Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as attention, the formation of knowledge and working memory and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making and production of language. Cognitive processes generate new knowledge. Cognitive processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, biology, systemics and computer science; these and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the developing field of cognitive science, a progressively autonomous academic discipline. The word cognition comes from the Latin verb cognosco, meaning'to conceptualize' or'to recognize'; the word cognition dates back to the 15th century, when it meant "thinking and awareness". Attention to cognitive processes came about more than eighteen centuries earlier, beginning with Aristotle and his interest in the inner workings of the mind and how they affect the human experience.

Aristotle focused on cognitive areas pertaining to memory and mental imagery. He placed great importance on ensuring that his studies were based on empirical evidence, that is, scientific information, gathered through observation and conscientious experimentation. Two millennia the groundwork for modern concepts of cognition was laid during the Enlightenment by thinkers such as John Locke and Dugald Stewart who sought to develop a model of the mind in which ideas were acquired and manipulated. During the early nineteenth century cognitive models were developed both in philosophy by authors writing about the philosophy of mind, within medicine by physicians seeking to understand how to cure madness. Within Britain these models were studied in the academy by scholars such as James Sully at University College London, they were used by politicians when considering the national education act of 1870; as psychology emerged as a burgeoning field of study in Europe and gained a following in America, other scientists like Wilhelm Wundt, Herman Ebbinghaus, Mary Whiton Calkins, William James would offer their contributions to the study of human cognition.

Wilhelm Wundt emphasized the notion of what he called introspection: examining the inner feelings of an individual. With introspection, the subject had to be careful to describe their feelings in the most objective manner possible in order for Wundt to find the information scientific. Though Wundt's contributions are by no means minimal, modern psychologists find his methods to be quite subjective and choose to rely on more objective procedures of experimentation to make conclusions about the human cognitive process. Hermann Ebbinghaus conducted cognitive studies that examined the function and capacity of human memory. Ebbinghaus developed his own experiment in which he constructed over 2,000 syllables made out of nonexistent words, for instance EAS, he examined his own personal ability to learn these non-words. He purposely chose non-words as opposed to real words to control for the influence of pre-existing experience on what the words might symbolize, thus enabling easier recollection of them.

Ebbinghaus observed and hypothesized a number of variables that may have affected his ability to learn and recall the non-words he created. One of the reasons, he concluded, was the amount of time between the presentation of the list of stimuli and the recitation or recall of same. Ebbinghaus was the first to record and plot a "learning curve", a "forgetting curve", his work influenced the study of serial position and its effect on memory, discussed in subsequent sections. Mary Whiton Calkins was an influential American pioneer in the realm of psychology, her work focused on the human memory capacity. A common theory, called the recency effect, can be attributed to the studies; the recency effect discussed in the subsequent experiment section, is the tendency for individuals to be able to recollect the final items presented in a sequence of stimuli. Calkin's theory is related to the aforementioned study and conclusion of the memory experiments conducted by Hermann Ebbinghaus. William James is another pivotal figure in the history of cognitive science.

James was quite discontent with Wundt's emphasis on introspection and Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense stimuli. He instead chose to focus on the human learning experience in everyday life and its importance to the study of cognition. James' most significant contribution to the study and theory of cognition was his textbook Principles of Psychology that preliminarily examines aspects of cognition such as perception, memory and attention. In psychology, the term "cognition" is used within an information processing view of an individual's psychological functions, it is the same in cognitive engineering. Human cognition is conscious and unconscious, concrete or abstract, as well as intuitive and conceptual, it encompasses processes such as memory, concept formation, pattern recognition, attention, action, problem solving and mental

Turkoman horse

The Turkoman horse, or Turkmene, was an Oriental horse breed from the steppes of Turkoman desert, now represented by the modern Akhal-Teke. They influenced many modern horse breeds, including the Thoroughbred horse; some horses bred in Iran and Turkmenistan today are still referred to as Turkoman, have similar characteristics. Modern descendants include the Iomud, the Goklan and Nokhorli; the Turkoman horse was noted for its endurance. It had a slender body, similar to a greyhound. Although refined in appearance, the breed was one of the toughest in the world, they had a straight profile, long neck, sloping shoulders. Their back was long, with tucked-up abdomen, they had muscular legs. The horses ranged from 15–16 hands; the coat of a Turkomen horse could have been of any color, possessed a metallic sheen. This was due to a change in the structure of the individual hair. Many theories have been formulated to explain why hair of the Turkomen and its descendants shines, but none explain why the Turkoman horses in particular benefitted from this genetic difference and why other horses would not.

Though both the Arabian horse and the Turkoman may have had a common ancestor in the oriental horse prototype, in their purest old forms they were like one another in some ways and different in others. Both had excellent stamina. Both had fine coats and delicate skin, unlike many horse breeds found in Europe, they both had wide foreheads and tapering muzzles. They both came from arid environments. Here, the similarities between the Turkoman of Central Asia and the Arabians of the Nejd desert lands of Central Arabia end, the horses begin to diverge to suit their environments and the fighting styles of their breeders; some divergence may be attributable to natural selection of landrace traits, other differences may be attributable to selective breeding. The Turkoman had small hooves; this was an adaptation to the steppes of the Central Asia, which consisted of a hard, rocky ground, covered with coarse sand, more like fine gravel and of stiff, parched vegetation. The Arabian had large hooves for its size.

In the Central Arabian desert there is deep sand as well as hard terrain. A larger hoof is needed here to cope with this type of terrain; the back of the Turkoman, the Tekke Turkoman, today in many cases, the Akhal-Teke, is much longer than that of the Arabian. The reason for this may to be that when riding long distances, the Turkoman was expected to trot, the Arabian was not; the Turkoman had a sparse mane. The Arabian carries its tail high when galloping, higher than most when walking or trotting; the Turkoman runs with its tail streaming behind. The Turkoman horse is narrower in the body than the Arabian, or indeed than any other breed of horse; this helps it to dissipate heat but it is a great aid in twisting and turning in the saddle, which would be invaluable to mounted archers who need to shoot in any direction, as opposed to lancers who need a firm footing from which to thrust a lance. Lance-throwing from horseback would be far easier on an Arabian horse shaped wider in the body would help with making the sharp turns that close-fighting requires.

In other words, the Turkoman was the ideal horse for the Turkmen, the Arabian was the ideal horse for the Bedouin. The breed was developed from breeding philosophy; the horses were raised in an unusual manner, with the mares kept in semi-wild herds that have to defend themselves against the weather and predators and finding their own food. Male foals, colts were caught at six months; the colts were kept on long tethers for life. At only eight months of age, they were saddled and ridden by young and lightweight riders, racing on the track, by the age of one; these horses were bred for racing. They had a good temperament; the Turkoman horses were fed a special high-protein diet of broiled chicken, dates, raisins and mutton fat. How much the Arabian and the Turkoman have been crossed in the past is open to debate. There are those. However, it is likely that there was some intermingling between these two types of Oriental horses where their borders met. Turkoman stallions were kept for use by the elite palace guards of the Caliph of Baghdad, that it was these stallions which the Caliph used for breeding with his Arabian mares.

It may have been from these horses that the Muniq'i strain of Arabian arose, a strain with known crosses to Turkoman horses some time during the 17th century. The Turkoman horse may have influenced the English Thoroughbred, most notably via the Byerley Turk. However, it has been argued—mainly by Arabian breeder Lady Wentworth—that all the "Turks" listed in Weatherby's General Stud Book are "Arabians of the highest class" who are only called Turks because they were bought or taken as prizes of war in Turkey and the Crimea. There is, evidence that the "Turks" were Turkomans and not mislabelled Arabians; the confusion was due to several contributing factors. One of them was that when the first Oriental horses were imported to England, it didn't matter what kind of horse it was, as long it was elega

Dapu Road Tunnel

The Dapu Road Tunnel Huangpu River Tunnel or Project 651, is a road tunnel that runs under the Huangpu River in the city of Shanghai, China. It connects Huangpu District on the Puxi side of Shanghai with Pudong New Area, it consists of two tubes, the first of, constructed between 1965 and 1970 and acted as the first vehicular tunnel underneath the Huangpu River in. The tunnel has two lanes and operated with one lane in each direction. Due to the need for greater capacity brought on by Shanghai's Expo 2010, a second tube was built between 2009 and 2010 just to the west of the first, opening on February 11, 2010; when the second tube opened, the first tube was converted for northbound traffic only while the new tube carried southbound traffic. The east, northbound tube is 2.739 km in length, while the west, southbound tube is 2.971 km long