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Colchester

Colchester is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex. Colchester was the first Roman-founded Colonia in Britain, Colchester lays claim to be regarded as Britain's oldest recorded town, it was for a time the capital of Roman Britain, is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. Situated on the River Colne, Colchester is 50 miles northeast of London and is connected to the capital by the A12 road and its railway station, on the Great Eastern Main Line, it is seen as a popular town for commuters, is less than 30 miles from London Stansted Airport and 20 miles from the passenger ferry port of Harwich. Colchester is home to Colchester United Football Club; the demonym is Colcestrian. There are several theories about the origin of the name Colchester; some contend, derived from the Latin words Colonia and Castra, meaning fortifications. The earliest forms of the name Colchester are Colenceaster and Colneceastre from the 10th century, with the modern spelling of Colchester being found in the 15th century.

In this way of interpreting the name, the River Colne which runs through the town takes its name from Colonia as well. Cologne gained its name from a similar etymology. Other etymologists are confident that the Colne's name is of Celtic origin, sharing its origin with several other rivers Colne or Clun around Britain, that Colchester is derived from Colne and Castra. Ekwall went as far as to say "it has been held that Colchester contains as first element colonia... this derivation is ruled out of court by the fact that Colne is the name of several old villages situated a good many miles from Colchester and on the Colne. The identification of Colonia with Colchester is doubtful."The popular association of the name with King Coel has no academic merit. The gravel hill upon which Colchester is built was formed in the Middle Pleistocene period, was shaped into a terrace between the Anglian glaciation and the Ipswichian glaciation by an ancient precursor to the River Colne. From these deposits beneath the town have been found Palaeolithic flint tools, including at least six Acheulian handaxes.

Further flint tools made by hunter gatherers living in the Colne Valley during the Mesolithic have been discovered, including a tranchet axe from Middlewick. In the 1980s an archaeological inventory showed that over 800 shards of pottery from the Neolithic, Bronze Age and early Iron Age have been found within Colchester, along with many examples of worked flint; this included a pit found at Culver Street containing a ritually placed Neolithic grooved ware pot, as well as find spots containing Deverel-Rimbury bucket urns. Colchester is surrounded by Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments that pre-date the town, including a Neolithic henge at Tendring, large Bronze Age barrow cemeteries at Dedham and Langham, a larger example at Brightlingsea consisting of a cluster of 22 barrows. Colchester is said to be the oldest recorded town in Britain on the grounds that it was mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79, although the Celtic name of the town, Camulodunon appears on coins minted by tribal chieftain Tasciovanus in the period 20–10 BC.

Before the Roman conquest of Britain it was a centre of power for Cunobelin – known to Shakespeare as Cymbelineking of the Catuvellauni, who minted coins there. Its Celtic name, variously represented as CA, CAM, CAMV, CAMVL and CAMVLODVNO on the coins of Cunobelinus, means'the fortress of Camulos'. During the 30s AD Camulodunon controlled a large swathe of Southern and Eastern Britain, with Cunobelin called "King of the Britons" by Roman writers. Camulodunon is sometimes popularly considered one of many possible sites around Britain for the legendary Camelot of King Arthur, though the name Camelot is most a corruption of Camlann, a now unknown location first mentioned in the 10th century Welsh annalistic text Annales Cambriae, identified as the place where Arthur was slain in battle. Soon after the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, a Roman legionary fortress was established, the first in Britain; when the Roman frontier moved outwards and the twentieth legion had moved to the west, Camulodunum became a colonia named in a second-century inscription as Colonia Victricensis.

This contained a large and elaborate Temple to the Divine Claudius, the largest classical-style temple in Britain, as well as at least seven other Romano-British temples. Colchester is home to two of the five Roman theatres found in Britain. Camulodunum served as a provincial Roman capital of Britain, but was attacked and destroyed during Boudica's rebellion in AD 61. Sometime after the destruction, London became the capital of the province of Britannia. Colchester's town walls c. 3,000 yd. long were built c.65–80 A. D. when the Roman town was rebuilt after the Boudicca rebellion. In 2004, Colchester Archaeological Trust discovered the remains of a Roman Circus underneath the Garrison in Colchester, a unique find in Britain; the Roman town of Camulodunum known as Colonia Victricensis, reached its peak in the Second and Third centuries AD. It may have reached a population of 30,000 in that

2017 Walker Cup

The 46th Walker Cup Match was played September 9 and 10, 2017 at the Los Angeles Country Club in Los Angeles, California. It was the second Walker Cup Match played in California, the previous occasion being in 1981 at Cypress Point Club. Great Britain and Ireland were the holders of the cup; the United States won the match 19 points to 7. On Saturday, there were four matches of foursomes in the morning and eight singles matches in the afternoon. On Sunday, there were again four matches of foursomes in the morning, followed by ten singles matches in the afternoon. In all, 26 matches were played; each of the 26 matches was worth one point in the larger team competition. If a match is all square after the 18th hole extra holes are not played. Rather, each side earns ½ a point toward their team total; the team that accumulates at least 13½ points wins the competition. In the event of a tie, the previous winner retains the Cup. Ten players for the USA and Great Britain & Ireland played in the event plus a non-playing captain for each team.

Harry Ellis was an automatic selection for the Great Britain & Ireland team having won the 2017 Amateur Championship. The two teams were announced following the U. S. Amateur. Note: "Rank" is the World Amateur Golf Ranking as of the start of the Cup. Craig Watson was the original captain of the Great Britain and Ireland team but withdrew on August 30 because of a family illness. USGA site R&A site The Los Angeles Country Club coverage Golf Bible Walker Cup coverage

Icy Tower

Icy Tower is a freeware computer game by Swedish game developer Free Lunch Design. It is a platform game set in a tower, where the player's goal is to jump from one "floor" to the next and go as high as possible without falling and plunging off the screen; the higher the player's character climbs, the faster the tower's floors move downward and the harder the game becomes. By default, the player controls the character using a keyboard; the player starts the game on the tower's ground floor. To climb the tower, the player must jump from floor to floor; the character can pass through the floors from below but lands on them. Once the player has landed on a floor, he can move across its surface using the arrow keys. By moving across the floor, the player builds momentum for the next jump; the character can bounce off the vertical walls on the left and right edges of the tower, allowing them to switch direction while maintaining momentum. If a player builds enough momentum, he can climb several floors in a single jump.

Extended sequences of such multi-floor jumps are referred to as combos. A combo ends when a player makes a jump which covers only one floor, falls off a floor and lands on a lower floor, or fails to make a jump within a certain time frame. At the start of the game, the tower's floors are stationary; when the player reaches floor 5, the floors begin to move downward. Every thirty seconds, the floors's downward speed increases and the game tells the player to "Hurry up!" If the player misses a floor and falls off the bottom of the screen, the game ends. It ends if the player is standing on a floor that moves off the bottom of the screen; the goal accumulate the greatest number of points. Points are awarded based on the player's combos; because the tower is of infinite height, it is impossible to reach the top floor. When the game ends, a replay of the game may be saved for viewing; the horizontal length of each floor depends on the player's progress, the version of the game, a random factor. The floors's appearances change every 100 floors until floor 1000.

Floors 0 - 99: Stone Floors 99 - 199: Ice Floors 199 - 299: Wood Floors 299 - 399: Metal Floors 399 - 499: Chewing gum Floors 499 - 599: Bone Floors 599 - 699: Vines Floors 699 - 799: Pipe Floors 799 - 899: Cloud Floors 899 - 999: Rainbow Floors 1000 and above: glass Icy Tower records players's best results in built-in high-score tables. Scores are recorded in several categories including highest score, highest floor, longest combo. Players may publish their scores online high score lists. Online high-score lists may require players to provide game replays to verify their results; the official Icy Tower list resides on Free Lunch Design's web server. It is possible to compare two players's performances using the so-called K+ method—a product of a sum of quotients where the divisors and dividends represent records of both players in a specific Icy Tower category. For example, the K+ value from Score and Combo is represented by the expression 100 4,where S c o r e, F l o o r and C o m b o stand for the highest score, highest floor, longest combo, respectively.

The K+ mechanism is used in online high-score lists. Free Lunch Design created Icy Tower using the Allegro game library, its designers were inspired by a game for the Linux operating system. The game follows a sequence-based software versioning scheme; the current version is 1.5. Changes in the minor number denote the entire package of the game being changed, including its sound and graphic resources. Changes in the release number denote a release of a patch, i.e. a modified executable file to fix bugs in previous versions. Patches for Icy Tower are distributed outside of official game packages; the makers of Icy Tower maintain contact with its players, whose opinions are taken into account in the course of the game's continuing developing. The list of the