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Colocasia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southeastern Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Some species are cultivated and naturalized in other tropical and subtropical regions. Common names include karkala ko ganu, elephant-ear, taro, dasheen, aloochi paane, hembu, chamadhumpa/chamagadda in Telugu, shavige gadde, kochu in Bengali and eddoe. Elephant-ear and cocoyam are used for some other large-leaved genera in the Araceae, notably Xanthosoma and Caladium; the generic name is derived from the ancient Greek word kolokasion, which in the Greek botanist Dioscorides meant the edible roots of both Colocasia esculenta and Nelumbo nucifera. It is thought that the edible roots of Colocasia esculenta have been cultivated in Asia for more than ten thousand years; the species Colocasia esculenta is an invasive species in wetlands along the American Gulf coast, where it threatens to displace native wetland plants. They are herbaceous perennial plants with a large corm on or just below the ground surface.

The leaves are large to large, 20–150 cm long, with a sagittate shape. The elephant's - ear plant gets its name from the leaves, which are shaped like shield; the plant reproduces by means of rhizomes, but it produces "clusters of two to five fragrant inflorescenes in the leaf axils". Like other members of the family, the plant contains an irritant which causes intense discomfort to the lips and throat; this acridity is caused in part by microscopic needle-like raphides of calcium oxalate monohydrate and in part by another chemical a protease. The acridity helps to deter herbivores from eating it, it must be processed by cooking, soaking or fermenting – sometimes along with an acid – before being eaten. SpeciesColocasia affinis Schott - Yunnan, Assam, Bangladesh, eastern Himalayas Colocasia antiquorum, sometimes considered a synonym of C. esculenta. Colocasia esculenta Schott - taro, elephant-ear, eddoe - native to southern China, the Indian subcontinent, Sumatra. – giant taro - southern China, Malaysia, western Indonesia Colocasia lihengiae C.

L. Long & K. M. Liu - Arunachal Pradesh, Yunnan Colocasia mannii Hook.f. - Assam, Nicobar Islands Colocasia menglaensis J. T. Yin, H. Li & Z. F. Xu - Yunnan, Myanmar, Vietnam Colocasia oresbia A. Hay - Bangladesh, Sabah Colocasia tonoimo A. Hay - UnknownFormerly placed hereSchismatoglottis calyptrata Zoll. & Moritzi Alocasia macrorrhizos G. Don Colocasia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Palpifer murinus and Palpifer sexnotatus. C. esculenta and other members of the genus are cultivated as ornamental plants, or for their edible corms, a traditional starch staple in many tropical areas. The plant can be grown in large containers, they are grown outside year-round in tropical areas. In temperate regions, they are planted out for the summer and dug up and stored over winter and with ventilation to prevent fungal infection, they can be grown in any temperature zone as long as the summer is warm. Growth is best at temperatures between 20 to 30 °C; the plants can be damaged.

The root tuber is planted close to the surface. The first signs of growth will appear in 1 to 3 weeks; the adult plant will need a minimum of at least 1 m2 of space for good growth. They do best in compost-rich soil and in shade, but will grow reasonably well in average soil provided it is moisture-retentive; the plants should not be left to go dry for too long. Periodic fertilisation with a common plant fertiliser will increase yields; the edible types are grown in the South Pacific and eaten like potatoes and known as taro, eddoe and dasheen. The leaves are boiled with coconut milk to make a soup, rich in iron. Poi, a Hawaiian dish, is made by boiling the starchy underground stem of the plant mashing it into a paste. In Cyprus, Colocasia has been in use since the time of the Roman Empire. Today it is known as kolokasi, it is cooked with celery and pork or chicken, in a tomato sauce in casserole. "Baby" kolokasi is called "poulles": after being fried dry, red wine and coriander seed are added, it is served with freshly squeezed lemon.

Some restaurants have begun serving thin slices of kolokasi deep fried, calling them "kolokasi chips". Both roots and leaves are eaten. In most of Northern India and Pakistan the root is called arbi. Common preparations include cooking with curry and boiling. In Mithalanchal, the leaf is curried. In Rohtas and Palamu, it is known as kachchu. In Gujarat, arvi leaves are used to make the dish patra. In Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, known as aravi ka patta, is used to make the dish sahina. Arvi is a popular dish among the Hindu community in South Africa, where it is known as patha. In Manipur, the leaves are used in the Meitei ethnic cuisine, locally known as utti; the leaves are

Sutton Trinity (ward)

Sutton Trinity is one of the 40 electoral wards in Birmingham, England. The ward is named after the town's parish church. Sutton Trinity is one of the four wards that make up the Parliamentary Constituency and formal district of Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham, it came following a Boundary Commission review of the city. The ward covers Sutton town centre and includes the neighbourhoods of Tudor Hill, New Hall Manor, Falcon Lodge, Whitehouse Common, Withy Hill, Little Sutton and Reddicap Heath, it covers an area of 4.60 square miles. According to the 2001 Population Census, there were 23,394 people living in 9,887 households in Sutton Trinity and 5.1% of the ward's population consists of ethnic minorities compared with 29.6% for Birmingham in general. Sutton Trinity, like all of Sutton Coldfield is dominated by the Conservative Party and is represented by three Conservative councillors: David Allan, David Pears and Keith Ward. Sutton Trinity has adopted a Ward Support Officer. Bishop Vesey's Grammar School for boys and Sutton Coldfield Grammar School for Girls are located within the ward.

Sutton Coldfield College, located next to Bishop Vesey's Grammar School, is a college of further education. A separate building owned by Sutton College, located opposite Holy Trinity Church, is in use as the media centre. Sutton Coldfield Library is located in Sutton Town Centre in the Rose Centre. Good Hope Hospital on the Rectory Road is the main hospital for the whole town. Sutton Coldfield railway station on the Cross-City Line serves the town centre. There are a number of bus services operated by National Express West Midlands that stop at the Parade in Sutton town centre. From 1879 until 1924, Sutton Coldfield was served by the Sutton Town railway station, as well as the LNWR-owned Sutton Coldfield railway station, it was forced to shut as a result of low passenger figures. The buildings still remain but as office buildings; the town is served by the Wyndley Leisure Centre, the largest leisure centre in Birmingham. It is used by local football teams for training. Birmingham City Council: Sutton Trinity Ward

Maria (1798 ship)

Maria was launched in 1798 at Gainsborough,upstream from Hull. She spent the first half of her career or so as a West Indiaman, she made two voyages to Australia transporting convicts. On the first of these voyages she transported women convicts to Port Jackson. On her second voyage she returned via Bombay, she is last listed in 1833. Convict voyage #1:: Captain Henry Williams sailed from England on 3 April 1818. Maria arrived at Port Jackson on 17 September, she suffered two deaths en route. In October she departed for England. Lloyd's Register shows her departing on 31 July 1820 for Bombay under a license from the EIC. There is a discrepancy between the name of the owner cited her and the name of the owner cited elsewhere in the volume. Furthermore, Maria was first sailing to Hobart, from there sailing to Bombay before returning to England. Convict voyage #2:: Captain Harris Walker sailed from England on 28 July 1820 and arrived at Hobart on 1 December 1820. Maria had embarked 156 male convicts and she suffered no convict deaths en route.

Citations References Bateson, Charles. The Convict Ships, 1787-1868. Brown, Son & Ferguson. OCLC 3778075. Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7

Traffic in Metro Manila

Traffic in Metro Manila, based on the 2015 Global Satisfaction conducted by Waze, Metro Manila has the "worst traffic on Southeast Asia". Based on the 2015 Census of population by the Philippine Statistics Authority, the urbanized cities of Metro Manila were listed as being some of the densest cities in the world. Emerson Carlos, MMDA assistant general manager for operation, mentioned that in 2015, the total motor vehicles registered in Metro Manila have peaked at 2.5 million. One of the primary causes of traffic density within Metro Manila is the current transportation infrastructure. Overall, there is a lack of quality infrastructure thus insufficient modes of mobility; the Duterte administration has promised that the coming years will be the, "golden age of infrastructure", with a record $168 billion to be spent on 5,000 projects across the nation”. The road network of Metro Manila consists of circumferential roads; these are the principal arteries within the city, however given the density of vehicles within the metropolis the roads have become inadequate.

"Metro Manila only has 1 km of road per 424 vehicles."Furthermore, the roads are of poor quality and do not receive maintenance. For example, in the scope of the entire country, "Of the 31,400 km of national roads in the system, only about 45% were assessed as being in good or fair condition in November 2011.” The poor quality of roads has made road-transportation inefficient. Furthermore, this has contributed to the increase in road accidents, which therefore affects both traffic congestion and public health; the current railways carry around 1.3 million passengers per day and spans 79 km in 4 different lines. In 1998, plans for a railway expansion were implemented however only 5 km of the planned 73 km was built; as such, there exists a lack of an adequate non-road-based public transportation system. This is made evident with the problem of overcrowding during peak hours. In Metro Manila, there exists a variety of road-based public transport, such as tricycles, taxis and jeepneys which are all owned.

While there is such a prevalence of these modes of transportation, these "account for more than 50% of daily commuting trips, incur no subsidy, with low productivity.” Meanwhile, "car travel accounts for 30% of person-km, but constitutes 72% of the road traffic in terms of PCU-km.” The high number of vehicles on the road, which could be attributed to the high population, is one of the contributors to traffic congestion. The layout of Metro Manila lacks intrinsic planning from the ground up; the poor design did not account for the density of the eventual propensity to vehicles. A classic example is the fact. Furthermore and policies that are meant to mitigate such poor design are not enforced properly; the urban area of Metro Manila experiences a high growth rate in population. Within the period of 2000-2001, the city experienced a rate of 1.8%. This growth rate is a result of the spillover of people from nearby towns and provinces; as the main hub of the Philippines, the influx of people is foreseeable yet the city has not taken such into account.

Thus, the urban planning of the city is not adequate. Statistics show that the city must "accommodate about an additional two million to six million by 2030.” Thus, if such trend continues, 224 persons per hectare is estimated. This high population thus calls for an appropriate transportation system to allow for mobility within the city. "Today, traffic demand is at 12.8 million trips in Metro Manila. Most of these trips are made using the public transport owing to its 69% share of total trips; the lesser share of the trips is done by private mode and yet it is this mode that takes up 78% of road space.” At the current state, the traffic volume within the metropolis exceeds the capacities of existing roads. The urban planning failed to bring into fruition a public transport system that could function in the dense, compact city of Metro Manila; the Roadmap for Transport Infrastructure for Metro Manila and its Surrounding Areas study by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in response to the National Economic Development request for assistance in creating a guide for transport development in Metro Manila, the two regions of Central Luzon and CALABARZON.

The guide was made to help NEDA deliberate on the contents of a short-term and a medium term transport investment program. For the short-term transport investment program, it takes the goals of the Philippine Development Plan for 2011 to 2016 and makes it into projects in the transport sector, it has invested as much as 5% of the GDP in infrastructure as one of the five key strategies to achieving the TRIP. A huge difference from the previous investing rate, as low as 2% of the GDP. Same study has found that during their research period, the Metro Manila traffic was costing the city and the people Php 2.4 billion per day in the year 2012. And, if no measures are undertaken, this transport cost can rise up to Php 6.0 billion per day in 2030. This is will be worst-case scenario in the increase of transport costs in Metro Manila and the areas of Bulacan, Rizal and Cavite if there will be no improvements done on the transport infrastructure of these areas and the Philippines overall. In Busina: Current State and Emerging Filipino Values on Metro Manila Traffic, Metro Manila is classified as a global power city.

This is because of majority of the industries present in the Philippines have located their offices in the National Capital Region. The city is where all the fore

MA-1 bomber jacket

The MA-1 bomber jacket is an American military jacket, developed in the 1950s. The MA-1 and its predecessor, the B-15 flight jacket, were developed and needed at that time because the emergence of the jet age created new requirements for pilot performance and comfort. Prior to the invention of jet aircraft, fleece-lined leather jackets were issued to flight personnel. However, the new jets could fly at much higher altitudes and in much colder temperatures than propeller aircraft. If the heavy, bulky leather jackets became wet from rain or from perspiration, the water would freeze at high altitudes, making the jackets cold and uncomfortable; the new jets were more streamlined in design. Cockpits were filled with new equipment. Speedy, unimpeded ingress and egress from cockpits became more critical for safety. Rather than bulky leather, a sleek, lightweight yet warm jacket was needed for the new jet technology. To meet these needs, a new type of flight jacket was developed from the existing B-15 jacket, produced in cotton, but produced in the same pattern but in high quality nylon.

The B-15 had a wool collar with pile carried over from the earlier B-10, found to interfere with straps in practice. Nylon had been discovered prior to World War II but it was not used in flight clothing until after the war because the demand for nylon for items such as parachutes consumed the available supply during the war; the first MA-1 jackets were issued to United States Air Navy pilots and flight crews. Small numbers were issued to Army flight personnel. MA-1 jackets first appeared in Europe in small quantities in the mid-to-late 1950s on the black market and at sales of government surplus. In 1963, Alpha Industries won the contract to manufacture the MA-1. More MA-1 jackets appeared in Europe as Alpha and Rothco began to export MA-1 jackets and other military clothing to European Air Forces and commercial customers; the MA-1 was designed by the United States Air Force to serve as an intermediate weight flight jacket for use all year. This was accomplished by manufacturing the MA-1 from high quality nylon fabrics and polyester interlinings.

The lightweight nylon design allowed the pilot to wear the jacket open and be comfortable in warm weather. Upon entering the aircraft, the pilot could zip the jacket closed and be afforded ample protection against the cold conditions encountered in flight; the MA-1 underwent design modifications during its long history of use but the classic functional design has remained the same. The original design was contained in United States government military specification "MIL-J-8279." Changes to the jacket were periodically made by the Air Force because of the introduction of new textiles, new sewing techniques or new aircraft cockpit design. The military specification was amended to reflect the changes, signaled by adding a letter to the Mil. Spec. For example, MA-1 specifications progressed from Mil-J-8279 to J-8279A J-8279B, J-8279C, et cetera; the most important revision, Mil-J-8279F, was issued in November 1978. The final revision before being phased out by the United States military is "Mil-J-8279G" and "Mil-J-8279G AMENDMENT-1", introduced in March 1988 and October 1990 respectively.

These two final revisions were designated for ground crew only as fire-resistant CWU-36/P and CWU-45/P were issued to aircrew. The MA-1 was produced in midnight blue and sage green. Blue was the original color used by the military. During the Korean War, mixing flight clothing from multiple time periods and colors was not unusual; the green was adopted because it blended more with the environment should the pilot need camouflage protection on the ground. During the Vietnam War, there were variant commercial copies of MA-1 in camouflage pattern which were purchased by American servicemen. While no longer issued by the United States military, it remains popular among many United States-allied armed forces. MA-1 jackets have become fashionable worldwide in the United States and the United Kingdom. Many American clothing manufacturers military contractors now produce a variety of colors in addition to the traditional; because the MA-1 Jacket not only keeps the wearer warm, but is comfortable, the jacket is popular in Europe and Australia during winter.

The jacket is worn in North America, where it is known as a bomber jacket in areas with cold weather. These jackets became popular in the late 1970s with punks and skinheads. During the 1980s the jackets had extensive exposure in style magazines such as The Face and i-D reimagined by clothes designers of the time; the MA-1 is in use in several police forces where cold weather is a part of everyday life. They were chosen over several other designs for the sturdy construction, the heavy insulation needed in cold temperatures; the iconic jacket has been featured in films, television shows and a novel: Steve McQueen wore one in his final film performance, The Hunter. Richard Dean Anderson wore one in several episodes of MacGyver, season 4. Sean Penn wore a sage green MA-1. Michael Douglas wore one in the film Basic Instinct. Kiefer Sutherland, as Jack Bauer, wore one in 24. Cayce Pollard wore a black MA-1 in the 2003 science fiction novel Pattern Recognition, in which author William Gibson wrote the

Haliotis glabra

Haliotis glabra called glistening abalone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Haliotidae, the abalones. The homonym Haliotis glabra Swainson, 1822 is a synonym of Haliotis laevigata Donovan, 1808. Haliotis glabra Chemnitz, 1788 is unavailable. Haliotis glabra Schubert & Wagner, 1829 is a synonym of Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814; the size of the shell varies between 55 mm. "The oval, depressed shell is marked with arrow-shaped green spots on a lighter ground. The surface is nearly smooth; the six to eight small perforations are small. Their edges not raised; the shell is oval or elliptical,with the right and left sides curved. The small spire is lateral; the ground color is whitish-green and marked all over with triangular or arrow-shaped spots of green or olive. The surface is smooth, except for light growth striae and narrow impressed spiral lines. There are a few narrow raised striae between the row of the columellar margin; the inner surface is iridescent. The columellar plate is flat, wide above becoming narrower toward its base.

The cavity of the spire is concealed." " This marine species occurs off the Philippines and Northern Australia. Geiger D. L. & Poppe G. T.. A Conchological Iconography: The family Haliotidae. Conchbooks, Hackenheim Germany. 135pp 83pls. Geiger D. L. & Owen B. Abalone: Worldwide Haliotidae. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. Viii + 361 pp. page: 9 "Haliotis glabra". Retrieved 16 January 2019