The Colosseum or Coliseum known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine limestone and brick-faced concrete, it was the largest amphitheatre built at the time and held 50,000 to 80,000 spectators; the Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir, Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian; these three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name. The Colosseum could hold an estimated 50,000 to 80,000 spectators at various points of its history over the centuries, having an average audience of some 65,000; the building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was reused for such purposes as housing, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, a Christian shrine. Although ruined because of earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is still an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is listed as one of the New7Wonders of the World.
It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and has links to the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. In 2018, it was the most popular tourist attraction in the world, with 7.4 million visitors. The Colosseum is depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin; the Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium anglicized as Flavian Amphitheatre. The building was constructed by emperors following the reign of Nero; this name is still used in modern English, but the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum, but this name may have been poetic as it was not exclusive to the Colosseum; the name Colosseum is believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero. This statue was remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown.
It was commonly referred to as the “Colossus solis”. Nero's head was replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers, it came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome. In the 8th century, an epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy, variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; this is mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus. However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre; the Colossus did fall being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre from the nearby “Colossus Solis”; the statue itself was forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma.
The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as Coloseumul, le Colisée, el Coliseo and o Coliseu; the site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran as well as an artificial lake/marsh. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited, it was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions and porticoes; the existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down; the lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre.
Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre, in effect, placing it both symbolica
From Here To Eternity is the second album by the band Envy. It was released in Japan in 1998 by the label H. G. Fact in both CD and LP formats; as has been noted by reviewers, this album shows a logical progression from the previous one, indicates to the listener which direction the band will take their sound in the future. "Limitation" – 4:12 "Trembled" – 4:13 "A Vicious Circle, Again" – 1:24 "Compensation" – 4:08 "Off" – 2:40 "Crusaders" – 1:59 "For You Who Died" – 3:05 "Black Past" – 1:54 "Grey Wind" – 4:26 "Carved Numbers" – 3:38 "444 Words" – 2:15 Manabu Nakagawa – Bass Dairoku Seki – Drums Nobukata Kawai – Guitar Masahiro Tobita – Guitar Tetsuya Fukagawa – Vocals Eiji Tani – Engineering Official Envy webpage at Sonzai Records Album page at H. G. Fact From Here To Eternity at Discogs Envy's page on Temporary Residence Limited
Simcenter Amesim is a commercial simulation software for the modeling and analysis of multi-domain systems. It falls into the mechatronic engineering field; the software package is a suite of tools used to model and predict the performance of mechatronics systems. Models are described using nonlinear time-dependent analytical equations that represent the system’s hydraulic, thermal, electric or mechanical behavior. Compared to 3D CAE modeling this approach gives the capability to simulate the behavior of systems before detailed CAD geometry is available, hence it is used earlier in the system design cycle or V-Model. To create a simulation model for a system, a set of libraries is used, they contain pre-defined components for different physical domains; the icons in the system have to be connected and for this purpose each icon has ports, which have several inputs and outputs. Causality is enforced by linking the inputs of one icon to the outputs of another icon. Simcenter Amesim libraries are written in C language and support Modelica, a non-proprietary, object-oriented, equation based language to model complex physical systems containing, e.g. mechanical, electronic, thermal, electric power or process-oriented subcomponents.
The software runs on Windows platforms. Simcenter Amesim is a part of the Siemens PLM Software Simcenter portfolio; this combines 1D simulation, 3D CAE and physical testing with intelligent reporting and data analytics. This portfolio is intended to provide engineers and analysts with a comprehensive solution for development of complex products that include smart systems, through implementing a Predictive Engineering Analytics approach; the Simcenter Amesim software was developed by Imagine S. A. a company, acquired in June 2007 by LMS International, which itself was acquired in November 2012 by Siemens AG. The Imagine S. A. company was created in 1987 by Dr Michel Lebrun from the University Claude Bernard in France, to control complex dynamic systems coupling hydraulic servo-actuators with finite-elements mechanical structures. The initial engineering project involved the deck elevation of the sinking Ekofisk North Sea petroleum platforms. In the early 1990s, the association with Pr C. W. Richards, coming from the University of Bath in England, led to the first commercial release of Simcenter Amesim in 1995, dedicated to fluid control systems.
Simcenter Amesim is used by companies in the automotive and other advanced manufacturing industries. Simcenter Amesim is a multi-domain software, it allows to link between different physics domains. It is based on the Bond graph theory; the modelling of a system is done in four steps: sketch mode: in which the different components are linked, submodel mode: in which the physical submodel associated to each component is chosen, parameter mode: in which the parameters for each submodel are set, run mode: in which the simulation is started and results analyzed. Between the submodel and parameter mode, the Simcenter Amesim model is compiled. Under the Windows platform, Simcenter Amesim works with the free Gcc compiler, provided with the software, it works with the Microsoft Visual C++ compiler and its free Express edition. Since the version 4.3.0 Simcenter Amesim uses the Intel compiler on all platforms. Simcenter Amesim features: Platform Facilities graphical user interface, interactive help, post-processed variables, experiments management, meta-data, statechart designer Analysis Tools table editor, dashboard, 3D animation, replay of results, linear analysis, activity index and energy computation Optimization, Robustness, DOE Design Of Experiments, Monte-Carlo Solvers and Numerics LSODA, DASSL, DASKR, Fixed-step solvers, discrete partitioning, parallel processing, Simcenter Amesim/Simcenter Amesim cosimulations Software Interfaces generic co-simulation, functional mock-up interface MIL/SIL/HIL and Real-Time plant/control, various Real-Time targets Simulator Scripting scripting functions to pilot the simulations, circuit API, script file generator Customization own customized pre and post-processing tools with python, script caller assistant, editor of parameters group, app designer Modelica Platform support of the Modelica modeling language, support of subsets of the Modelica Standard Library with dedicated tools: modelica editor, modelica import assistant, modelica compiler, modelica assembly 1D/3D CAE CAD Import, CFD software co-simulation, FEA import of reduced modal basis with pre-defined frontier nodes, MBS software cosimulation and import/export Development The user can develop his own submodels, by assembling different standard submodels using the Component Customization functionality, or by programming them in C or in Fortran with Submodel Editor.
The C source code of most