Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties, joining this way the broader neuroscientific group of researchers; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, subjective experiences, brain functioning, personality.
This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society.
The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings; some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions".
This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior. Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism.
This body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power. An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism.
A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher awareness. Yoga is a range of techniques used in pursuit of this goal
Anne Scan is a cargo ship registered in Antigua and Barbuda, detained in Greenore, Republic of Ireland on 27 October 2009 when over €50,000,000 worth of cigarettes were discovered on board. Anne Scan was built by Slovenskie Lodenice AG, she was launched in 1996 and completed on 1 March 1997. Her original name was Lebasee. In 2006 she was renamed Moldova and in 2007 she was renamed Herford and Anne Scan, she is owned by NORDICA Schiffahrts Co.. KG, Haren and managed by HELD Bereederungs GmbH & Co. KG, Haren; the vessel is operated by Scan-Trans. Her port of registry is St. John and Barbuda. On 27 October 2009, Anne Scan was seized by Irish authorities for being involved in a cigarette smuggling operation. An estimated €50 million was found on board the ship when it was seized in Greenore County Louth by Revenue Customs Service supported by An Garda Síochána, making it the largest seizure of contraband cigarettes in the European Union; the ship was moved to Dublin Port for unloading. It was chartered to take cargo from the Philippines and was to be returned to her owners after the trip.
Anne Scan has a blue white superstructure. She is 88.6 metres long with a draught of 7.1 metres. She is 2,528 GT, 1,372 NT and 3,526 DWT, she is powered by a MAN B&W diesel engine of 1,715 kilowatts and has a 185 kilowatts bow thruster to aid manoeuvrability. Anne Scan has a speed of 12 knots. Anne Scan has IMO Number 9145126, MMSI Number 304256000 and uses the callsign V2IA8
The Governess, or The Little Female Academy by Sarah Fielding is the first full-length novel written for children, a significant work of 18th-century children's literature. The Governess, or The Little Female Academy is a book about a boarding school run by Mrs Teachum; the story takes place over ten days, not including some initial background information, an epilogue. On each day, except for the first, all or part of a text is read aloud to the students by Miss Jenny Peace. Afterward, one or more of the pupils is physically described, followed by the recording their life story; these are written so as to appear to have been spoken by each respective girl, recorded by Miss Jenny. Each session of reading is capped by an appearance from Mrs Teachum, who explains the lesson that should be taken from each experience. Much emphasis is given to reflecting on the reading; the plot of The Governess seems to be based upon the Lockean educational ideal of avoiding learning as work or a job, instead presenting it as something to be enjoyed.
To this effect, Fielding employs the use of fairy tales as well as everyday occurrences to educate her pupils toward a living life full of happiness. Mary Martha Sherwood published a revised edition in 1820, replacing the story of "Barbarico and Benefico" with "The History of the Princess Rosalinda" and omitting "The Princess Hebe." In her preface, the author says: My young Readers, Before you begin the following Sheets, I beg you will stop a Moment at this Preface, to consider with me, what is the true Use of Reading. One Thing quite necessary to make any Instructions that come either from your Governors, or your Books, of any Use to you, is to attend with Desire of Learning, not to be apt to fansy yourselves too wise to be taught. For this Spirit will keep you ignorant as long as you live, you will be like the Birds in the following Fable: "The Mag-pye alone, of all the Birds, had the Art of building a Nest, the Form of, with a covering over Head, only a small Hole to creep out at.—The rest of the Birds, being without Houses, desired the Pye to teach them how to build one.—A Day is appointed, they all meet.—The Pye says, "You must lay two Sticks across, thus."—"Aye, says the Crow, I thought, the way to begin.—Then lay a Feather, or a Bit of Moss.—Certainly, says the Jack-Daw, I knew that must follow.—Then place more Sticks, Straws and Moss, in such a manner as this.—Aye, without doubt, cries the Starling, that must follow.
But take care, that instead of being humble in your own Hearts, you do not, by a fansied Humility, run into an Error of the other Extreme, say that you are incapable of understanding it at all. This is being as contemptible as the Owl; the preface closes with the explanation that the following'sheets' are intended to show young readers that "Pride, Malice, and, in short, all manner of Wickedness, is the greatest Folley we can be possessed of", "Certainly and Affection for each other make the Happiest of all Societies." The opening of the novel illustrates. She was married to a man that enjoyed'improving' his wife by educating her, Mrs Teachum had a disposition towards pleasing her husband, received his instructions with enthusiasm; when her husband died, he was happy to leave his children in the care of his well educated wife. It was not to be. Within 12 months of the loss of her husband, Mrs Teachum would suffer the loss of both of her children to fever. During this time, the banker in possession of her money would go bankrupt, leaving Mrs Teachum without her expected support, in need of income.
"Therefore, by the advice of all her Friends, she undertook. In the first scene at her school, Mrs Teachum intended as a gift to her 9 pupils a basket of apples, she is called away before she is able to distribute the apples, leaves them in the care of Miss Jenny Peace, her eldest student. Jenny is told to make sure that the present is divided evenly, it should have worked out except that one apple appears to be larger than the others; the students begin to clamour to be the one given the larger prize. The noise made by the students was too much for Jenny to overcome, her decision was that none should have it, so threw it over the hedge. Instead of solving the problem this leads to a rather large scrum among the girls, involving kicking and pulling of hair over who should have had the apple; as Miss Jenny is attempting to break them up, Mrs Teachum returns to a scene of complete chaos. The children attempt to blame each other for causing the fight, none willing to take the responsibility; the narrative does not explain the metho