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Colchis

In pre-Hellenistic Greco-Roman geography, Colchis was an exonym for the Georgian polity of Egrisi located on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia. It has been described in modern scholarship as "the earliest Georgian formation" which, along with the Kingdom of Iberia, would contribute to the development of the medieval Georgian statehood and the Georgian nation. Internationally, Colchis is best known for its role in Greek mythology, most notably as the destination of the Argonauts, as well as the home to Medea and the Golden fleece, it was described as a land rich with gold, iron and honey that would export its resources to ancient Hellenic City states. Colchis was populated by Colchians, an early Kartvelian-speaking tribe, ancestral to the contemporary western Georgians, namely Svans and Zans, its geography is assigned to what is now the western part of Georgia and encompasses the present-day Georgian provinces of Samegrelo, Guria, Abkhazeti, Racha. Colchís, Kolkhís or Qulḫa which existed from the c. 13th to the 1st centuries BC is regarded as an early ethnically Georgian polity.

The name Colchis is thought to have derived from the Urartian Qulḫa, pronounced as "Kolcha". In the late eighth century BC, Sarduri II the King of Urartu, inscribed his victory over Qulḫa on a stele; some scholars argue the name Qulḫa referred to a land to the west of Georgia. According to the scholar of Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff: Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer. Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian kingdom.... It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the earliest Georgian formation. A second South Caucasian tribal union emerged in the thirteenth century BC on the Black Sea coast. According to most classic authors, a district, bounded on the south-west by Pontus, on the west by the Black Sea as far as the river Corax, on the north by the chain of the Greater Caucasus, which lay between it and Asiatic Sarmatia, on the east by Iberia and Montes Moschici, on the south by Armenia.

The westward extent of the country is considered differently by different authors: Strabo makes Colchis begin at Trabzon, while Ptolemy, on the other hand, extends Pontus to the Rioni River. The name of Colchis first appears in Pindar; the earlier writers only speak about it under the name of Aea, the residence of the mythical king Aeëtes: "Kolchian Aia lies at the furthest limits of sea and earth," wrote Apollonius of Rhodes. The main river was the Phasis, according to some writers the south boundary of Colchis, but more flowed through the middle of that country from the Caucasus west by south to the Euxine, the Anticites or Atticitus. Arrian mentions many others by name, but they would seem to have been little more than mountain torrents: the most important of them were Charieis, Chobus or Cobus, Tarsuras, Astelephus, several of which are noticed by Ptolemy and Pliny; the chief towns were Dioscurias or Dioscuris on the seaboard of the Euxine, Phasis, Apsaros, Archaeopolis and Cyta or Cutatisium or Aia, the traditional birthplace of Medea.

Scylax mentions Mala or Male, which he, in contradiction to other writers, makes the birthplace of Medea. In physical geography, Colchis is defined as the area east of the Black Sea coast, restricted from the north by the southwestern slopes of the Greater Caucasus, from the south by the northern slopes of the Lesser Caucasus in Georgia and Eastern Black Sea Mountains in Turkey, from the east by Likhi Range, connecting the Greater and the Lesser Caucasus; the central part of the region is Colchis Plain, stretching between Kobuleti. Marginal parts of the region are mountains of the Lesser Caucasus and Likhi Range, its territory corresponds to what is now the western part of Georgia and encompasses the present-day Georgian provinces of Samegrelo, Guria, Abkhazia, Racha. The climate is mild humid; the dominating natural landscapes of Colchis are temperate rainforests, yet degraded in the plain part of the region. The Colchis has a high proportion of Neogene and Palaeogene relict plants and animals, with the closest relatives in distant parts of the world: five species of Rhododendrons and other evergreen shrubs, Caucasian salamander, Caucasian parsley frog, eight endemic species of lizards from the genus Darevskia, the Caucasus adder, Robert's snow vole, endemic cave shrimp.

The eastern Black Sea region in antiquity was home to the well-developed Bronze Age cultu

Uri Bar-Ner

Uri Bar-Ner is a senior adviser to the President of the America-Israel Friendship League, the former Israeli ambassador to Turkey from 1998–2001, he served as Israeli Consul General in Chicago and Deputy Consul General in New York City, USA. Bar-Ner was the deputy Director General of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs and served in diplomatic missions in Europe and Asia, he has a Bachelor of Arts from Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a Master of Arts in political science from Emory University. Bar-Ner has been active in promoting Israel through the AIFL, he helped to mitigate a disinvestment campaign by the Presbyterian church. A message from the ambassador of Israel to Turkey H. E. Mr. Uri Bar-Ner at Turkish Daily News

Holden 48-215

The Holden 48-215 is a mid-size sedan, produced by the Australian automaker Holden between November 1948 and October 1953. A coupe utility derivative, coded as the 50-2106 and marketed as the Holden Coupe Utility, was produced from January 1951; the 48-215 was the first model from General Motors in Australia to bear the Holden name. In mainstream parlance, the official name of "Holden 48-215" was eschewed in favour of the shortened "Holden" designation. Following the replacement of the first Holden, the 48-215 gained the unofficial nickname of Holden FX; this designation was first used in the Drawing Office at GM-H in 1952 as an unofficial means of distinguishing between early 48-215 vehicles with front suspension using lever-action shock absorbers, those with the new telescopic shock absorber front suspension introduced in 1953 - the term "FX" was pencilled onto a parts list for the new suspension components. The title "FX" came into use in used car advertisements to describe models with the suspension, first being used by Melbourne dealer Reg Smith Motors in two advertisements in the 10 February 1960 issue of The Age.

Use of the term "FX" spread to cover all 48-215 and 50-2106 vehicles, although the term has never been used by Holden in any official manner. The design was conceived in the United States by Chevrolet, but was not used because it was deemed too small for the U. S. market. Instead the design became the basis of only the 48-215 model, its American origins are quite apparent, as it resembles Chevrolets of the period that did make it to production the Fleetline Aerosedan and the second generation Deluxe. Development of the 48-215 began in 1944. Three prototypes were built by hand in 1946 by American and Australian engineers at the General Motors workshop in Detroit. Months of durability and performance testing were undergone in the US before the three prototypes were shipped to Australia. Prototype number one was first registered in Victoria as JP-480 on 12 February 1947, it survives as part of the National Museum of Australia collection. Prototypes two and three were registered at the same time as JP-481 and JP-482.

A further two prototypes were built in Australia. Owned by Australian businessman Peter Briggs between 1980 and 2013, the car's value was estimated to be worth over A$1 million when it was put up for auction in the Motorclassica auction Melbourne, in October 2013; the second Australian-built prototype was registered as KY-442. All five prototypes were registered as Chevrolets. Only two were used for photographic purposes, they were: Prototype No.1, JP-480, dark colour—Seine Blue Prototype No.4, KY-442, light colour—Gawler Cream. In the absence of an established supplier base in Australia for auto-making, new forging facilities had to be set up for producing crankshafts and a new foundry was set up for major castings. In order to hasten the project to production some simplifications were incorporated. There were no direction indicators, there was no provision for heating or demisting, at the rear there was only a single, centrally positioned, tail lamp; because of the mild climate in most of the populated areas of the country, it was found possible to save weight and cost by using a small 6-volt 11-plate battery.

Interior trim was minimised: weight reduction was pursued "with great vigour" and, in view of the 2,247 lb weight in "running trim", a success. April, the production plant at Woodville, South Australia, begins tooling up to make the bodies.these would be identical to the prototypes.. Work begins on the engine assembly line at Fishermen's Bend. 1 September, the decision is made to call the car Holden. 25 September, engine number 1001 is started up. 30 September, pilot car number one is completed in the evening.. 19 October, pilot car number one is registered as MG-501. All four Holden colours were represented: These ten cars were used for testing. Three of them went to the Engineering Department, five went to Manufacturing, one went to the General Sales Manager, one went to the managing director, H. E. Bettle; when all departments were satisfied with the car, volume production began. The race was now on to ensure Holden dealers in all states had cars on their showroom floors before unveiling day. Black bodies dominated the early roll-out but GMH made sure that each capital city received examples of cream and grey.

68 Holdens were distributed to the capital cities before unveiling day. On Sunday, 21 November, an Open Day was held to exhibit the entire factory and the car itself, but this special preview was not for the public or the dealers—it was for the Fishermen's Bend employees and their families. There were assembled cars at various stages along the assembly line as well as finished cars for the guests to inspect; the official launch for Victorian dealers was held at the Oriental Hotel in Melbourne on Friday, 26 November. The official unveiling by Prime Minister Ben Chifley commenced at 2:30 pm on Monday, 29 November 1948, in the Fishermen's Bend Social Hall; the 400 guests applauded when silver curtains parted to reveal a cream Holden, in a black velvet setting and sparkling under spotlights, as an orchestra played Brahms' Waltz in A-flat. The celebrations at the plant were attended by 1,200 official guests; the Holden was released for sale to the public at Victoria. The car was marketed as the Holden, without a model name.

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