Cologne Cathedral is a Catholic cathedral in Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the seat of of the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne, it is a renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and was declared a World Heritage Site in 1996. It is Germany's most visited landmark, attracting an average of 20,000 people a day. At 157 m, the cathedral is the tallest twin-spired church in the world, the second tallest church in Europe after Ulm Minster, the third tallest church in the world, it has the second-tallest spires. The towers for its two huge spires give the cathedral the largest façade of any church in the world; the choir has the largest height to 3.6:1, of any medieval church. Construction of Cologne Cathedral was halted in 1473, unfinished. Work did not restart until the 1840s, the edifice was completed to its original Medieval plan in 1880. Cologne's medieval builders had planned a grand structure to house the reliquary of the Three Kings and fit its role as a place of worship for the Holy Roman Emperor.
Despite having been left incomplete during the medieval period, Cologne Cathedral became unified as "a masterpiece of exceptional intrinsic value" and "a powerful testimony to the strength and persistence of Christian belief in medieval and modern Europe". When construction began on the present Cologne Cathedral in 1248 with foundation stone, the site had been occupied by several previous structures; the earliest may have been for grain storage and was succeeded by a Roman temple built by Mercurius Augustus. From the 4th century on, the site was occupied by Christian buildings, including a square edifice known as the "oldest cathedral", commissioned by Maternus, the first bishop of Cologne. A free-standing baptistery dating back to the 7th century was located at the east end of the present cathedral but was demolished in the 9th century to build the second cathedral. During excavations of the present cathedral, graves were discovered in the location of the oldest portion of the building. Both graves are thought to be from the 6th century.
Only ruins of the baptistery and the octagonal baptismal font remain today. The second church, called the "Old Cathedral", was completed in 818, it was destroyed by fire on 30 April 1248, during demolition work. In 1164, the Archbishop of Cologne, Rainald of Dassel, acquired the relics of the Three Kings which the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, had taken from the Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, Italy; the relics drew pilgrims from all over Christendom. It was important to church officials that they be properly housed, thus began a building program in the new style of Gothic architecture, based in particular on the French cathedral of Amiens; the foundation stone was laid on 15 August 1248, by Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden. The eastern arm was completed under the direction of Master Gerhard, was consecrated in 1322 and sealed off by a temporary wall so it could be used as the work continued. Eighty-four misericords in the choir date from this building phase. In the mid 14th century work on the west front commenced under Master Michael.
This work ceased in 1473, leaving the south tower complete to the belfry level and crowned with a huge crane that remained in place as a landmark of the Cologne skyline for 400 years. Some work proceeded intermittently on the structure of the nave between the west front and the eastern arm, but during the 16th century this stopped. With the 19th century romantic enthusiasm for the Middle Ages, spurred by the discovery of the original plan for the façade, it was decided, with the commitment of the Protestant Prussian Court, to complete the cathedral, it was achieved by civic effort. The state saw this as a way to improve its relations with the large number of Catholic subjects it had gained in 1815. Work resumed in 1842 to the original design of the surviving medieval plans and drawings, but utilizing more modern construction techniques, including iron roof girders; the nave was completed and the towers were added. The bells were installed in the 1870s; the largest bell is St. Petersglocke; the completion of Germany's largest cathedral was celebrated as a national event on 14 August 1880, 632 years after construction had begun.
The celebration was attended by Emperor Wilhelm I. With a height of 157.38 metres, it was the tallest building in the world for four years until the completion of Washington Monument. The cathedral suffered fourteen hits by aerial bombs during World War II. Badly damaged, it remained standing in an otherwise flattened city; the twin spires were an recognizable navigational landmark for Allied aircraft bombing. On 6 March 1945, an area west of the cathedral was the site of intense combat between American tanks of the 3rd Armored Division and a Panther Ausf. A of Panzer brigade 106 Feldherrnhalle; the Panther knocked out a Sherman, killing three men, before it was destroyed by a T26E3 Pershing hours later. Footage of that battle survives; the destroyed Panther was put on display at the base of the cathedral for the remainder of the war in Europe. Repairs of the war damage were
Koingo Software, established in 1994, is a Canadian corporation that designs and distributes software for both Macintosh and Windows. Presently, the business develops a mix of 8 shareware and freeware applications, most of which are available for the Macintosh and Windows. Except for a few games in the past, the majority of the titles have been geared towards personal time, data and information management such as for home inventory, scheduling and data storage, digital anti-theft monitoring and protection. Koingo Software branded its productions under both the Koingo Games and Pain Games titles; these products included titles such as Rocket Launch, Sewer Trouble, Valley of the Vampire which were black and white HyperCard adventure games. In 1999, the business began developing products in REALbasic; these new products, such as Alarm Clock Pro, Password Retriever, Contact Keeper, not being games, the organization rebranded itself as Koingo Software. Koingo acquired Calgary, Canada-based business Kallaxa Software and added their software products to its line-up in 2015.
In December 2012, founder Josh Hoggan took a leave of absence from the company for five years to pursue other business ventures such as starting his online travel blog on Instagram "adventure.josh" and adventurejosh.com. Upon his return, Koingo gave away a new MacBook to one of the adventure.josh followers on March 1, 2017. With his return, Koingo shortly thereafter released a massive overhaul of their flagship application MacPilot, bringing it to version 9, with promises of doing the same for MacCleanse. Koingo Software has played an active role in the Macintosh community by donating licenses to Macintosh User Groups, participating in third-party giveaways and discounts with sites like MacZot and MacHeist. In 2006 through part of 2007, Koingo Software gave away 10,881 copies of their MacPilot application to all users renewing or signing up for a VersionTracker membership; the largest joint venture undertaken was the coupling of Koingo Software's Utility Package with MacUpdate's 2008 back-to-school bundle.
That year, the businesses offered Koingo Software's MacPilot in the 2008 Christmas Holiday Bundle. MacWorld's Editor's Choice: Alarm Clock Pro MacWorld Editor's Review: MacPilot MacWorld Editor's Review: AirRadar MacAddict Magazine Feature for Alarm Clock Pro, April 2004 Issue C|Net: Alarm Clock Pro Editor's Review C|Net: MacPilot Editor's Review The Spinning Beachball: MacPilot Review AirRadarScan for wireless networks, provides detailed information such as encryption type, noise, ad-hoc status, pbcc flag, channel, MAC address, beacon interval. Alarm Clock ProSchedule tasks such as playing multimedia files, running system scripts and sending e-mails, pinging web URLs, sending text messages and taking web cam and screenshots on a schedule or by timer. Data GuardianThe successor to Password Retriever. Allows the secure storage of data into a 448-bit blowfish encrypted database. Digital SentryMonitor a system for special events, perform various actions in responseDisplay MaestroAccess all display resolutions and bit depthsLibrarian ProInteracting with Amazon, automatically downloads product details based on UPC or ISBN to create a home inventory.
Items can be marked out. MacCleanseErases caches, recent file histories, browser histories. MacPilotPresents a graphical front-end for many advanced UNIX commands; the following applications have been discontinued: Alarm Clock Blaze Contact Keeper E-Mail Commander File Sheriff Font Pilot Gallery Designer MacPilot Lite Magick 8 Ball Mystery Island Password Retriever PTE Robo Postman Swift Share Slideshow Magic Murder Mystery Rocket Launch Rocket Launch II Sewer Trouble Captain Comic Character Creator Crime City Movie 2000 New York Blast Out Slime House Super Dice Valley of the Vampire Official website
Atlanship SA, founded in 1982, is a Swiss shipping company that specializes in transporting refrigerated fresh and concentrated orange juice. It is headquartered in Switzerland with a representative office in Rotterdam, they provide full ship management services. Atlanship operational areas include South America, the United States and Korea. In 2011 the Croatian shipyard Brodosplit, in the Adriatic port of Split, delivered the biggest orange juice carrier to Atlanship SA. Orange Star is 190 metres long and 32 wide, has a capacity of 35,750 tonnes; this giant juice tanker is the replacement vessel for the old Orange Star, in service from 1975 to 2010 and sold for scrap in India. "Train Crew In BRM"