In many national currencies, the cent, commonly represented by the cent sign is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word centum meaning hundred, cent refers to a coin worth one cent. In the United States and Canada, the 1¢ coin is known by the nickname penny, alluding to the British coin. In Ireland the 1c coin is sometimes known as a penny in reference to the Irish penny. A cent is commonly represented by the cent sign, a letter c crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line, ¢, or a simple c. Cent amounts from 1 cent to 99 cents can be represented as one or two digits followed by the abbreviation, or as a subdivision of the base unit. The cent sign has not survived the changeover from typewriters to computer keyboards, for the US International keyboard, <Right Alt> <Shift> c. On Macintosh systems, hold ⌥ Option and press 4 on the number row, on Unix/Linux systems with a compose key, Compose+|+C is a typical sequence.
The cent sign has Unicode code point, U+00A2 ¢ cent sign, usage of the cent symbol varies from one currency to another. In the United States and Mexico, the usage ¢ is more common, while in Australia, New Zealand and the eurozone, in South Africa and Ireland, only the c is used. When written in English, the cent sign follows the amount, in contrast with a currency symbol. For example, 2¢ and $0.02, or 2c, greek coins have ΛΕΠΤΟ on the obverse of the one-cent coin and ΛΕΠΤΑ on the obverse of the others. Actual usage varies depending on language, South Korean Won no fractional denomination in circulation, formerly divided into 100 jeon
Quarter (United States coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar. It has a diameter of.955 inches and a thickness of.069 inches, the coin sports the profile of George Washington on its obverse and its reverse design has changed frequently. It has been produced on and off since 1796, and consistently from 1831 onward, the choice of 1⁄4 as a denomination—as opposed to the 1⁄5 more common elsewhere—originated with the practice of dividing Spanish milled dollars into eight wedge-shaped segments. At one time o bits was a nickname for a quarter. The current clad version is two layers of cupronickel, 75% copper and 25% nickel, on a core of pure copper, the total composition of the coin is 8. 33% nickel, with the remainder copper. It weighs 0.2000 avoirdupois oz, 1/80th of a pound,0.1823 troy oz, the diameter is 0.955 inches, and the width of 0.069 inches. The coin has a 0. 069-inch reeded edge, owing to the introduction of the clad quarter in 1965, it was occasionally called a Johnson Sandwich after Lyndon B.
Johnson, the U. S. President at the time and it currently costs 11.14 cents to produce each coin. The U. S. Mint began producing silver quarters again in 1992 for inclusion in the annual Silver Proof set, early quarters were slightly larger in diameter and thinner than the current coin. The current regular issue coin is the George Washington quarter, showing George Washington on the front, the reverse featured an eagle prior to the 199950 State Quarters Program. The Washington quarter was designed by John Flanagan and it was initially issued as a circulating commemorative, but was made a regular issue coin in 1934. The bill passed through the Senate and was signed into legislation by President Bush on December 27,2007, the typeface used in the state quarter series varies a bit from one state to another, but is generally derived from Albertus. On June 7,2006, a bill titled Americas Beautiful National Parks Quarter Dollar Coin Act of 2008 was introduced to the House of Representatives, on December 23,2008, President George W.
Bush signed the bill into law. The America the Beautiful Quarters program began in 2010 and will continue for 12 years. S. S and they were issued from 1932 through 1964. The current rarities for the Washington Quarter silver series are, Branch Mintmarks are D = Denver, coins without mintmarks are all made at the main Mint in Philadelphia. This is not due to their mintages, but rather because they are harder to find in high grades, many of these coins are worth only melt value in low grades. Other coins in the above list are expensive because of their extremely low mintages, such as the 1932 Denver and San Francisco issues. The overstruck mintmark issues are scarce and expensive, especially in the higher grades
The bald eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. A sea eagle, it has two subspecies and forms a species pair with the white-tailed eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and it is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. The bald eagle is a feeder which subsists mainly on fish. It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any species, up to 4 m deep,2.5 m wide. Sexual maturity is attained at the age of four to five years, Bald eagles are not actually bald, the name derives from an older meaning of the word, white headed. The adult is brown with a white head and tail. The sexes are identical in plumage, but females are about 25 percent larger than males, the beak is large and hooked. The plumage of the immature is brown, the bald eagle is both the national bird and national animal of the United States of America. The bald eagle appears on its seal, in the late 20th century it was on the brink of extirpation in the contiguous United States.
Populations have since recovered and the species was removed from the U. S. governments list of endangered species on July 12,1995 and it was removed from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife in the Lower 48 States on June 28,2007. The plumage of an bald eagle is evenly dark brown with a white head. The tail is long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in coloration, but sexual dimorphism is evident in the species. The beak and irises are bright yellow, the legs are feather-free, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes. The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere, the adult bald eagle is unmistakable in its native range. The closely related African fish eagle has a body, white head and tail
United States Bicentennial coinage
The United States Bicentennial coinage was a set of circulating commemorative coins, consisting of a quarter, half dollar and dollar struck by the United States Mint in 1975 and 1976. Regardless of when struck, each bears the double date 1776–1976 on the normal obverses for the Washington quarter, Kennedy half dollar. No coins dated 1975 of any of the three denominations were minted, given past abuses in the system, the Mint advocated against the issuance of commemorative coins starting in the 1950s. Beginning in 1971, members of Congress introduced bills to authorize coins to honor the United States Bicentennial, a nationwide competition resulted in designs of a Colonial drummer for the quarter, Independence Hall for the half dollar and the Liberty Bell superimposed against the moon for the dollar. All three coins remain common today due to the quantity struck, circulation pieces were in copper nickel, Congress mandated 45,000,000 part-silver pieces be struck for collectors. The Mint sold over half of the coins before melting the remainder after withdrawing them from sale in 1986.
Commemorative coins had been struck for a number of events and anniversaries by the United States Mint since 1892, organizations would get Congress to authorize a coin and would be allowed to buy up the issue, selling it to the public at a premium. The final issue among these commemoratives, half dollars honoring Booker T. Washington and George Washington Carver were struck over a number of years, originally priced at $3.50, they were repeatedly discounted, many could not be sold at a premium and entered circulation. The promoter of these issues, S. J, mishandled the distribution and lost $140,000. The negative publicity caused the Department of the Treasury, of which the Mint is a part, to oppose subsequent commemorative coin proposals, in 1966, Congress established the American Revolutionary Bicentennial Commission to plan and coordinate activities connected with the 1976 bicentennial of American Independence. In February 1970, the ARBC established a Coins and Medals Advisory Committee, the committees initial report, in July 1970, called for the production of a commemorative half dollar for the Bicentennial.
In December 1970, the called for special designs for all denominations of US coinage for the Bicentennial. The Treasury, opposed the change, following its longstanding position against commemorative coins, several proposals for Bicentennial coins were introduced in Congress in 1971 and 1972, but did not pass. Mint Director Mary Brooks had attended the Advisory Committee meetings, however, in a newspaper interview she termed the idea of changing the six circulating coins a disaster. She felt if any Bicentennial coin was issued, it should be non-circulating, Brooks believed that such a coin would not disrupt the Mint in the production of coins for circulation. During 1972, she retreated from that position, in January 1973, Texas Representative Richard C. White introduced legislation for commemorative dollars and half dollars, oregon Senator Mark Hatfield put forward a bill, calling for a $25 gold piece. Hearings before a subcommittee in the House of Representatives were held on May 2,1973, Brooks testified, supporting the limited redesign in the bill, but opposing a more extensive coin redesign
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
United States Mint
The United States Mint produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money, the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, and soon joined by other centres, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are currently four active coin-producing mints, Denver, San Francisco, the Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, and originally placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States, the Mints headquarters are in Washington D. C. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, and West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Charlotte, North Carolina, Georgia, New Orleans, Washington, D. C. and even in Manila. Originally part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799 and it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyones account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs.
Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury and it was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted solely for the Treasurys account, the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position was held most recently by Edmund C, moy until his resignation effective January 9,2011. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, and is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, the Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as Ye Olde Mint. With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, the first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of gold deposits into coinage.
The Civil War closed both these facilities permanently, the New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were ever minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870, it operated until 1893, like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver. Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage. Silver has been used as a coinage metal since the times of the Greeks, the ancient Persians used silver coins between 612-330 BC. Before 1797, British pennies were made of silver, as with all collectible coins, many factors determine the value of a silver coin, such as its rarity, demand and the number originally minted. Ancient silver coins coveted by collectors include the Denarius and Miliarense, while more recent collectible silver coins include the Morgan Dollar, other than collectors silver coins, silver bullion coins are popular among people who desire a hedge against currency inflation or store of value. Silver has a currency symbol of XAG under ISO4217. The earliest coins of the world were minted in the kingdom of Lydia in Asia Minor around 600 BC. The coins of Lydia were made of electrum, which is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, the concept of coinage, i. e. stamped lumps of metal of a specified weight, quickly spread to adjacent regions, such as Aegina.
In these neighbouring regions, inhabited by Greeks, coins were made of silver. As Greek merchants traded with Greek communities throughout the Mediterranean Sea and these early Greek silver coins were denominated in staters or drachmas and its fractions. More or less simultaneously with the development of the Lydian and Greek coinages, the Chinese coins, were a different concept and they were made of bronze. The coins of the Greeks were issued by a number of city states. The coinage systems were not entirely the same from one place to another, the so-called Attic standard, Corinthian standard, Aiginetic standard and other standards defined the proper weight of each coin. Each of these standards were used in places throughout the Mediterranean region. In the 4th century BC, the Kingdom of Macedonia came to dominate the Greek world, the most powerful of their kings, Alexander the Great eventually launched an attack on the Kingdom of Persia and conquering it. Greek coins were now issued by kings, and only to an extent by cities.
Greek rulers were now minting coins as far away as Egypt, the tetradrachm was a popular coin throughout the region. This era is referred to as the hellenistic era, while much of the Greek world was being transformed into monarchies, the Romans were expanding their control throughout the Italian Peninsula. The Romans minted their first coins during the early 3rd century BC, the earliest coins were - like other coins in the region - silver drachms with a supplementary bronze coinage
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the end of the National Mall in Washington. Dedicated in 1922, it is one of several built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations and it has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15,1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day, in 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Since 2010, approximately 6 million people visit the memorial annually, the first public memorial to Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D. C. was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after Lincolns assassination. Demands for a national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincolns death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president, an American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument.
Subscriptions for the project were insufficient, the first five bills, proposed in the years 1901,1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill, introduced on December 13,1910, the Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and U. S. President William H. Taft was chosen as the commissions president. Progress continued at a pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commissions choice of design. There were questions regarding the commissions plan, many thought that architect Henry Bacons Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincolns humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine, the site too did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be too swampy or too inaccessible. Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth, the Potomac Park site had already been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.
With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway, on February 12,1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed steadily according to schedule, some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be 10 feet tall, was enlarged to 19 feet to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form as opposed to needing extraction from an ore and this led to very early human use, from c.8000 BC. Copper used in buildings, usually for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris, Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the hemoglobin in fish. In humans, copper is found mainly in the liver, the adult body contains between 1.4 and 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight.
The filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak. This observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of copper, at the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form. The softness of copper partly explains its high conductivity and high thermal conductivity. The maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is approximately 3. 1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or silver. Pure copper is orange-red and acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air, as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. A green layer of verdigris can often be seen on old structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings.
Copper tarnishes when exposed to sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper, 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising approximately 69% of naturally occurring copper, both have a spin of 3⁄2
The Charlotte Mint was a branch of the United States Mint located in Charlotte, North Carolina and specializing in gold coinage, that came into existence on March 3,1835. The first gold mine in the United States was established in North Carolina at the Reed Gold Mine and this Act authorized mints at Dahlonega and New Orleans, after President Andrew Jackson signed it into law. Proposals for erection of the building were advertised and the contract was awarded to Perry & Ligon, of Raleigh, in 1836, construction on the Charlotte Mint began. It opened for business on July 27,1837, only raw gold was processed and refined until March 28,1838, when the first $5 gold half eagle was struck in Charlotte. Later that year, $2½ quarter eagles were minted, and 1849 production started on a gold dollar. All gold coinage coming from this mint has a C mint mark to distinguish it from other sister mints in operation, the Charlotte Mint issued over $5 million in gold coins. In May 1861, North Carolina seceded from the Union, the Confederacy took control of the Charlotte Mint.
The Confederate government continued coining operations until October when it became clear it was a futile effort, the mint was converted into a hospital and military office space for the remainder of the Civil War. Federal troops used the offices for the first few years of Reconstruction, in 1867, the U. S. government designated it an assay office. In 1873, the General Assembly of North Carolina petitioned Congress to reopen the mint at Charlotte, the Assay office operated until 1913 when the gold supply was quickly dwindling. From 1917 to 1919, the Charlotte Womens Club met in the building and it served as a Red Cross station during World War I. In 1931, the building was to be demolished to make room for the post office next door. A coalition of private citizens acquired the structure from the U. S. Treasury Department in 1933 and they relocated the structure a few miles south of downtown Charlotte. In 1936, it was dedicated as the Mint Museum of Art, on display are thousands of items, along with a complete collection of all gold coins minted at the Charlotte Mint.
Charlotte Mint gold coins range from scarce to extremely rare and they are some of the most desired items in numismatics today, making the museums collection highly valuable. Historical United States mints California gold coinage U. S. Mint