A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick known as the control column, is the principal control device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a center stick or side-stick, it has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft's flight. Joysticks are used to control video games, have one or more push-buttons whose state can be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. Joysticks are used for controlling machines such as cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles, surveillance cameras, zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones. Joysticks originated as controls for aircraft ailerons and elevators, are first known to have been used as such on Louis Bleriot's Bleriot VIII aircraft of 1908, in combination with a foot-operated rudder bar for the yaw control surface on the tail.
The name "joystick" is thought to originate with early 20th century French pilot Robert Esnault-Pelterie. There are competing claims on behalf of fellow pilots Robert Loraine, James Henry Joyce, A. E. George. Loraine is cited by the Oxford English Dictionary for using the term "joystick" in his diary in 1909 when he went to Pau to learn to fly at Bleriot's school. George was a pioneer aviator who with his colleague Jobling built and flew a biplane at Newcastle in England in 1910, he is alleged to have invented the "George Stick". The George and Jobling aircraft control column is in the collection of the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Joysticks were present in early planes; the coining of the term "joystick" may be credited to Loraine, as his is the earliest known usage of the term, although he most did not invent the device. The electrical two-axis joystick was invented by C. B. Mirick at the United States Naval Research Laboratory and patented in 1926". NRL was developing remote controlled aircraft at the time and the joystick was used to support this effort.
In the awarded patent, Mirick writes: "My control system is applicable in maneuvering aircraft without a pilot."The Germans developed an electrical two-axis joystick around 1944. The device was used as part of the Germans' Funkgerät FuG 203 Kehl radio control transmitter system used in certain German bomber aircraft, used to guide both the rocket-boosted anti-ship missile Henschel Hs 293, the unpowered pioneering precision-guided munition Fritz-X, against maritime and other targets. Here, the joystick of the Kehl transmitter was used by an operator to steer the missile towards its target; this joystick had on-off switches rather than analogue sensors. Both the Hs 293 and Fritz-X used FuG 230 Straßburg radio receivers in them to send the Kehl's control signals to the ordnance's control surfaces. A comparable joystick unit was used for the contemporary American Azon steerable munition to laterally steer the munition in the yaw axis only; this German invention was picked up by someone in the team of scientists assembled at the Heeresversuchsanstalt in Peenemünde.
Here a part of the team on the German rocket program was developing the Wasserfall missile, a variant of the V-2 rocket, the first ground-to-air missile. The Wasserfall steering equipment converted the electrical signal to radio signals and transmitted these to the missile. In the 1960s the use of joysticks became widespread in radio-controlled model aircraft systems such as the Kwik Fly produced by Phill Kraft; the now-defunct Kraft Systems firm became an important OEM supplier of joysticks to the computer industry and other users. The first use of joysticks outside the radio-controlled aircraft industry may have been in the control of powered wheelchairs, such as the Permobil. During this time period NASA used joysticks as control devices as part of the Apollo missions. For example, the lunar lander test models were controlled with a joystick. In many modern airliners aircraft, for example all Airbus aircraft developed from the 1980s, the joystick has received a new lease on life for flight control in the form of a "side-stick", a controller similar to a gaming joystick but, used to control the flight, replacing the traditional yoke.
The sidestick saves weight, improves movement and visibility in the cockpit, may be safer in an accident than the traditional "control yoke". Ralph H. Baer, inventor of television video games and the Magnavox Odyssey console, released in 1972, created the first video game joysticks in 1967, they were able to control the vertical position of a spot displayed on a screen. The earliest known electronic game joystick with a fire button was released by Sega as part of their 1969 arcade game Missile, a shooter simulation game that used it as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move a motorized tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen. In 1970, the game was released in North America as S. A. M. I. by Midway Games. Taito released a four-way joystick as part of their arcade racing video game Astro Race in 1973, while their 1975 run and gun multi-directional shooter game Western Gun introduced dual-stick controls with one eight-way joystick for movement and the other for changing the shooting direction.
In North Americ
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known
The Atari 5200 SuperSystem known as the Atari 5200, is a home video game console, introduced in 1982 by Atari Inc. as a higher-end complementary console for the popular Atari 2600. The 5200 was created to compete with the Intellivision, but wound up more directly competing with the ColecoVision shortly after its release; the 5200's internal hardware is identical to that of Atari's 8-bit computers, although software is not directly compatible between the two systems. The 5200's controllers have an analog joystick and a numeric keypad along with start and reset buttons; the 360-degree non-centering joystick was touted as offering more control than the eight-way joystick controller offered with the Atari 2600. On May 21, 1984, during a press conference at which the Atari 7800 was introduced, company executives revealed that the 5200 had been discontinued after just two years on the market. Total sales of the 5200 were in excess of 1 million units. Much of the technology in the Atari 8-bit family of home computer systems was developed as a second-generation games console intended to replace the 2600.
However, as the system was reaching completion, the personal computer revolution was starting with the release of machines like the Commodore PET, TRS-80 and Apple II. These machines had less advanced hardware than the new Atari technology, but sold for much higher prices with associated higher profit margins. Atari's management decided to enter this market, the technology was repackaged into the Atari 400 and 800; the chipset used in these machines was created with the mindset that the 2600 would be obsolete by the 1980 time frame. Atari decided to re-enter the games market with a design that matched their original 1978 specifications. In its prototype stage, the Atari 5200 was called the "Atari Video System X – Advanced Video Computer System", was codenamed "Pam" after a female employee at Atari, Inc, it is rumored that PAM stood for "Personal Arcade Machine", as the majority of games for the system ended up being arcade conversions. Actual working Atari Video System X machines, whose hardware is 100% identical to the Atari 5200 do exist, but are rare.
The initial 1982 release of the system featured four controller ports, where nearly all other systems of the day had only one or two ports. The 5200 featured a new style of controller with an analog joystick, numeric keypad, two fire buttons on each side of the controller and game function keys for Start and Reset; the 5200 featured the innovation of the first automatic TV switchbox, allowing it to automatically switch from regular TV viewing to the game system signal when the system was activated. Previous RF adapters required the user to slide a switch on the adapter by hand; the RF box was where the power supply connected in a unique dual power/television signal setup similar to the RCA Studio II's. A single cable coming out of the 5200 plugged into the switch box and was used for both electricity and the television signal; the 1983 revision of the Atari 5200 has two controller ports instead of four, a change back to the more conventional separate power supply and standard non-autoswitching RF switch.
It has changes in the cartridge port address lines to allow for the Atari 2600 adapter released that year. While the adapter was only made to work on the two-port version, modifications can be made to the four-port to make it line-compatible. In fact, towards the end of the four-port model's production run, there were a limited number of consoles produced which included these modifications; these consoles can be identified by an asterisk in their serial numbers. The controller prototypes used in the electrical development lab employed a yoke and gimbal mechanism that came from an RC airplane controller kit; the design of the analog joystick, which used a weak rubber boot rather than springs to provide centering, proved to be ungainly and unreliable. They became the Achilles' heel of the system because of their combination of an overly complex mechanical design with a low-cost internal flex circuit system. Another major flaw of the controllers was that the design did not translate into a linear acceleration from the center through the arc of the stick travel.
The controllers did, include a pause button, a unique feature at the time. Various third-party replacement joysticks were released, including those made by Wico. Atari Inc. released the Pro-Line Trak-Ball controller for the system, used for gaming titles such as Centipede and Missile Command. A paddle controller and an updated self-centering version of the original controller were in development, but never made it to market. Games were shipped with plastic card overlays; the card would indicate which game functions, such as changing the view or vehicle speed, were assigned to each key. The primary controller was ranked the 10th worst video game controller by IGN editor Craig Harris. An editor for Next Generation said that their non-centering joysticks "rendered many games nearly unplayable". David H. Ahl in 1983 described the Atari 5200 as "a 400 computer in disguise", its internal design was extensively based on that of the Atari 8-bit family, including ANTIC, POKEY, GTIA. Software designed for one does not run on the other, but porting the source code is not difficult as long as it does not use computer-specific features.
Antic magazine reported in 1984 that "the similarities grossly outweigh the differences, so that a 5200 program can be developed and entirely debugged before testing on a 5200". John J. Anderson of Creative Computing alluded to the incompatibility being intentional, caused by rivalries between Atari's comp
A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary function of a power supply is to convert electric current from a source to the correct voltage and frequency to power the load; as a result, power supplies are sometimes referred to as electric power converters. Some power supplies are separate standalone pieces of equipment, while others are built into the load appliances that they power. Examples of the latter include power supplies found in desktop computers and consumer electronics devices. Other functions that power supplies may perform include limiting the current drawn by the load to safe levels, shutting off the current in the event of an electrical fault, power conditioning to prevent electronic noise or voltage surges on the input from reaching the load, power-factor correction, storing energy so it can continue to power the load in the event of a temporary interruption in the source power. All power supplies have a power input connection, which receives energy in the form of electric current from a source, one or more power output connections that deliver current to the load.
The source power may come from the electric power grid, such as an electrical outlet, energy storage devices such as batteries or fuel cells, generators or alternators, solar power converters, or another power supply. The input and output are hardwired circuit connections, though some power supplies employ wireless energy transfer to power their loads without wired connections; some power supplies have other types of inputs and outputs as well, for functions such as external monitoring and control. Power supplies are categorized including by functional features. For example, a regulated power supply is one that maintains constant output voltage or current despite variations in load current or input voltage. Conversely, the output of an unregulated power supply can change when its input voltage or load current changes. Adjustable power supplies allow the output voltage or current to be programmed by mechanical controls, or by means of a control input, or both. An adjustable regulated power supply is one, both adjustable and regulated.
An isolated power supply has a power output, electrically independent of its power input. Power supplies are classified accordingly. A bench power supply is a stand-alone desktop unit used in applications such as circuit test and development. Open frame power supplies have only a partial mechanical enclosure, sometimes consisting of only a mounting base. Rack mount. An integrated power supply is one. An external power supply, AC adapter or power brick, is a power supply located in the load's AC power cord that plugs into a wall outlet; these are popular in consumer electronics because of their safety. Power supplies can be broadly divided into linear and switching types. Linear power converters process the input power directly, with all active power conversion components operating in their linear operating regions. In switching power converters, the input power is converted to AC or to DC pulses before processing, by components that operate predominantly in non-linear modes. Power is "lost" when components operate in their linear regions and switching converters are more efficient than linear converters because their components spend less time in linear operating regions.
A DC power supply is one. Depending on its design, a DC power supply may be powered from a DC source or from an AC source such as the power mains. DC power supplies use AC mains electricity as an energy source; such power supplies will employ a transformer to convert the input voltage to a higher or lower AC voltage. A rectifier is used to convert the transformer output voltage to a varying DC voltage, which in turn is passed through an electronic filter to convert it to an unregulated DC voltage; the filter removes most, but not all of the AC voltage variations. The electric load's tolerance of ripple dictates the minimum amount of filtering that must be provided by a power supply. In some applications, high ripple is tolerated and therefore no filtering is required. For example, in some battery charging applications it is possible to implement a mains-powered DC power supply with nothing more than a transformer and a single rectifier diode, with a resistor in series with the output to limit charging current.
In a switched-mode power supply, the AC mains input is directly rectified and filtered to obtain a DC voltage. The resulting DC voltage is switched on and off at a high frequency by electronic switching circuitry, thus producing an AC current that will pass through a high-frequency transformer or inductor. Switching occurs at a high frequency, thereby enabling the use of transformers and filter capacitors that are much smaller and less expensive than those found in linear power supplies operating at mains frequency. After the inductor or transformer secondary, the high frequency AC is rectified and filtered to pr
Central processing unit
A central processing unit called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic and input/output operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more to its processing unit and control unit, distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry; the form and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit chip. An IC that contains a CPU may contain memory, peripheral interfaces, other components of a computer; some computers employ a multi-core processor, a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores". Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. There exists the concept of virtual CPUs which are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources. Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". Since the term "CPU" is defined as a device for software execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer; the idea of a stored-program computer had been present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was omitted so that it could be finished sooner.
On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions of various types; the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task. With von Neumann's design, the program that EDVAC ran could be changed by changing the contents of the memory. EDVAC, was not the first stored-program computer. Early CPUs were custom designs used as part of a sometimes distinctive computer. However, this method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has given way to the development of multi-purpose processors produced in large quantities; this standardization began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit.
The IC has allowed complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in electronic devices ranging from automobiles to cellphones, sometimes in toys. While von Neumann is most credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, the design became known as the von Neumann architecture, others before him, such as Konrad Zuse, had suggested and implemented similar ideas; the so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, completed before EDVAC used a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory. The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
Most modern CPUs are von Neumann in design, but CPUs with the Harvard architecture are seen as well in embedded applications. Relays and vacuum tubes were used as switching elements; the overall speed of a system is dependent on the speed of the switches. Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the Harvard Mark I failed rarely. In the end, tube-based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded outweighed the reliability problems. Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs. Clock signal frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 4 MHz were common at this time, limited by the speed of the switching de
A coaxial RF connector is an electrical connector designed to work at radio frequencies in the multi-megahertz range. RF connectors are used with coaxial cables and are designed to maintain the shielding that the coaxial design offers. Better models minimize the change in transmission line impedance at the connection. Mechanically, they may provide a fastening mechanism and springs for a low ohmic electric contact while sparing the gold surface, thus allowing high mating cycles and reducing the insertion force. Research activity in the area of radio-frequency circuit design has surged in the 2000s in direct response to the enormous market demand for inexpensive, high-data-rate wireless transceivers. List of RF connector types Antenna socket Coaxial cable Category:Coaxial connectors Optical fiber connector Common Coaxial Connectors RF Connectors For Upper Frequencies How To Use Coaxial Connectors For RF Applications RF connectors Summary of the main types and additional pages with details of each type mentioned
A heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels. In computers, heat sinks are used to cool central graphics processors. Heat sinks are used with high-power semiconductor devices such as power transistors and optoelectronics such as lasers and light emitting diodes, where the heat dissipation ability of the component itself is insufficient to moderate its temperature. A heat sink is designed to maximize its surface area in contact with the cooling medium surrounding it, such as the air. Air velocity, choice of material, protrusion design and surface treatment are factors that affect the performance of a heat sink. Heat sink attachment methods and thermal interface materials affect the die temperature of the integrated circuit. Thermal adhesive or thermal grease improve the heat sink's performance by filling air gaps between the heat sink and the heat spreader on the device.
A heat sink is made out of copper or aluminium. Copper is used because it has many desirable properties for thermally efficient and durable heat exchangers. First and foremost, copper is an excellent conductor of heat; this means. Aluminium heat sinks are used as a low-cost, lightweight alternative to copper heat sinks, have a lower thermal conductivity than copper. A heat sink transfers thermal energy from a higher temperature device to a lower temperature fluid medium; the fluid medium is air, but can be water, refrigerants or oil. If the fluid medium is water, the heat sink is called a cold plate. In thermodynamics a heat sink is a heat reservoir that can absorb an arbitrary amount of heat without changing temperature. Practical heat sinks for electronic devices must have a temperature higher than the surroundings to transfer heat by convection and conduction; the power supplies of electronics are not 100% efficient, so extra heat is produced that may be detrimental to the function of the device.
As such, a heat sink is included in the design to disperse heat. To understand the principle of a heat sink, consider Fourier's law of heat conduction. Fourier's law of heat conduction, simplified to a one-dimensional form in the x-direction, shows that when there is a temperature gradient in a body, heat will be transferred from the higher temperature region to the lower temperature region; the rate at which heat is transferred by conduction, q k, is proportional to the product of the temperature gradient and the cross-sectional area through which heat is transferred. Q k = − k A d T d x Consider a heat sink in a duct, it is assumed. Applying the conservation of energy, for steady-state conditions, Newton’s law of cooling to the temperature nodes shown in the diagram gives the following set of equations: Q ˙ = m ˙ c p, i n Q ˙ = T h s − T a i r, a v R h s where T a i r, a v = T a i r, i n + T a i r, o u t 2 Using the mean air temperature is an assumption, valid for short heat sinks; when compact heat exchangers are calculated, the logarithmic mean air temperature is used.
M ˙ is the air mass flow rate in kg/s. The above equations show that When the air flow through the heat sink decreases, this results in an increase in the average air temperature; this in turn increases the heat sink base temperature. And additionally, the thermal resistance of the heat sink will increase; the net result is a higher heat sink base temperature. The increase in heat sink thermal resistance with decrease in flow rate will be shown in this article; the inlet air temperature relates with the heat sink base temperature. For example, if there is recirculation of air in a product, the inlet air temperature is not the ambient air temperature; the inlet air temperature of the heat sink is therefore higher, which results in a higher heat sink base temperature. If there is no air flow around the heat sink, energy cannot be transferred. A heat sink is not a device with the "magical ability