Kellidie Bay Conservation Park
Kellidie Bay Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia, located on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula east of the town centre in Coffin Bay and adjoining the south coast of Kellidie Bay in the localities of Coffin Bay, Kellidie Bay and Wangary. It was reported as being proclaimed as early as 1954 in order ‘to conserve wildlife and the natural and historic features of the land.’ On 9 November 1967, it was proclaimed under the National Parks Act 1966 as the Kellidie Bay National Park. On 27 April 1972, it was reconstituted as Kellidie Bay Conservation Park upon the proclamation of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972; as of 2016, it covered an area of 17.84 square kilometres. In 1980, the conservation park was described as follows:…consists of low limestone ridges with a cover of black tea tree and she-oak woodland. Near the coast there are flat moist areas with much cutting grass. Western grey emus shelter in the high ground and feed on the lower flats.
Tiger snakes and Cape Barren geese occur here. The following statement of significance was published in 1980:Kellidie Bay Conservation Park preserves a representative area of Casuarina stricta, Melaleuca lanceolata woodland and Gahnia spp. herbland. It is a picturesque area and a popular tourist attraction; the uncommon white-breasted sea-eagle and osprey occur here. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate; this article incorporates text by Commonwealth of Australia available under the CC BY 3.0 AU licence. Kellidie Bay Conservation Park webpage on protected planet
Mount Remarkable National Park
Mount Remarkable National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located about 238 kilometres north of the state capital of Adelaide and 25 kilometres east of Port Augusta. It is the name of the highest peak in the Park, with a height of 960 metres; the Park consists of three separate areas. The first is the parcel of land located west of the town of Melrose and consists of three areas: the Warren Bonython Link, Mambray Creek and Mount Remarkable; this block occupies 165.83 km2. The second parcel of land is known as the Telowie block and has an area of 0.35 km2. It is located on the west side of the Telowie Gorge Conservation Park about 7.5 km east of the town of Port Germein and about 24 km south of the block located at Melrose. The third parcel of land is known as the Napperby block, it consists of 16.72 km2 and is located east of the town of Napperby, about 4 km south of the Telowie Gorge Conservation Park and about 12 km north-east of the city of Port Pirie. The Park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.
Land associated with the Park at Mambray Creek and Alligator Gorge first obtained protected area status in 1952 as'national pleasure resorts' declared under the National Pleasure Resorts Act 1914. They were managed by the South Australian Government Tourist Bureau from 1952 to 1967. In 1964, the National Parks Commission submitted a proposal to the Government of South Australia for "comprehensive national parks" covering an area larger than that of the existing national pleasure resorts; this resulted in the creation of three separate reserves - the Alligator Gorge Wildlife Reserve, the Mambray Creek Wildlife Reserve and the Mount Remarkable Wildlife Reserve, that were constituted in July 1965, September 1967 and March 1966. In 1972, the three wildlife reserves were re-proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 as the Mount Remarkable National Park. Since 1972, the Park is reported as doubling in size from an area of 8,236 ha by the addition of land including the Black Range Lookout and the Bluff in 1976 and by the addition of an "area west of Alligator Gorge containing The Battery", two parts of the Willowie Forest Reserve, the Napperby Block in 1993.
In 2000, further land was added to the Park, subsequently named "The Warren Bonython Link" in honour of Warren Bonython’s "long personal interest in the area" and "his association with the National Parks Foundation". The Park now has a total area of 18,271 ha. Protected areas of South Australia Alligator Gorge "Mount Remarkable National Park Management Plan". Department for Environment and Heritage. 2006. Retrieved 3 September 2015. "Mount Remarkable National Park Management Plan Amendment 2013". Department for Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2015. "Protected Areas Information System - reserve list". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015. Mount Remarkable National Park official webpage Friends of Mount Remarkable National Park official website Mount Remarkable National Park webpage on protected planet
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels, diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes. They range in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific, they are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there and occasional vagrants are found. Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, species of the genus Diomedea have the longest wingspans of any extant birds, reaching up to 3.7 m. The albatrosses are regarded as falling into four genera, but disagreement exists over the number of species. Albatrosses are efficient in the air, using dynamic soaring and slope soaring to cover great distances with little exertion, they feed on squid and krill by either scavenging, surface seizing, or diving. Albatrosses are colonial, nesting for the most part on remote oceanic islands with several species nesting together. Pair bonds between males and females form over several years, with the use of "ritualised dances", last for the life of the pair.
A breeding season can take over a year from laying to fledging, with a single egg laid in each breeding attempt. A Laysan albatross, named Wisdom, on Midway Island is recognised as the oldest wild bird in the world. Of the 22 species of albatrosses recognised by the IUCN, all are listed as at some level of concern. Numbers of albatrosses have declined in the past due to harvesting for feathers, but today, the albatrosses are threatened by introduced species, such as rats and feral cats that attack eggs and nesting adults. Longline fisheries pose the greatest threat, as feeding birds are attracted to the bait, become hooked on the lines, drown. Identified stakeholders such as governments, conservation organisations, people in the fishing industry are all working toward reducing this bycatch; the "albatross" designation comprises between 24 species in four genera. These genera are the great albatrosses, the mollymawks, the North Pacific albatrosses, the sooty albatrosses or sooties; the North Pacific albatrosses are considered to be a sister taxon to the great albatrosses, while the sooty albatrosses are considered closer to the mollymawks.
The taxonomy of the albatross group has been a source of much debate. The Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy places seabirds, birds of prey, many others in a enlarged order, the Ciconiiformes, whereas the ornithological organisations in North America, South Africa and New Zealand retain the more traditional order Procellariiformes; the albatrosses can be separated from the other Procellariiformes both genetically and through morphological characteristics, their legs, the arrangement of their nasal tubes. Within the family, the assignment of genera has been debated for over 100 years. Placed into a single genus, they were rearranged by Reichenbach into four different genera in 1852 lumped back together and split apart again several times, acquiring 12 different genus names in total by 1965. By 1965, in an attempt to bring some order back to the classification of albatrosses, they were lumped into two genera and Diomedea. Though a case was made for the simplification of the family, the classification was based on the morphological analysis by Elliott Coues in 1866, paid little attention to more recent studies and ignored some of Coues's suggestions.
More recent research by Gary Nunn of the American Museum of Natural History and other researchers around the world studied the mitochondrial DNA of all 14 accepted species, finding four, not two, monophyletic groups within the albatrosses. They proposed the resurrection of two of the old genus names, Phoebastria for the North Pacific albatrosses and Thalassarche for the mollymawks, with the great albatrosses retaining Diomedea and the sooty albatrosses staying in Phoebetria. Both the British Ornithologists' Union and the South African authorities split the albatrosses into four genera as Nunn suggested, the change has been accepted by the majority of researchers. While some agree on the number of genera, fewer agree on the number of species. Up to 80 different taxa have been described by different researchers. Based on the work on albatross genera and Nunn went on in 1998 to propose a revised taxonomy with 24 different species, compared to the 14 accepted; this expanded taxonomy elevated many established subspecies to full species, but was criticised for not using, in every case, peer reviewed information to justify the splits.
Since further studies have in some instances supported or disproved the splits.
Canunda National Park
Canunda National Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located about 350 km southeast of Adelaide, on the coast about 13 km southwest of Millicent. It consists of coastal dunes, limestone cliffs, natural bushland; the beaches are popular for beach fishing and 4WD's. The national park consists of two parts - the first part being land in the gazetted localities of Southend and Canunda while the second part is located to the south in the gazetted locality of Carpenter Rocks at the headland of Cape Banks. From as far back as 10,000 years ago, members of the Boandik group of Indigenous Australians lived in temporary camps along the coast during summer, for the rest of the year they lived near inland swamps in permanent huts. Much of the national park is accessible only to walkers; the national park's office is located in the town of Southend at the northernmost end of the park. The northern end of the national park was once part of Mayurra Station; the remnants of Canunda's pastoral history can be seen at Coola Outstation.
Protected areas of South Australia Cape Banks Lighthouse Lower South East Marine Park Canunda National Park official webpage Canunda National Park webpage on protected planet
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are found in the ocean, but can be found in lakes or rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, surfers can utilize artificial waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools; the term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, regardless of the stance used. The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia and other such craft, did so on their belly and knees; the modern-day definition of surfing, most refers to a surfer riding a wave standing up on a surfboard. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, or sometimes standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting, using foils.
Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfer's own body to catch and ride the wave, is common and is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing. Three major subdivisions within stand-up surfing are stand-up paddling, long boarding and short boarding with several major differences including the board design and length, the riding style, the kind of wave, ridden. In tow-in surfing, a motorized water vehicle, such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's speed, a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking do not require waves, other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may be used to ride waves. With the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged; the Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 78 foot wave ride by Garrett McNamara at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave surfed.
For hundreds of years, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by British explorers at Tahiti in 1767. Samuel Wallis and the crew members of HMS Dolphin who were the first Britons to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks being part of the first voyage of James Cook on HMS Endeavour, who arrived on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cook's death in 1779; when Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote, In one place we came upon a large company of naked natives, of both sexes and all ages, amusing themselves with the national pastime of surf-bathing. References to surf riding on planks and single canoe hulls are verified for pre-contact Samoa, where surfing was called fa'ase'e or se'egalu, Tonga, far pre-dating the practice of surfing by Hawaiians and eastern Polynesians by over a thousand years.
In July 1885, three teenage Hawaiian princes took a break from their boarding school, St. Mathew’s Hall in San Mateo, came to cool off in Santa Cruz, California. There, David Kawānanakoa, Edward Keliʻiahonui and Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole surfed the mouth of the San Lorenzo River on custom-shaped redwood boards, according to surf historians Kim Stoner and Geoff Dunn. George Freeth is credited as being the "Father of Modern Surfing", he is thought to have been the first modern surfer. In 1907, the eclectic interests of the land baron Henry E. Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast. While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves. Looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had little success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time; when he cut them in half to make them more manageable, he created the original "Long board", which made him the talk of the islands.
To the delight of visitors, Freeth exhibited his surfing skills twice a day in front of the Hotel Redondo. Another native Hawaiian, Duke Kahanamoku, spread surfing to both the U. S. and Australia, riding the waves after displaying the swimming prowess that won him Olympic gold medals in 1912 and 1920. In 1975, professional contests started; that year Margo Oberg became the first female professional surfer. Swell is generated when the wind blows over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch; the size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch and duration. Because of this, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems. Local wind conditions affect wave quality since the surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal conditions include a light to moderate "offshore" wind, because it blows into the front of the wave, making it a "barrel" or "tube" wave.
Waves are Left Right Handed depending upon the breaking formation of the wave. Waves are recognized by the surfaces over which they break. For example, there are Reef breaks and Point breaks; the most important influence on
Coffin Bay Peninsula
Coffin Bay Peninsula is a peninsula located at the south west end of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia. It extends in a north westerly direction from its connection to Eyre Peninsula and is bounded by Coffin Bay, Port Douglas and Yangie Bay to the north, the Great Australian Bight to the west and Avoid Bay to the south, its extremities are Point St Isaac in the north, Point Whidbey in the south west, Point Longnose in the north east and Point Avoid in the south east. Its name is derived from Coffin Bay, named by Matthew Flinders on 16 February 1802, after Sir Isaac Coffin, 1st Baronet. While parts of its surface have been cleared and used for agricultural purposes in the past, it is occupied by the protected area, the Coffin Bay National Park
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur