click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

College Hill, Providence, Rhode Island

College Hill is a neighborhood in Providence, Rhode Island, one of six neighborhoods comprising the East Side of Providence and part of the College Hill Historic District. It is bounded by South and North Main Street to the west, Power Street to the south, Governor Street and Arlington Avenue to the east and Olney Street to the north. College Hill is home to Thayer Street, a shopping strip frequented by students in the Providence area. College Hill is the most affluent neighborhood in Providence, with a median family income of nearly three times that of the city as a whole. College Hill has been designated as one of the Great Places in America by the American Planning Association in 2011. College Hill became an example of Historic Preservation planning in 1959; the name refers to various major educational institutions established in the neighborhood: Brown University and Rhode Island School of Design, Pembroke College and the now relocated Bryant University. Prior to their development, the area was known as Prospect Hill.

The region was familiar to the local Wampanoag people when it was suggested that a refugee group expelled from the Plymouth Colony should settle upon a small hill on the right bank of the Seekonk River. Led by Roger Williams, after his 3-month winter encampment with Massasoit before escaping from Boston in Dec 1635, he and a small group of families bound together by religious faith arrived on the west side of the hill. After friendly agreement with chief sachems of the Narragansett Canonicus and Miantonomi, with providence aforethought and his group set camp. By 1644, Williams along with Chad Brown and the ancient settlement of Providence had taken root at College Hill. By the time of the American Revolution, the foot of the hill was densely populated with wharves, shops, public buildings, residential houses. Benefit Street was home to several hotels, including the Golden Ball Inn which hosted such guests as George Washington. In 1770, the college that became Brown University was moved to the old Brown farm and over the next century would expand.

In the nineteenth century, precious metals and jewellery trading drove much business on North Main Street, RISD was established in 1877. By the 1900s, Brown had begun expanding more aggressively, demolishing nearly 100 houses in the 1950s for a residential quadrangle area. In the post-war years, Providence went into a decline. Many of the neighborhood's more historic centers were in disrepair and were slated for demolition as part of urban renewal projects; the Providence Preservation Society intervened and the area is now home to one of the country's largest restored collections of 18th and 19th century Victorians and colonials. College Hill boasts architectural styles from the 18th century forward, including residences and institutional structures located along tree-lined streets with sidewalks; some of the elegant homes include the Georgian-style John Brown House built in 1786 and the Renaissance Revival Governor Henry Lippitt House built in 1865. Both are museums. College Hill has numerous churches built in the Baroque, Gothic, Greek Revival, Renaissance architectural styles.

The Fleur De Lys Studio is part of the collection of historic buildings on College Hill. This cultural institution is inspired by the half-timbered stucco houses of England; the Providence Athenaeum built in 1838 is one of the nation’s oldest libraries and is an example of Greek-Revival architecture. Benefit Street was Back Street in its colonial days. Coming into formation as a series of paths winding through backyards along the steep hillside, Back Street stretched across the land allotments of the original settlement parallel to the left bank Providence River, from Fox Point waterfront in the south to its terminus at North Main; as the area matured, the area was once home to both many wealthy business families in the 1700s, black Americans in the 1900s. Through the middle of the 20th century, the area nearer to the waterfront and Statehouse experienced a decline that remained until a 1970s rediscovery of historic structures along Benefit Street and on Aquidneck Island; these aged houses were occupied by Providence's early minority population and were subdivided into tenements.

These units were dilapidated and without adequate facilities and were targets for demolition under one of the city's proposed urban renewal projects. In part, due to the Providence Preservation Society's efforts, plans were changed and the area became one of the first urban renewal projects in the US' modern Urban Planning history, to encompass rehabilitation of vital historic fabric as opposed to demolition and new construction; as so many other historic buildings were lost such as the Roger Mowry Tavern, many structures from around the Providence area were relocated to Benefit street. Today, they form one of the best examples of Colonial and Federal period Architecture on the Continent. Nearly all of the buildings situated near historic Benefit Street have been rehabilitated in some form. Preservation guidelines ensure that period specific new construction can be weaved into the existing collection of buildings; as the area is home to one of the finest cohesive collections of restored 18th- and 19th-century architecture in the United States the College Hill neighborhood experiences significant infrastructure and building reinvestment dollars compared to other regions throughout the state.

An urban renewal and revitalization project was demonstrated by the Providence Preservation Society in 1959. The society's report, authored by preservationist Antoinette Downing and titled College Hill: A Demonstration Study of Historic Area Renewal, contained an inventory of properties and developed a historic area z

Peggy van Praagh

Dame Margaret "Peggy" van Praagh, DBE was a British ballet dancer, teacher, producer and director, who spent much of her career in Australia. Peggy van Praagh was born in London and was of Dutch and English descent, her father, Harold John van Praagh, was a British physician with a Jewish background and her mother was Ethel Louise née Shanks. She was educated at King Alfred School, London where she meet A. S. Neill who influenced her passion for dance through artistic thinking and creativity which aided her in the dance community. Throughout the course her schooling, she was involved in a series of productions, she began dancing early in London at the age of 4. One review stated: "At last night's concert a dainty extra was a charming dance by little Peggy van Praagh... Peggy is only six but she is quite a clever little artiste and is booked again for Saturday's matinee by request."Late in 1929, van Praagh was offered a two-week position at a small company formed by Anton Dolin. Despite the brief engagement, it allowed her to become a student of Margaret Craske where she studied mime with Tamara Karsavina, repertoire with Lydia Sokolova, modern expressionist dance with Gertrud Bodenwieser and ballet history with Cyril W. Beaumont.

Van Praagh joined Ballet Rambert in 1933. She danced with Antony Tudor's London Ballet. Van Praagh performed in some of Tudor's ballets such as Jardin aux Lilas, Dark Elegies, Gala Performance, Soirée musicale and The Planets. In the early years of World War II, she was involved in staging lunch time ballet shows called Ballet for a Bob, which attracted large audiences of civilian and military personnel. In 1941, she was employed by Ninette de Valois to teach company classes for Sadler's Wells Ballet, although van Praagh danced in a number of company productions including Les Patineurs and Coppelia in which she danced the leading role of Swanilda. In 1945, van Praagh became a teacher at the Sadler's Wells Ballet School, she worked there until 1956. During this time she maintained a fruitful association with choreographer Antony Tudor. From 1956 until 1960 she undertook freelance teaching and producing in Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands and the US. In 1959, on the recommendation of Ninette de Valois, van Praagh was appointed Artistic Director of the Borovansky Ballet in 1960.

Following the demise of the Borovansky Ballet in 1961 and its subsequent reformation as Australian Ballet, she became its founding artistic director in 1962, where she remained until 1974, was invited back again for the 1978 season. From 1965–1974, van Praagh held the position jointly with Sir Robert Helpmann. Under van Praagh's direction, the Australian Ballet made the first of many overseas tours, developed a repertoire of ballets that included works from the established international repertoire as well as commissioned works from Australian and overseas choreographers, hosted guest appearances by a number of notable dancers including Sonia Arova, Erik Bruhn, Dame Margot Fonteyn and Rudolf Nureyev. While with the Australian Ballet, she nurtured the development of Australian choreographers including Graeme Murphy, Ian Spink, John Meehan and Leigh Warren. Marilyn Rowe, a protégé of van Praagh, Director of the Australian Ballet School said of her mentor: "Peggy had a five point plan for the development of the Australian Ballet:" A company of dancers engaged on annual contracts.

Such contracts were heretofore unknown, A repertoire of established classics together with the best works by contemporary choreographers and composers To present, as guest artists, the world's best dancers and teachers To tour the company internationally To establish a national ballet school" Van Praagh was an advocate for dance education. During her career in Australia, along with Bernard James of the University of New England's continuing education program, she was instrumental in organising a series of summer schools in dance that had a long-lasting influence on dance in Australia, she helped establish the advocacy body, Ausdance. In 1982, van Praagh was coordinator of dance studies at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Perth. On 15 January 1990, she died in Melbourne, she was inducted into the Hall of Fame at the 2000 Australian Dance Awards. She was inducted into the Victorian Honour Roll of Women in 2001. Sexton, Christopher, "Peggy van Praagh – A life of dance", South Melbourne, 1985 Van Praagh, How I became a ballet dancer, London, 1954 Van Praagh, Ballet in Australia, Melbourne, 1965 Van Praagh, The arts in Australia – Ballet, Melbourne, 1966 Van Praagh and Peter Brinson, The choreographic art.

Nuisance in English law

Nuisance in English law is an area of tort law broadly divided into two torts. Both torts have been present from the time of Henry III, being affected by a variety of philosophical shifts through the years which saw them become first looser and far more stringent and less protecting of an individual's rights; each tort requires the claimant to prove that the defendant's actions caused interference, unreasonable, in some situations the intention of the defendant may be taken into account. A significant difference is that private nuisance does not allow a claimant to claim for any personal injury suffered, while public nuisance does. Private nuisance has received a range of criticism, with academics arguing that its concepts are poorly defined and open to judicial manipulation, its chapter lies neglected in the standard works, little changed over the years, its modest message overwhelmed by the excitements to be found elsewhere in tort. Any sense of direction which may have existed in the old days is long gone".

In addition, it has been claimed that the tort of private nuisance has "lost its separate identity as a strict liability tort and been assimilated in all but name into the fault-based tort of negligence", that private and public nuisance "have little in common except the accident of sharing the same name". The tort of nuisance has existed since the reign of Henry III, with few changes, most of them technical, it came from the Latin nocumentum, the French nuisance, with Henry de Bracton defining the tort of nuisance as an infringement of easements. The tort was in line with the economic status quo of the time, protecting claimants against their neighbours' rights to develop land, thus has been described as "rural and conservative". There were four remedies for nuisance; this was because it was far faster than the other writs and actions, unlike them did not require that both parties be freeholders. It was, limited to damages, unlike the other remedies did not allow for abatement. By the 17th century the judicial philosophy had changed to allow the protection of a claimant's enjoyment of their land, with the duty being on the party that caused the nuisance to prevent it: "as every man is bound to look to his cattle, as to keep them out of his neighbour's ground.

During the 19th century and the Industrial Revolution, the law of nuisance changed. In reaching these decisions the courts "effectively emasculated the Law of Nuisance as a useful curb on industrial pollution". In St Helen's Smelting Co v Tipping, for example, several judges "were explicit in suggesting that they were affected by the adverse effect of a more draconian view on the economic welfare of the country's industrial cities"; this contrasted with the previous view, that when liability was established for a case where the defendant's actions had interfered with the enjoyment of land, the defendant would be liable however trivial the interference. The decisions reached during this period vary, however due to the differing judicial philosophies of the time. While A. V. Dicey maintained that the prevalent philosophy was one of laissez faire thanks to the influence of philosophers and economists such as Adam Smith, Michael W. Flinn asserted that: Another common error... has been the assumption that the classical economists were the only effective influence on social and economic policy in the early and mid-nineteenth century.

This is a curiously perverse view, since it ignores powerful voices like those of Bentham, the social novelists, many by no means inarticulate members of the medical profession, the humanitarians, the Christian Socialists and most sections of the many working class movements. There was in short, nothing approaching a consensus of opinion concerning laissez-faire and state intervention in the narrow social sector represented by governments and the press. In practice the ears of ministers were assaulted by a confused babble of voices rather than bewitched by the soft whisper of a single plea for inaction. 19th-century legislation included: Nuisances Removal Act 1860 Nuisances Removal Act for England Act 1863 Smoke Nuisance Act 1865 Nuisances Removal Act 1866. The legislation recognised that diseased meat could cause sickness and needed to be removed from sale. In 1864 William Johnstone, a "wholesale pork pie manufacturer and sausage roll maker", was fined £15, under the 1863 Act, for having on his premises a large quantity of meat unsound and unfit for food.

Private nuisance was defined in Bamford v Turnley, where George Wilshere, 1st Baron Bramwell defined it as

Metal Is Forever – The Very Best of Primal Fear

Metal is Forever, is the first best-of album released by the German power metal group Primal Fear. Remastered by Achim Köhler at Indiscreet Studios - Germany "Metal Is Forever" - 4:46 "Chainbreaker" - 4:39 "Seven Seals" - 3:54 "Nuclear Fire" - 4:23 "Final Embrace" - 5:08 "The Healer" - 6:40 "Rollercoaster" - 4:28 "Armageddon" - 4:05 "Angel in Black" - 3:58 "Under Your Spell" - 5:36 "Evil Spell" - 4:32 "Running in the Dust" - 4:37 "Suicide and Mania" - 4:03 "Iron Fist in a Velvet Glove" - 5:17 "Fear" - 4:20 "Tears of Rage" - 6:47 Bonus CD "Metal Classics": classic cover songs, only in European edition. "Out in the Fields" - 3:57 "Kill the King" - 4:32 "Speed King" - 3:59 "Die Young" - 4:05 "Metal Gods" - 3:37 "Breaker" - 3:29 "Seek and Destroy" - 7:10 "2 Minutes to Midnight" - 6:01 "The Rover" - 4:46 Ralf Scheepers - vocals Tom Naumann - guitar Stefan Leibing - guitar/keyboards Mat Sinner - bass guitar/vocals Randy Black - drums Klaus Sperling - drums Henny Wolter - guitars

Dub Jones (American football)

William Augustus "Dub" Jones is a former American football halfback who played ten seasons in the National Football League and the old All-America Football Conference in the late 1940s and early 1950s for the Cleveland Browns. He shares the NFL record for touchdowns scored with six. Jones was born into an athletic family in Louisiana and played a variety of sports, including football, at his high school in Ruston; the team won the state championship in his senior year. Jones attended Louisiana State University on a scholarship for a year before being transferred to Tulane University in New Orleans as part of a World War II-era U. S. Navy training program, he played football at Tulane for two seasons before joining the Miami Seahawks of the new AAFC in 1946. The Seahawks traded Jones at the end of the 1946 season to the AAFC's Brooklyn Dodgers, who subsequently sent him to the Browns before the 1948 season; that year, the Browns won all of the AAFC championship. The team repeated as champions in 1949, but the AAFC dissolved at the end of the year and the Browns joined the NFL.

A tall flanker back, both a running and receiving threat, Jones was a key part of Browns teams that won NFL championships in 1950, 1954 and 1955. He was twice named to the Pro Bowl, the NFL's all-star game, including in 1951, when he set his touchdown record. Jones retired after the 1955 season, but returned to the Browns as an assistant coach in 1963; the Browns won the NFL championship the following year. Jones left football for good in 1968 and went back to Ruston, where he worked with one of his sons in a general contracting business. Jones is a member of the Louisiana Sports Hall of Fame and the Greater New Orleans Sports Hall of Fame. Jones was born in Arcadia, but moved with his mother and three brothers to nearby Ruston, Louisiana after his father died when he was three years old, he played Little League Baseball as a child and went to watch boxing matches and baseball and football games at the nearby Louisiana Tech University. Jones attended Ruston High School starting in 1938, played football under head coach L.

J. "Hoss" Garrett. He was small in stature and did not make the first team until his senior year in 1941. Ruston's Bearcats football team won its first-ever state championship that year, with Jones playing left halfback and tailback. Jones played baseball and basketball and boxed in high school. After graduating, Jones got a scholarship to attend Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, where one of his brothers played football, he stayed there for a year before joining the U. S. Navy as American involvement in World War II intensified; the Navy transferred him to a V-12 training program at Tulane University in New Orleans, where he played as a halfback and a safety in 1943 and 1944. Jones carried the football for a total of 700 yards of rushing and scored four touchdowns in 1944, his junior year, was named an All-American and an All-Southeastern Conference player by sportswriters, he trained as a fireman aboard submarines while in the Navy, in 1945 he played football for a military team at the Naval Submarine Base New London in New London, Connecticut.

Before beginning his professional career, he played in the 1946 Chicago College All-Star Game, a now-defunct annual contest between the National Football League champion and a squad of the country's best college players. Led by quarterback and future teammate Otto Graham, the college players beat the Los Angeles Rams 16–0 that year. Jones was selected by the Chicago Cardinals of the National Football League with the second pick in the 1946 NFL Draft, but did not sign with the team as he pondered returning to LSU to finish his studies; when the Miami Seahawks of the new All-America Football Conference offered him a $12,000 contract, however, he accepted it and joined the team. The Seahawks won just three games in 1946, the AAFC's first season of play, Jones was traded along with two other players to the Brooklyn Dodgers, another AAFC team, in December; the Seahawks, meanwhile and were moved to Baltimore after the season because of poor attendance and shaky finances. Jones played sparingly for the Dodgers in the last three games of the 1946 season, rushing for 62 yards on 19 carries.

The Dodgers traded for Jones in part to replace Glenn Dobbs – a star tailback in Brooklyn's single-wing offense – because Dobbs was suffering from injuries. Jones himself was hurt early in the 1947 season, when he was hit by Bill Willis of the Cleveland Browns. Injuries to his knee and clavicle forced him to sit out for several weeks, he broke his hand when he returned and had to play on defense for the rest of the season. Paul Brown, the head coach of the Browns, was impressed with Jones's defensive play for Brooklyn, traded away the rights to University of Michigan star Bob Chappuis to acquire him in June 1948. Jones began his career with the Browns as a defensive back, but was switched to halfback early in the 1948 season because his performance on defense wasn't up to Brown's standards. Jones played on offense alongside Graham, the team's quarterback, star fullback Marion Motley as the Browns won all of their games in 1948 and beat the Buffalo Bills for their third straight AAFC championship.

He ended. Over the next two seasons, Jones developed into a position he helped invent, he was both a running threat and a receiver – his tall stature was well-suited to receiving – and helped complement a passing attack that featured the Browns' two main ends, Dante Lavelli and Mac Speedie. Jones went in motion behind the line of scrimmage before the snap at a time when few players did so, causing confusion and mismatches on defense

Skagerak Arena

The Skagerak Arena is a football stadium located in Skien, Norway. It was called Odd Stadion, was built in 1923 as the home ground of Eliteserien club Odd; the stadium is referred to as Falkum, being situated in that area of Skien. The stadium has been undergoing an extensive redevelopment process, begun in November 2006, which produced a modern all-seater venue by April 2008. Part of the finance Odd needed for the project was obtained through the lease of the stadium's naming rights to the club's main sponsor since 1995, the Norwegian power company Skagerak Energi; the stadium will therefore be known as Skagerak Arena until at least 2017. The pitch has been rotated 90 degrees; as is common in Norway, the new surface is artificial. The old main stand is now an end stand, incorporated into the new structure as the only surviving feature of the old stadium. Three new two-tiered stands was completed between 2007 and 2008; the east and west stands has a capacity of 4,300 while the south end seats around 3,000.

Construction of the west stand had progressed far enough by April 2007 to allow spectators on the lower tier for the first home match of the season, on 15 April. Total capacity was at first 6,000 And increased throughout 2007; the old stadium had a capacity of about 8,600. The venue has hosted Norway national under-21 football team matches three times, playing 0–0 against Portugal on 9 May 1979, 2–1 against Romania on 18 August 1998 and 3–1 against Scotland on 19 August 2003. In a 2012 survey carried out by the Norwegian Players' Association among away-team captains, Skagerak Arena was ranked tenth amongst league stadiums, with a score of 3.07 on a scale from one to five. Skagerak Arena video and photos - Nordic Stadiums