The Westerwald is a low mountain range on the right bank of the River Rhine in the German federal states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia. It is a part of the Rhenish Massif and its highest elevation, at 657 m above sea level, is the Fuchskaute in the High Westerwald. Tourist attractions include the Dornburg, site of some Celtic ruins from La Tène times, found in the community of the name, and Limburg an der Lahn. The geologically old, heavily eroded range of the Westerwald is in its northern parts overlaid by a volcanic upland made of Neogene basalt layers. It covers an area of some 50 ×70 km, and thereby roughly 3000 km², in areas of subsidence, it has in its flatter western part the characteristics of rolling hills. Despite its relatively slight elevation, the Westerwald has for a low mountain range a typical agreeable climate and culturally, it belongs among Germany’s best known mountain ranges. Only since the mid 19th century has the name come into usage for the whole range.
The High Westerwald has since the Middle Ages formed the heart of the Herrschaft zum Westerwald and this comprised the three court districts of Marienberg and Neukirch. The Lordship fell under the governance of the Lordship or County of Beilstein, in its centre lie Bad Marienberg and Hachenburg. Geomorphologically, the Westerwald belongs to the Rhenish Massif, which forms the part of that range’s eastern half on the Rhine’s right bank. The subsidence areas found within are known for their clay deposits, the name for this small region is the Kannenbäckerland, or “Jug Bakers’ Land”, a reference to the traditional ceramics industry here. In the southwest, in the richly wooded Montabaur Heights is found a monadnock made of quartzite, the Siebengebirge joining the range in the northwest near Bonn is, regionally grouped with the Middle Rhine area. To the south, as part of the Lahn valley, the hilly Limburg Basin abuts the Upper Westerwald, hoher Westerwald, The High Westerwald is an undulating and basalt-rich tableland decked with woodlands that has a distinctly agreeable climate, and elevations ranging from roughly 450 to 657 m.
Here is found the Fuchskaute, the Westerwald’s highest peak, district seats in the Westerwald are, Altenkirchen and Neuwied. Furthermore, the Lahn-Dill-Kreis, the Mayen-Koblenz district, the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis, if Sieg is taken as the Westerwald’s northernmost limit, the Rhein-Sieg district likewise belongs here, at least in parts. The Westerwald and its edges are crossed by stretches of Bundesstraßen 8,42,49,54,62,255,256,277,413 and 414, over which there are connections to the Autobahnen A3, A45. Several railway lines lead through the Westerwald, among them the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line with stops in Montabaur. Moreover, the Westerwald can be reached by air through the Siegerland Airport, the Devonian bedrock is covered by volcanic masses from the Tertiary, particularly basalt and tuffs
Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure, Pressure may be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure, the atmosphere is equal to this pressure and the torr is defined as 1⁄760 of this. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, Pressure is the amount of force acting per unit area. The symbol for it is p or P, the IUPAC recommendation for pressure is a lower-case p. However, upper-case P is widely used. The usage of P vs p depends upon the field in one is working, on the nearby presence of other symbols for quantities such as power and momentum. Mathematically, p = F A where, p is the pressure, F is the normal force and it relates the vector surface element with the normal force acting on it. It is incorrect to say the pressure is directed in such or such direction, the pressure, as a scalar, has no direction.
The force given by the relationship to the quantity has a direction. If we change the orientation of the element, the direction of the normal force changes accordingly. Pressure is distributed to solid boundaries or across arbitrary sections of normal to these boundaries or sections at every point. It is a parameter in thermodynamics, and it is conjugate to volume. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, equal to one newton per square metre and this name for the unit was added in 1971, before that, pressure in SI was expressed simply in newtons per square metre. Other units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch, the CGS unit of pressure is the barye, equal to 1 dyn·cm−2 or 0.1 Pa. Pressure is sometimes expressed in grams-force or kilograms-force per square centimetre, but using the names kilogram, kilogram-force, or gram-force as units of force is expressly forbidden in SI. The technical atmosphere is 1 kgf/cm2, since a system under pressure has potential to perform work on its surroundings, pressure is a measure of potential energy stored per unit volume.
It is therefore related to density and may be expressed in units such as joules per cubic metre. Similar pressures are given in kilopascals in most other fields, where the prefix is rarely used
Clay is a fine-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to water content and become hard, brittle. Depending on the content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many naturally occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in size and other physical properties. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists often use 4–5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils Atterberg limits, ISO14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silt particles as being larger. These solvents, usually acidic, migrate through the rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of deposits and secondary. Primary clays form as residual deposits in soil and remain at the site of formation, secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with very low energy depositional environments such as large lakes. Depending on the source, there are three or four main groups of clays, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a group within the phyllosilicates.
There are approximately 30 different types of clays in these categories. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion. This type of deposit is common in glacial lakes
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
It is a medium-sized town and the largest in the district of Heinsberg in North Rhine-Westphalia. Despite the town having more than 1,000 years of history and tradition and this is planned to be in operation until 2045. Over five thousand people from ten villages have had to be resettled as a result, since 2010, the inhabitants of the easternmost village of Pesch have left and most have moved to the new villages of Immerath and Borschemich in the areas of Kückhoven and Erkelenz-Nord. The area is characterised by the rolling to almost level countryside of the Jülich-Zülpich Börde. Settlements and roads cover about 20 per cent of the area of the borough, the Wahnenbusch, the largest contiguous wooded area, is located south of the town of Tenholt and covers 25 hectares. In the north the börde gives way to the forests and waterways of the Schwalm–Nette-Plateau, in the west on the far side of the town, lies the Rur depression, some 30 to 60 metres lower. Its transition is part of the Baal Riedelland, streams have created a richly varying landscape of hills and valleys.
In the east is the region of the River Niers near Kuckum. To the south the land climbs up towards the Jackerath loess ridge, the lowest point lies at 70 metres above sea level and the highest point is 110 metres above NN. The climate is influenced by the Atlantic Gulf Stream at the crossover between maritime and continental climates, the prevailing winds are from the southwest and there is precipitation all year round. Annual precipitation amounts to about 710 millimetres, whereby August is the wettest, summers are warm and winters mild. In July the average temperature is 19 °C and, in January,3 °C, the onset of spring, which is reckoned from the budding of cherry and pear trees, occurs between 29 April and 5 May. High summer, which begins with the harvest of winter rye, the Erkelenz Börde is the northernmost extent of the Jülich Börde and is formed from a loess plateau that has an average thickness of over eleven metres in this area. Beneath it are the gravels and sands of the ice age terrace, laid down by the Rhine.
Embedded in the loess in places are lenses of marl that were mined until the 20th century in order to obtain lime by driving shafts, in the Tertiary period the Erkelenz horst was formed along geological fault lines. East of the horst runs the Venlo fault block, to the west is the Rur Scholle, to the south the Erft Scholle, a small section of the horst is part of the Wassenberg Horst. Thick seams of coal from the Tertiary and of black coal from the Carboniferous are located underground. The Erkelenz Horst is part of the Cologne Lowland Earthquake Region, the towns administrative territory, or borough, is 20 kilometres across from east to west and 11 km from north to south
The largest city on the river Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s. The Rhine and the Danube formed most of the inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days. The many castles and fortifications along the Rhine testify to its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire, in the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism. The variant of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-. The Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- to move, run, the grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as masculine or feminine, the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in Rhine-kilometers, a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland.
The river length is shortened from the rivers natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century. The total length of the Rhine, to the inclusion of Lake Constance and its course is conventionally divided as follows, The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein near Tamins-Reichenau. Above this point is the catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine. It belongs almost exclusively to the Swiss Canton of Graubünden, ranging from Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Vorderrhein and the Rhine as a whole. The Hinterrhein rises in the Rheinwald valley below Mount Rheinwaldhorn, the Vorderrhein, or Anterior Rhine, springs from Lai da Tuma, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide. A multiday trekking route is signposted along the young Rhine called Senda Sursilvana, the Hinterrhein/Rein Posteriur, or Posterior Rhine, starts from the Paradies Glacier, near the Rheinwaldhorn.
One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory, after three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau. The Vorderrhein arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva, one source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, which is usually indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it. Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Reno di Medel, the Rein da Maighels, and the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the Canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, all streams in the source area are partially, sometimes completely and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants. In its lower course the Vorderrhein flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta through the Flims Rockslide, the whole stretch of the Vorderrhein to the Rhine confluence near Reichenau-Tamins is accompanied by a long-distance hiking trail called Senda Sursilvana
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery, the North Sea was the centre of the Vikings rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus the access to the markets, as Germanys only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geological and geographical features, in the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south it consists primarily of sandy beaches and wide mudflats.
Due to the population, heavy industrialization, and intense use of the sea and area surrounding it. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean, in the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea, the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed.
Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas, for the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to a north of Bergen. It is between 20 and 30 kilometres wide and has a depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris and this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms. These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate, the Devils Hole lies 200 miles east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long,1 and 2 kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Cleaver Bank, Fisher Bank, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows, On the Southwest
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat. It is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its low heat content. It has a carbon content around 60–70 percent and it is mined all around the world and is used almost exclusively as a fuel for steam-electric power generation, but is mined for its germanium content in China. The energy content of lignite ranges from 10 to 20 MJ/kg on a moist, the energy content of lignite consumed in the United States averages 15 MJ/kg, on the as-received basis. The energy content of lignite consumed in Victoria, averages 8.4 MJ/kg, lignite has a high content of volatile matter which makes it easier to convert into gas and liquid petroleum products than higher-ranking coals. Unfortunately, its moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation. However, removing the moisture increases the cost of the final lignite fuel, because of its low energy density and typically high moisture content, brown coal is inefficient to transport and is not traded extensively on the world market compared with higher coal grades.
It is often burned in power stations near the mines, such as in Australias Latrobe Valley, the operation of traditional brown-coal plants, particularly in combination with strip mining, can be politically contentious due to environmental concerns. An environmentally beneficial use of lignite can be found in its use in cultivation and distribution of biological control microbes that suppress plant disease causing microbes, lignite begins as an accumulation of partially decayed plant material, or peat. Burial by other sediments results in increasing temperature, depending on the geothermal gradient and tectonic setting. This causes compaction of the material and loss of some of the water and this process, called coalification, concentrates the carbon content, and thus the heat content, of the material. Deeper burial and the passage of time result in expulsion of moisture and volatile matter, eventually transforming the material into higher rank coals such as bituminous. Lignite deposits are younger than higher-ranked coals, with the majority of them having formed during the Tertiary period.
The Latrobe Valley in the state of Victoria, contains estimated reserves of some 65 billion tonnes of brown coal, the deposit is equivalent to 25 percent of known world reserves. The coal seams are up to 100 metres thick, with coal seams often giving virtually continuous brown coal thickness of up to 230 metres. Seams are covered by little overburden. Lignite can be separated into two types, the first is xyloid lignite or fossil wood and the second form is the compact lignite or perfect lignite. Although xyloid lignite may sometimes have the tenacity and the appearance of ordinary wood and it is reducible to a fine powder by trituration, and if submitted to the action of a weak solution of potash, it yields a considerable quantity of humic acid
An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit- or nut-producing trees which are grown for commercial production. Orchards are sometimes a feature of gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose. A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale, most temperate-zone orchards are laid out in a regular grid, with a grazed or mown grass or bare soil base that makes maintenance and fruit gathering easy. Orchards are sometimes concentrated near bodies of water, where climatic extremes are moderated, an orchards layout is the technique of planting the crops in a proper system. There are different methods of planting and thus different layouts, some of these layout types include, Square method Rectangular method Quincunx method Triangular method Hexagonal method Contour method For different varieties, these systems may vary to some extent. The most extensive orchards in the United States are apple and orange orchards, the most extensive apple orchard area is in eastern Washington state, with a lesser but significant apple orchard area in most of Upstate New York.
Extensive orange orchards are found in Florida and southern California, where they are widely known as groves. In eastern North America, many orchards are along the shores of Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, in Canada and other fruit orchards are widespread on the Niagara Peninsula, south of Lake Ontario. This region is known as Canada Fruitbelt and, in addition to large-scale commercial fruit marketing, murcia is a major orchard area in Europe, with citrus crops. New Zealand, China and Chile have extensive apple orchards, tenbury Wells in Worcestershire has been called The Town in the Orchard, since the 19th century, because it was surrounded by extensive orchards. Today, this heritage is celebrated through an annual Applefest, streuobstwiese is a German word that means a meadow with scattered fruit trees or fruit trees that are planted in a field. Streuobstwiese, or a meadow orchard, is a landscape in the temperate. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Streuobstwiesen were a kind of a community orchard that were intended for productive cultivation of stone fruit.
In recent years, ecologists have successfully lobbied for state subsidies to valuable habitats and natural landscapes, both conventional and meadow orchards provide a suitable habitat for many animal species that live in a cultured landscape. Orchard House in Concord, Massachusetts was the residence of American celebrated writer Louisa May Alcott, Utah part of Capitol Reef National Park has Mormon pioneer orchards maintained by the United States National Park Service. The Orchard Link organisation provides advice on how to manage and restore the county of Devons orchards, an organisation called Orchards Live carries out similar work in North Devon. Peoples Trust for Endangered Species has mapped every traditional orchard within England, the UK Biodiversity Partnership lists traditional orchards and a priority UK Biodiversity Action Plan habitat
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunneling into the earth, for minerals that occur deep below the surface—where the overburden is thick or the mineral occurs as veins in hard rock—underground mining methods are used to extract the valued material. Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as quarries, open-pit mines are typically enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. Open-cast mines are dug on benches, which describe vertical levels of the hole and these benches are usually on four to sixty meter intervals, depending on the size of the machinery that is being used.
Many quarries do not use benches, as they are usually shallow, most walls of the pit are generally blast mined on an angle less than vertical, to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. This depends on how weathered the rocks are, and the type of rock, the inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, and the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm. The steps in the walls help prevent rock falls continuing down the face of the wall. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts, de-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, which is often enough to cause failures in the wall by itself. A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore. Waste rock is piled up at the surface, near the edge of the open pit and this is known as the waste dump. The waste dump is tiered and stepped, to minimize degradation, ore which has been processed is known as tailings, and is generally a slurry.
This is pumped to a dam or settling pond, where the water evaporates. This toxicity can harm the surrounding environment, after mining finishes, the mine area may undergo land rehabilitation. Waste dumps are contoured to flatten out, to further stabilise them. This is covered with soil, and vegetation is planted to help consolidate the material. There are no long term studies on the success of these due to the relatively short time in which large scale open pit mining has existed. It may take hundreds to thousands of years for some waste dumps to become acid neutral, the dumps are usually fenced off to prevent livestock denuding them of vegetation