agency. CCA entered the United Kingdom in 1992, when it entered a partnership with Mowlem and Sir Robert McAlpine to form UK Detention Services, it opened the 650-bed Blackenhurst prison in England. The stockholders are corporate entities and it is classified as a real estate investment trust, or REIT. Research published in Social Justice by scholars at Rutgers University showed that in 2007, the company had "114 institutional stockholders that together amount to 28,736,071 shares of stock." The scholars added, "The largest number of shares of CCA stock is held by RS Investments, WesleyCapital MGMT and Capital Research and MGMT."In 2010, the ACLU filed a lawsuit on behalf of inmates at the Idaho Correctional Center, claiming that understaffing contributed to the high levels of violence there. In 2014, the Federal Bureau of Investigation began an investigation into CCA management of the ICC to ascertain whether any Federal statutes were violated because of the understaffing of the facility and what was found to be falsification of staffing records.
In 2016, the Obama administration provided the CCA a $1 billion no-bid contract to detain asylum seekers from Central America. CCA was renamed CoreCivic i
Alapaha is a town in Berrien County, United States, along the Alapaha River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 668. Alapaha developed from a trade settlement on the site of a Seminole village with the same name; the present-day Georgia town of Lakeland was named "Alapaha" and existed before the town that now bears the name. The Smithsonian Institution documented the presence of an Indian mound near Alapaha in 1886: "The Alapaha mound is situated 5 miles northeast of the town of Alapaha, on Alapaha River, on lot of land No. 328, fifth district of Berrien County, Georgia. It is 38 feet across, 6 feet above the level, somewhat oval in shape. In the center of the mound was a burial vault 6 feet deep, 3 feet wide, 6 feet long and south. Two bodies were deposited in this vault with the heads pointing south." It is possible that these remains became part of the Smithsonian collection, as was typical of its archaeological expeditions at the time. This source gives the location and contents of two other Berrien County mounds south of Nashville, the Withlacoochee mound, the French Ferry mound.
Early European settlers were Highland Scots Methodist or Primitive Baptist, representing two socio-economic classes, "Jeffersonian yeomen" and a "squirearchy," two distinct divisions of landed farmers created by the Georgia Land Lottery of 1820. Between 1820 and 1840, agriculture was principally sheep and cattle herding. With the advent of railroad expansion in the 1830s a sizeable population of Irish Catholic laborers settled in and around the lower Alapaha River leading to the establishment of St. Anne's Catholic church there. Brushy Creek Primitive Baptist Church in Irwin County, figured prominently in local affairs up to and after the Civil War; the Primitive Baptists opposed the Methodist program of "benevolence" toward less fortunate citizens. The town of Alapaha was established as a depot on the route of the Brunswick and Albany Railroad near where a road leading from Nashville, Georgia to Edenfield, Georgia crossed the Alapaha River. Early railroad maps refer to it as "Alapaha Station."
It was in existence by at least 1874. The 1880s and 1890s brought an agricultural and industrial boom in forestry and naval stores. There were several sawmills in Alapaha by 1880, including "Alapaha Steam Saw Mills, established 16 years" which ran a weekly advertisement in the New York Times, boasting that Sloat, Bussell, & Co. were prepared to ship from Savannah or Brunswick "a Superior Article of Long leaf, close-grained, untapped Georgia Pitch Pine," guaranteed never to have been "injured" by turpentine extraction. Alapaha Steam Saw Mills listed its business addresses as 116 Wall Street, New York City, 76 Bay Street, Savannah. In 1881, Alapaha received prominent mention in a promotional pamphlet on the excellence of economic opportunity in South Georgia; the pamphlet was published "under the auspices" of the Savannah and Western Railroad, the Brunswick and Albany Railroad, the Macon & Brunswick Railroad, for the benefit of "Timber Men, Lumber Manufacturers, Fruit Growers, Vegetable Growers, Invalids, Pleasure Seekers, Parties Seeking New Homes, --and--All Who Desire To Better Their Condition."
It devoted significant space to Alapaha, calling it "an important wool market," and "a lively and business-like little village," with "six stores with mixed stocks, three bar-rooms." Its aggregate annual sales reached $100,000, it had "two physicians, two lawyers, one dentist" and "a sprightly newspaper." Calling it a "land of promise," the anonymous writer wrote, "Bee culture is carried on. Her New Hotel, her Clever Social People. Her Prosperous Merchants, Etc.": "...a new hotel, two stories high, nicely fitted up and well kept. Dr. J. A. Fogle, one of the most clever men you would met in a week's hard riding, is the proprietor, but his time is devoted to an extensive practice and to his well-stocked drug store; the hotel is presided over by Mrs. Fogle, a lady of refinement and most pleasant manner, ably assisted by her sister, Miss Fannie Leonard; the table is bountifully supplied with tempting fare, the sleeping apartments are models of cleanliness and comfort, the attention to guests is prompt and courteous The commercial tourists are fond in their praise of it, you know they are speaking, a difficult set to please."
This building is still intact, is now a private home. In the spring of 1897, a catastrophic fire destroyed four uninsured buildings in the downtown section of Alapaha; the Macon Telegraph reported that a bucket brigade of both black and white citizens worked to save the buildings, which had begun to burn after midnight. Lost were a store belonging to H. B. Young, a sewing machine repair business belonging to Mr. Norton, who managed to save his tools and materials, a two-story building owned by J. H. Baker, an old livery stable run by J. S. Turner, a storehouse managed by W. S. Walker that contained 39 barrels of wine, an iron safe, books and papers. Two of the buildings were owned by a T. Cook; the paper reported that "the cause of the fire is not known, but the general opinion is that someone must have set it on fire." The 1907 roster of the Georgia Medical Association lists two physicians from Alapaha, W. A. Moore and G. A. Paulk. Alapaha was the site of a famous Atlantic Coast Line Railroad train wreck on March 26, 1911, when the Dixie Flyer derailed on a high trestle across the Alapaha River, killing ten and injuring many, including wealthy Northern socialites who were t
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Telfair County, Georgia
Telfair County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 16,500; the largest city and county seat is McRae-Helena. In 2009 researchers from the Fernbank Museum of Natural History announced having found artifacts they associated with the 1541 Hernando de Soto Expedition at a private site near the Ocmulgee River, the first such find between Tallahassee and western North Carolina. De Soto's expedition was well recorded, but researchers have had difficulties finding artifacts from sites where he stopped; this site was an indigenous village occupied by the historic Creek people from the early 15th century into the 16th century. It was located further southeast. Archaeologists associated with Atlanta's Fernbank Museum of Natural History have excavated a 2,000-acre plot near McRae-Helena and a mile from the Ocmulgee River, beginning in 2005. In 2009 they announced finding evidence of a Spanish settlement dating to the first half of the 16th century.
The archaeologists believed that the artifacts may have come from a settlement founded by Spanish leader Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón from Hispaniola in 1526 and occupied by hundreds of colonists. The group encountered fewer than 200 survived to return to Hispaniola. Additional research suggests that the site instead was one visited in 1541 by the de Soto Expedition. Researchers have recovered Murano glass beads, made in Venice and brought by the Spanish for trading with Native Americans; some of the beads bear a chevron pattern. Such beads have been identified as a hallmark of the de Soto expedition, due to the limited period of time in which they were produced. Excavations have produced six metal objects, including three iron tools and a silver pendant; the site is further west than scholars had earlier believed that the de Soto expedition had traveled, based on documentation from his expedition. This was the first evidence found of his expedition between Tallahassee, where excavations have revealed artifacts of his expedition, western North Carolina where another site has been found.
What we have now is the best-documented collection of Spanish artifacts in Georgia. This site is believed to have been a Native American community, occupied from the end of the 15th century through the first decades of the 16th century. At that time, they had metal goods. Blanton presented a paper on his findings on November 5, 2009 at the Southeastern Archaeological Conference in Mobile, Alabama; the historic Creek people occupied much of this area of Georgia. Telfair County was established by European Americans on December 1807 as part of Georgia. Development of the county took place after Indian Removal in the 1830s of the Creek Confederacy, who had occupied a large territory, including the southern two thirds of present-day Georgia, for thousands of years, they were removed in today's Oklahoma. The county is named for Edward Telfair, the sixteenth governor of Georgia and a member of the Continental Congress. Many of the first European-American settlers were Scottish immigrants and Scots-Irish migrants who traveled down the backcountry from Pennsylvania and Virginia.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 444 square miles, of which 437 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. The county contains at least 50 artesian wells; the southern two-thirds of Telfair County, bordered by a line from Milan east to Lumber City, are located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern portion of the county is located in the Little Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin. Wheeler County Jeff Davis County Coffee County Ben Hill County Wilcox County Dodge County Laurens County As of the census of 2000, there were 11,794 people, 4,140 households, 2,873 families residing in the county; the population density was 27 people per square mile. There were 5,083 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 59.71% White, 38.44% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 1.16% from other races, 0.47% from two or more races.
1.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,140 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.40% were married couples living together, 16.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.50% under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 30.10% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 110.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 113.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,097, the median income for a family was $32,513. Males had a median income of $26,444 versus $19,970 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,197.
About 17.30% of families and 21.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.40% of those under age 18 and 23.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 16,500 people, 5,543 house
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol