The Hopi Reservation is a Native American reservation for the Hopi and Arizona Tewa people, surrounded by the Navajo Nation, in Navajo and Coconino counties of Arizona, United States. The site in north-eastern Arizona has a land area of 2,531.773 sq mi and as of the 2000 census had a population of 6,946. The Hopi Reservation, like most of Arizona but unlike the surrounding Navajo Nation, does not observe daylight saving time; until the two nations shared the Navajo–Hopi Joint Use Area. The partition of this area known as Big Mountain, by Acts of Congress in 1974 and 1996, has resulted in continuing controversy; the system of villages unites three mesas in the pueblo style traditionally used by the Hopi. Walpi is the oldest village on First Mesa, having been established in 1690 after the villages at the foot of mesa Koechaptevela were abandoned for fear of Spanish reprisal after the 1680 Pueblo Revolt; the Tewa people live on First Mesa. Hopi occupy the Second Mesa and Third Mesa; the community of Winslow West is off-reservation trust land of the Hopi tribe.
The Hopi Tribal Council is the local governing body consisting of elected officials from the various reservation villages. Its powers were given to it under the Hopi Tribal Constitution; the Hopi consider their life on the reservation an integral and critically sustaining part of the "fourth world". This is the current cultural epoch. Hopi High School is the secondary education institute for reservation residents. Hopi Radio, a station with a mix of traditional Hopi and typical American programming is run for the reservation and provides internships for Hopi High School. Keams Canyon Lower and Upper Moenkopi Polacca Winslow West Yuuwelo Paaki New Oraibi Waalpi Hanoki Sitsomovi Songoopavi Musangnuvi Sipawlavi Hoatvela Paaqavi Munqapi Orayvi Hopi flag Hopi Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Arizona – United States Census Bureau The Hopi Tribe Hopi Radio
The Navajo Nation is a Native American territory covering about 17,544,500 acres, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico in the United States. This is the largest land area retained by a Native American tribe, with a population of 350,000 as of 2016. By area, the Navajo Nation is larger than West Virginia, Hawaii, Vermont, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware; the original territory has been expanded several times since the 1800s. In 2016, under the Tribal Nations Buy-Back Program, some 149,524 acres of land were returned by the Department of Interior to the Navajo Nation for tribal communal use; the program is intended to help restore the land bases of reservations. The Navajo Nation has an elected government that includes an executive office, a legislative house, a judicial system, but the United States federal government continues to assert plenary power over all decisions; the executive system manages a large law enforcement and social services apparatus, health services, Diné College, other local educational trusts.
The population continues to disproportionately struggle with health problems and the effects of past uranium mining incidents. In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation", as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Treaty of Bosque Redondo. On April 15, 1969, the tribe changed its official name to the Navajo Nation, displayed on the seal; this was assertion of sovereignty. In 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné." It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future. In Navajo, the geographic entity with its defined borders is known as "Naabeehó Bináhásdzo"; this contrasts with "Diné Bikéyah" and "Naabeehó Bikéyah" for the general idea of "Navajoland". Neither of these terms should be confused with "Dinétah," the term used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo, it is situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd, Dibé Ntsaa, Sisnaajiní, Tsoodził.
The Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in oral history. The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, as the rules of behavior found within the system extend to the manner of refined culture that the Navajo people call "to walk in Beauty"; the philosophy and clan system from before the Spanish colonial occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito and other chiefs and headmen present at Bosque Redondo. The Navajo people have continued to transform their conceptual understandings of government since it joined the United States by the Treaty of 1868. Social and political academics continue to debate the nature of the modern Navajo governance and how it has evolved to include the systems and economies of the "western world". In the mid-19th century, most Navajo were forced from their lands by the US Army, were marched on the Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo.
The Treaty of 1868 established the "Navajo Indian Reservation" and the Navajos left Bosque Redondo. The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; as drafted in 1868, the boundaries were defined as: the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly, which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them. Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles by one hundred miles in the New Mexico Territory, the size of the territory was 3,328,302 acres —slightly more than half.
This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nation's flag by a dark-brown rectangle. As no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity. A significant number of Navajo had never lived in the Hwéeldi near, they remained or moved to near the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers, on Naatsisʼáán and some with Apache bands. The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28, 1878, when President Rutherford Hayes signed an executive order pushing the reservation boundary 20 miles to the west. Further additions followed throu
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation
The Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation the Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache Community of the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation, is a federally recognized tribe and Indian reservation in Maricopa County, Arizona about 23 miles northeast of Phoenix. The reservation was created on September 15, 1903 by executive order, on a small parcel carved from the ancestral lands of the Yavapai people, encompassing 24,680 acres; the acreage had been part of the Fort McDowell Military Reserve, an important outpost during the Apache Wars. The original inhabitants of the reservation were members of the kwevikopaya, or Southeastern Yavapai, who lived in the nearby Mazatzal-Four Peak and Superstition Mountains area. In the 1970s, there was a proposal to build a dam at the confluence of the Salt Rivers. Due to the negative effects such a dam would have had on the reservation, the community voted not to sell the land for the dam to the federal government. What would have been called the "Orme Dam" was never built; the reservation celebrates this victory with a pow wow each November.
After the passage of the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, a casino was built on the reservation. In 1992, agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation attempted to seize the gaming devices of the casino; this raid took place in conjunction with raids at four other Indian reservations throughout the country. While the raids at the other four reservations went unopposed, members of the Yavapai tribe organized a protest. Using cars and large mobile earth moving equipment, they blocked the egress from the property, preventing the trucks from carting off the machines. An agreement was reached between the tribe and Governor Fife Symington allowing the casino to remain in operation. In 2018, the Tribe announced that they would break ground on a new casino on June 29, 2018, at 9 a.m. Construction on the new 166,341-square-foot casino will begin late summer and it is expected to open by spring 2020; the outside communities of Fountain Hills and Rio Verde lie adjacent to the reservation. In addition to Rio Verde and Fountain Hills, the reservation's economy is closely tied to the nearby cities of Mesa and Phoenix.
In the area is the Salt River Indian Reservation of the Pima and Maricopa peoples. The tribe operates its own gas station, a large sand and gravel operation, a farm, the Fort McDowell Casino. Other operations on the reservation include the Wekopa Resort and Conference Center, the Poco Diablo hotel, the Wekopa Golf Course, Fort McDowell Adventures; the area now occupied by the reservation was the birthplace of the Native American activist, Carlos Montezuma, who founded the Society of American Indians. The Ba Dah Mod Jo Cemetery is referred to as the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation Cemetery, it was where the soldiers who perished were buried. The remains of the "Anglos" who were buried there were transferred to El Presidio Cemetery in San Francisco after the land was ceded to the Yavapai Nation. Official site of the Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation
Fort Apache Indian Reservation
The Fort Apache Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in Arizona, United States, encompassing parts of Navajo and Apache counties. It is home to the federally recognized White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, a Western Apache tribe, it has a population of 12,429 people as of the 2000 census. The largest community is in Whiteriver. In 1871 General George Crook enrolled 50 White Mountain Apache men to serve as scouts for his army during the Apache Wars, which lasted for 15 years; these wars were ended with the surrender of the Chiricahua leader Geronimo in 1886. Because of the scouts' service to General Cook during the Apache Wars, their tribe was able to maintain a large portion of their homeland as the White Mountain Apache reservation. In 1922, the U. S. Army left Fort Apache. In 1923, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding School was established to use these facilities; the school was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2012, as a component of Fort Apache Historic Park, which recognizes the former military complex.
The Roosevelt Indian School now operates as a tribally controlled middle-school facility. The White Mountain Apache created their own constitution under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. In 1936 they elected a tribal council that oversaw all tribe-owned property, local businesses, governance in 1936; the Fort Apache Indian Reservation is covered by pine forests and is habitat to a variety of forest wildlife. It is located directly south of the Mogollon Rim; the highest point in the reservation is Baldy Peak, with an elevation of 11,403 feet. The tribe operates the Hon-Dah Resort Casino, it has built the Apache Cultural Museum, constructed in the traditional style of a gowa. Other attractions within the reservation include the Fort Apache Historic Park, which has 27 buildings surviving of the historic fort and a 288-acre National Historic District. Kinishba Ruins, an ancient archeological site of the western Pueblo culture, is a National Historic Landmark, it is located on nearby associated tribal trust lands.
Appointments may be made to visit the site. According to the US Census Bureau, the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, located in Navajo County, is developed with small communities. North Fork, Fort Apache, East Fork, Rainbow City, Hon-Dah, McNary, Turkey Creek, Seven Mile are the communities, comprising a total population of 22,036 in 2010 on the reservation. Apache Art of the American Southwest Battle of Cibecue Creek Battle of Fort Apache Sunrise Park Resort Rattlesnake Fire Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona United States Census Bureau Goddard, Pliny Earle. White Mountain Apache texts; the Trustees. Retrieved 24 August 2012. Goodwin, Grenville. Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache. University of Arizona Press. White Mountain Apache Tribe – Official website "Fort Apache Historic Park and Kinishba Ruins", Nohwike' Bágowa, White Mountain Apache Culture Center & Museum Fort Apache Heritage Foundation White Mountain Apache Tribe, Arizona Intertribal Council
Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community
The Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community comprises two distinct Native American tribes—the Pima and the Maricopa —many of whom were of the Halchidhoma tribe. The community was created by an Executive Order of US President Rutherford B. Hayes on June 14, 1879; the community area includes 53,600 acres. The community is a federally recognized tribe located in Arizona; the community borders the Arizona cities of Scottsdale, Mesa and Fountain Hills. The Great Seal of the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community is a representation of I'itoi referred to as the Man in the Maze. Since the late 20th century, the community has owned and operated two casinos on its land, both operating under the "Casino Arizona" brand name; the facilities attract gamblers from the local Phoenix area as well as out-of-state tourists. There is a limited amount of office development, a major outdoor shopping center called The Scottsdale Pavilions, on the portions of tribal land closest to the northern business and financial districts of neighboring Scottsdale.
In February 2011, the community opened the first Major League Baseball spring training facility on Indian land, Salt River Fields at Talking Stick. This 140-acre baseball complex is the spring training home of the Arizona Diamondbacks and Colorado Rockies; the community owns and operates the Phoenix Cement Company, which supplies northern Arizona and Phoenix with cement and related products. The company's plant, one of only two large cement manufacturers in Arizona, is in Clarkdale; the eastern leg of the Loop 101 freeway passes through the western edge of the community in a north/south alignment. Both sides of the freeway and all four corners of each interchange within the community are in the domain of the community for development purposes; the alignment of the freeway across community land was a contentious issue within the community and between the community and local and state transportation officials throughout the 1980s. The streets and roads in the community follow the same street grid of the surrounding cities in the Phoenix metropolitan area, such as Phoenix and Mesa.
Most are two-lane rural roads and are widened somewhat in certain spots to serve vehicular traffic for the casinos and other business enterprises. The Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community supports the preservation of the Akimel O’odham and Xalchidom Piipaash languages through teaching and learning for everyone within the Community, it encourages all community members to preserve the Akimel O’odham and Xalchidom Piipaash languages within their homes. Some tribal employees, who work within the community, take language classes so they have a better understanding of the community and people and have a better working relationship with the people they serve; some learners want to learn more about their own culture, pass on language to their children, know more about who they are. Some want to learn so they can understand whether their parents are talking about them. Extreme poverty, school dropout, drug use, border issues have claimed attention within the tribe, hindering progress of language revitalization.
Language activists are looking to reverse the language endangerment in their community but a commitment to the goal is needed for them to continue. Central to the beliefs of the Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community is the story of the Man in the Maze, or I'itoi ki:k, the symbol seen on the great seal; this ancient pattern is representative of the journey a person makes through life, including obstacles and problems. The figure is called Elder Brother and he is about to make his way through the maze. At the center, he will find the Sun God, there to greet him and bless him into the next world; the symbol belongs to the Akimel O’odham, Pee-Posh, Tohono O'odham tribes and is traditionally represented in ancient petroglyphs and traditional basket designs. Salt River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community, Community Council Resolution: SR-2026-2000, August 16, 2000 Official SRPMIC Website
Riverside County, California
Riverside County is one of fifty-eight counties in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the 4th-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States; the name was derived from the city of Riverside, the county seat. Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area known as the Inland Empire; the county is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. There is a high concentration of sprawling tract housing communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10, 15, 215 freeways. Rectangular, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles in Southern California, spanning from the Greater Los Angeles area to the Arizona border. Geographically, the county is desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county; the resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of central Riverside County.
Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years to take advantage of affordable housing. Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the state prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into Southwest Riverside County from the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area; the cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007. Riverside County was named for the Santa Ana River in 1870; the indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. The Luiseño lived in the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County; the Cahuilla lived to the east and north of the Luiseño in the inland valleys, in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains and the desert of the Salton Sink. The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm, at the Luiseño village of Temecula.
Grain and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal. Following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, El Rincon in 1839, Rancho San Jacinto Viejo in 1842, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio in 1843, Ranchos La Laguna, Temecula in 1844, Ranchos Little Temecula, Potreros de San Juan Capistrano in 1845, Ranchos San Jacinto Sobrante, La Sierra, La Sierra, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero in 1846. New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the northern extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843; when the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850, the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853, the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County.
Between 1891 and 1893, several proposals and legislative attempts were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893; the new county was created from parts of San Diego County. On May 2, 1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County. Voters chose the city of Riverside as the county seat by a large margin. Riverside County was formed on May 9, 1893, when the Board of Commissioners filed the final canvass of the votes. Riverside County is the birthplace of lane markings, thanks to Dr. June McCarroll in 1915 when she suggested her idea to the state government; the county is the location of the March Air Reserve Base, one of the oldest airfields continuously operated by the United States military. Established as the Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918, it was one of thirty-two U.
S. Army Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917; the airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr. the deceased son of the then-Army Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. March, killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. March Field remained an active Army Air Service U. S. Army Air Corps installation throughout the interwar period becoming a major installation of the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Renamed March Air Force Base in 1947 following the establishment of the U. S. Air Force, it was a major Strategic Air Command installation throughout the Cold War. In 1996, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve Command and gained its current name as a major base for the Air Force Reserve and the California Air National Guard. Riverside county was a major focal point of the Civil Rights Movements in the US the African-American sections of Riverside and Mexican-American communities of the Coachella Valley visited by Cesar Chavez of the farm labor union struggle.
Riverside county has been a focus of modern Native American Gaming enterprises. In the early 1980s, the county government attempted to shut down small bingo halls operated by the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission In