Coimbra is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of 319.40 square kilometres. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal, it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra and the Centro Region. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area of 4,336 square kilometres. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal still remain. During the late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre; this was in large part helped by the establishment of the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history.
Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages." The city, located on a hill by the Mondego River, was called Aeminium in Roman times. It fell under the influence, administratively, of the larger Roman villa of Conímbriga, until the latter was sacked by the Sueves and Visigoths between 569 and 589 and abandoned, it became the seat of a diocesis. Although Conimbriga had been administratively important, Aeminium affirmed its position by being situated at the confluence of the north–south traffic that connected the Roman Bracara Augusta and Olisipo with its waterway, which enabled connections with the interior and coast; the limestone table on which the settlement grew has a dominant position overlooking the Mondego, circled by fertile lands irrigated by its waters.
Vestiges of this early history include the cryptoporticus of the former Roman forum. The move of the settlement and bishopric of Conimbriga to Aeminium resulted in the name change to Conimbriga, evolving to Colimbria. During the Visigothic era, the County of Coimbra was created by King Wittiza and it was a sub-county of his dominion, established as a fief for his son Prince Ardabast, with its seat in Emínio, which persisted until the Muslim invasion from the south; the first Muslim campaigns that occupied the Iberian peninsula occurred between 711 and 715, with Coimbra capitulating to Musa bin Nusair in 714. Although it was not a large settlement, Qulumriyah, in the context of Al-Andalus, was the largest agglomerated centre along the northern Tagus valley, its principal city boasted a walled enclosure of 10 hectares, supporting between 3000 and 5000 inhabitants. Remnants of this period include the beginnings of the Almedina and the fortified palace used by the city's governor; the Christian Reconquista forced the Banu Dānis and the other Muslims to abandon the region temporarily.
Successively the Moors retook the castle in 987–1064 and again in 1116, capturing two castles constructed to protect the territory: in Miranda da Beira and in Santa Eulália. The reconquest of the territory was attained in 1064 by King Ferdinand I of León and Castile, who appointed Dom Sisnando Davides to reorganize the economy and administer the lands encircling the city; the County of Portucale and the County of Coimbra were integrated into one dominion under the stewardship of Henry of Burgundy by Alfonso VI of León and Castile in 1096, when Henry married Alfonso's illegitimate daughter Theresa. Henry expanded the frontiers of the County, confronting the Moorish forces, upon his death in 1112, Countess of Portucale and Coimbra, unified her possessions, their son, Afonso Henriques, who took up residence in the ancient seat of the Christian County of Coimbra, sent expeditions to the south and west, consolidating a network of castles that included Leiria, Rabaçal, Alvorge and Ansião. During the 12th century, Afonso Henriques administered an area of fertile lands with river access and protected by a fortified city, whose population exceeded 6000 inhabitants, including magnates and high clergy.
The young Infante encouraged the construction of his seat, funding the Santa Cruz Monastery, promoted the construction of the Old Cathedral, reconstructed the original Roman bridge in 1132, repaired and renovated fountains, kilns and stone pavements, as well as the walls of the old city. In order to confirm and reinforce the power of the concelho he conceded a formal foral in 1179. In the Middle Ages, Coimbra was divided into an upper city, where the aristocracy and the clergy lived, the merchant and labour centres in the lower city by the Mondego River, in addition to the old and new Jewish quarters; the city was encircled by a fortified wall, of which some remnants are still visible like the Almedina Gate. Meanwhile, on
David Legge, known as Dave Lee, was a British comedian known for his work in pantomimes around Kent and his work on television. Lee founded his own charity to help disadvantaged children. Lee was born in Broadstairs. At the age of five he suffered a bout of tuberculosis and on, Lee suffered from a burst appendix, pleurisy, double pneumonia and had his tonsils and adenoids out. Subsequently Lee was disliked the idea, he began his career as a drummer at the Chartham Secondary Modern School at the age of 13. He worked as a warm-up man for Michael Aspel and Jimmy Tarbuck, he appeared on television on the shows The Generation Game, Celebrity Squares, Live from the Palladum and had his own golfing series. Lee was a non-executive director of Gillingham F. C. having been a fan of the club. In 1994, Lee founded the Dave Lee Happy Holidays Charity. During his lifetime, it raised £2 million for many of Kent's sick and under-privileged children to enjoy holidays and outings with their families. In the 2003 New Year Honours, Lee was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire, for services to the community in Kent.
On 9 November 2011, it was announced that Lee had pulled out of the pantomime for Cinderella due to his ailing health days before the rehearsals began. In his absence Lee's role was filled by Sion Tudor Owen. On 10 January 2012, the Canterbury announced. Lee died six days of pancreatic cancer, age 64, his funeral was held at Canterbury Cathedral on 30 January 2012 with fellow comedians Jim Davidson, Richard Digance, the Lord Mayor of Canterbury in attendance. He received the Freedom of the City posthumously. A bronze statue of Lee was unveiled outside the Marlowe Theatre in May 2014. "Tribute to Dave Lee MBE". Oystertown: Whitestable and Its People. Archived from the original on 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2017-07-30
In the land-based field artillery, the field artillery team is organized to direct and control indirect artillery fire on the battlefield. Since World War I, to conduct indirect artillery fire, three distinct components have evolved in this organization: the forward observer, the Fire Direction Center and the Firing Unit, sometimes referred to as the gun line. On the battlefield, the field artillery team consists of some combinations of all of these elements. In other words, there may be multiple FOs calling in fire on multiple targets to multiple FDCs and any component may be in communication with some of the other elements depending on the situational requirements. Modern artillery batteries shoot at targets measured in distances of kilometers and miles, a hundredfold increase in range over 18th century guns; this dramatic range increase has been driven by the ongoing development of rifled cannons, improvements in propellants, better communications, technical improvements in gunnery computational abilities.
Since a modern enemy is engaged at such great distances, in most field artillery situations, because of weather, night-time conditions, distance or other obstacles, the soldiers manning the guns cannot see the target that they are firing upon. The term indirect fire is therefore used to describe firing at targets that gunners cannot see, as opposed to observed direct fire. In most cases, the target is either over the horizon or on the other side of some physical obstruction, such as a hill, mountain or valley. Since the target is not visible, these gunners have to rely on a trained artillery observer called a forward observer, who sees the target and relays its coordinates to their fire direction center; the fire direction center, in turn, uses these coordinates to calculate a left-right aiming direction, an elevation angle, a number of bags of propellant, a time before exploding for the fuse. The fuse is mated to the artillery projectile. An overlooked but critical component of the Field Artillery team is the Advance Party.
The Advance Party consists of the Battery Commander, his Driver, First Sergeant, Gunnery Sergeant, FDC Guide, Gun Guides, Communications Representatives. The Party looks to find suitable positions for an artillery unit to perform fire missions from, they perform what is known as route reconnaissance. The primary purpose of this reconnaissance is to determine the suitability of the route of the units movement. Items to be analyzed include possible alternate routes, concealment, location of obstacles ambush sites, contaminated areas, route marking requirements, the time and distance required to traverse the route. Several factors are taken into consideration. Once a location is determined, having arrived at the new position, the advance party conducts a security sweep and prepares the position for occupation; the purpose of the advance party security with METT-T and the absence of enemy troops, booby traps, NBC hazards, so on. If these threats or conditions are present in the proposed position area, the advance party breaks contact with any enemy forces or marks minefield and hazards and moves on to find another position area.
The battery commander can coordinate for additional assets, or augment the advance party with internal assets, to provide the additional ability to clear areas of small enemy forces and minefields. Natural cover must be used to the maximum. Security is continuous throughout advance party operations. Once a location is determined to be safe, the advance party prepares the position for eventual howitzer emplacement; this consists of several procedures, such as escorting each howitzer to its prepared position, setting up communications, providing the unit with its initial azimuth of fire, providing each gun with an initial deflection. This entire process is covered in U. S. Army Field Manual 6-50 Chapter 2; because artillery is an indirect fire weapon, the forward observer must take up a position where he can observe the target using tools such as maps, a compass and laser rangefinders/designators call back fire missions on his radio or other communication device. This position can be anywhere from a few hundred meters to 20–30 km distant from the guns.
Modern day FOs are called Fire Support Specialist's trained in calling close air support, naval gunfire support and other indirect fire weapons systems. Using a standardized format, the FO sends either an absolute position or a position relative to another point, a brief target description, a recommended munition to use, any special instructions, such as "danger close". Firing begins with an adjustment phase where only a single gun fires, if the rounds are not accurate, the FO will issue instructions to adjust fire in four dimensions; when the degree of accuracy is acceptable, the FO will typically call "fire for effect", unless the objective of that fire mission is something other than suppression or destruction of the target. A "Fire For Effect" or "FFE" calls for all of the tubes to fire a round; the FO does not talk to the guns directly - he deals with the FDC. The forward observer can be airborne; the fire direction center concept was developed at the Field Artillery School at Ft. Sill, during the 1930s under the leadership of its Director of Gunnery, Carlos Brewer and his instructors, who abandoned massing fire by a described terrain feature or grid coordinate reference.
They introduced a firing chart, adopted the practice of locating battery positions by survey, designated