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Colombian peso

The peso is the currency of Colombia. Its ISO 4217 code is COP; the official peso symbol is $, with COL$ being used to distinguish it from other peso- and dollar-denominated currencies. The peso has been the currency of Colombia since 1810, it replaced the real at a rate of 1 peso = 8 reales and was subdivided into 8 reales. In 1847, Colombia decimalized and the peso was subdivided into ten reales, each of 10 décimos de reales; the real was renamed the decimo in 1853, although the last reales were struck in 1880. was first used in 1819 on early banknotes but did not reappear until the 2000s on banknotes and was not used on the coinage until 2013. In 1871, Colombia went on the gold standard, pegging the peso to the French franc at a rate of 1 peso = 5 francs; this peg only lasted until 1886. From 1888, printing press inflation caused Colombia's paper money to depreciate and the exchange rate between coins and paper money was fixed at 100 peso moneda corriente = 1 coinage peso. Between 1907 and 1914, coins were issued denominated in "peso p/m".

In 1910, the Junta de Conversión began issuing paper money and, in 1915, a new paper currency was introduced, the peso oro. This was equal to the coinage peso and replaced the old peso notes at a rate of 100 old paper pesos = 1 peso oro. In 1931, when the U. K. left the gold standard, Colo shifted its peg to the U. S. dollar, at a rate of 1.05 pesos, a slight devaluation from its previous peg. Although it never appeared on coins, Colombia's banknotes continued to be issued denominated in peso oro until 1993, when the word oro was dropped. Since 2001, the Colombian Senate has debated whether to redenomination redenominate peso worth 1000 old pesos, in other words, to remove three zeroes from its face value; such a plan has yet to be adopted. However, the family of banknotes introduced in 2016 have the last three zeroes replaced by the word "mil", making the value easier to read. Between 1837 and 1839, the Republic of New Grenada introduced silver ¼, ½, 1, 2, 8 real coins, along with gold 1, 2, 16 pesos.

These were continuations of coins issued before 1837 in the name of the Republic of Colombia but with the escudo denominations replaced by pesos. In 1847, the currency was decimalized and coins were introduced in denominations of ½ and 1 décimo de real in copper and 1, 2, 8 and 10 reales in silver. ¼ and ½ real coins followed in 1849 and 1850. In 1853, silver ½ and 1 décimo, gold 10 peso coins were introduced, followed by 2 décimos in 1854 and 1 peso in 1855, both in silver. In 1856, gold 5 peso coins were added. Between 1859 and 1862, coins were issued by the Grenadine Confederation in silver for ¼, ½ and 2 reales, ¼, ½ and 1 décimo, 1 peso, in gold for 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 pesos; the United States of New Grenada issued silver 1 décimo & 1 peso in 1861. Beginning in 1862, coins were issued by the United States of Colombia. Silver coins were struck in denominations of ¼, ½, 1, 2, 5 décimos, 1 peso, together with gold 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 pesos. With the introduction of the centavo in 1872, silver 2½, 5, 10, 20, 50 centavos were issued, followed by cupro-nickel 1¼ centavos in 1874 and cupro-nickel 2½ centavos in 1881.

In 1886, the country's name reverted to the Republic of Colombia. The first issues were cupro-nickel 5 centavos. Except for silver 50 centavos issued between 1887 and 1889, no other denominations were issued until 1897, when silver 10 and 20 centavos were introduced. Silver 5 centavos were issued in 1902 In 1907, following the stabilization of the paper money, cupro-nickel 1, 2 and 5 pesos p/m were introduced and issued until 1916. In 1913, after the pegging of the peso to sterling, gold 2½ and 5 peso coins were introduced which were of the same weight and composition as the half sovereign and sovereign. Gold 10 pesos were issued in 1919 and 1924, with the 2½ and 5 pesos issued until 1929 and 1930, respectively. In 1918, the 1, 2 and 5 pesos p/m coins were replaced by 1, 2 and 5 centavo coins of the same size and composition. In 1942, bronze 1 and 5 centavo coins were introduced, followed by bronze 2 centavos in 1948. Between 1952 and 1958, cupro-nickel replaced silver in the 20 and 50 centavos.

In 1967, copper-clad-steel 1 and 5 centavos were introduced, together with nickel-clad-steel 10, 20 and 50 centavos and cupro-nickel 1 peso coins, the 2 centavos having ceased production in 1960. In 1977, bronze 2 pesos were introduced. In 1984, production of all coins below 1 peso ended. Higher denominations were introduced in the following years of high inflation. 5 peso coins were introduced in 1980, followed by 10 pesos in 1981, 20 pesos in 1982, 50 pesos in 1986, 100 pesos in 1992, 200 pesos in 1994, 500 pesos in 1993 and 1000 pesos in 1996. However, due to massive counterfeiting problems, the 1000 pesos was withdrawn by stages. By 2002, the coin was out of circulation. In 2012, the Bank of the Republic of Colombia issued a new series of coins with the 500 and 1000 peso coins now struck as Bi-metallic coins. All the coins have in the lower part of the reverse the year of production. Between 1857 and 1880, five of Colombia's provinces, Bolívar, Cundinamarca and Santander issued paper money.

Denominations included 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50 and 100 pesos. In the early 1860s, the Tesoría General de los Estados Unidos de Nueva Granada issued notes in denominations of 20 centavos, 1, 2, 3, 10, 20 and 100 pesos, with all denominations given in reales. In 1863, Treasury notes of the Estados Unidos de Colombia were introduced for 5, 10 and 20 centavos, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pesos. More than sixty private banks issued notes between 1865 and 1923. Denominations issued included 10, 20, 25, 50 centavos, 1, 2, 5, 10

Lagidze water

Laghidze water is a popular Georgian soft drink based on soda and a variety of natural syrups. It has been traditionally mixed in a glass from a soda fountain, but it is available as a bottled soft drink in a range of flavors; some American food writers liken it to egg cream, but the authentic Georgian drink includes neither milk nor chocolate syrup. Laghidze water is named after Mitrofan Laghidze, a pharmacist’s apprentice in Kutaisi, who in 1887 explored the idea of using natural syrups instead of imported flavored essences in making lemonades. In 1900, the Lagidze Brothers plant in Kutaisi began blending unique proprietary flavors from herbs and fruits. Today, Lagidze waters are produced in a wide range of natural flavors, including quince, citrus fruit, cherry and others. Lagidze waters are distributed in Russia, the three Baltic states and Armenia; the technology and culture of the Lagidze Waters were inscribed on the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Georgia list in 2014. Tarhun

Ernie Smith (tackle)

Ernest Frederick Smith was an American football tackle under coach Howard Jones at the University of Southern California. He handled the placekicking and kickoff duties for the men of Troy. Smith was a member of Phi Sigma Kappa fraternity, he played prominent roles in the Trojan Rose Bowl triumphs over Tulane University as a junior and against University of Pittsburgh as a senior. While in college, he was a member of the Spirit of Troy as a trombone player, he played professionally from 1935 to 1939 for the Green Bay Packers. He was assistant football coach at Southern California two years, was a Major in the United States Air Force between 1940 and 1945, became an insurance underwriter, he worked with the Boy Scouts, was on the Rose Bowl Committee, an officer of the Southern California Symphony, president of the Los Angeles chapter of the National Football Foundation. He was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1970. NFL.com player page