The bibliographical definition of an edition includes all copies of a book printed “from the same setting of type,” including all minor typographical variants. The numbering of book editions is a special case of the wider field of revision control; the traditional conventions for numbering book editions evolved spontaneously for several centuries before any greater applied science of revision control became important to humanity, which did not occur until the era of widespread computing had arrived. The old and new aspects of book edition numbering are discussed below. According to the definition of edition above, a book printed today, by the same publisher, from the same type as when it was first published, is still the first edition of that book to a bibliographer. However, book collectors use the term first edition to mean the first print run of the first edition. Since World War II, books include a number line that indicates the print run. A "first edition" per se is not a valuable collectible book.
A popular work may be published and reprinted over time by many publishers, in a variety of formats. There will be a first edition of each, which the publisher may cite on the copyright page, such as: "First mass market paperback edition"; the first edition of a facsimile reprint is the reprint publisher's first edition, but not the first edition of the work itself. The Independent Online Booksellers Association has a A First Edition Primer which discusses several aspects of identifying first editions including publishing and specific publishers way of designating first editions; the classic explanation of edition was given by Fredson Bowers in Principles of Bibliographical Description. Bowers wrote that an edition is “the whole number of copies printed at any time or times from the same setting of type-pages,” including “all issues and variant states existing within its basic type-setting, as well as all impressions.” Publishers use the same typesetting for the hardcover and trade paperback versions of a book.
These books have different covers, the title page and copyright page may differ, the page margin sizes may differ, but to a bibliographer they are the same edition. From time to time, readers may observe an error in the text, report these to the publisher; the publisher keeps these "reprint corrections" in a file pending demand for a new print run of the edition, before the new run is printed, they will be entered. The method of entry depends on the method of typesetting. For letterpress metal, it meant resetting a few characters or a line or two. For linotype, it meant casting a new line for any line with a change in it. With film, it involved inserting a new bit. In an electronic file, it means entering the changes digitally; such minor changes do not constitute a new edition, but introduce typographical variations within an edition, which are of interest to collectors. A common complaint of book collectors is that the bibliographer's definition is used in a book-collecting context. For example, J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye as of 2016 remains in print in hardcover.
The type is the same as the 1951 first printing, therefore all hardcover copies are, for the bibliographer, the first edition. Collectors would use the term for the first printing only. First edition most refers to the first commercial publication of a work between its own covers if it was first printed in a periodical: the complete text of Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea appeared in the September 1, 1952 issue of Life, yet the accepted “first” edition is the hardcover book Scribner’s published on September 8, 1952; the term "first trade edition," refers to the earliest edition of a book offered for sale to the general public in book stores. For example, Upton Sinclair's 1906 novel. A "Sustainers' Edition", published by the Jungle Publishing Company, was sent to subscribers who had advanced funds to Sinclair; the first trade edition was published by Page to be sold in bookstores. Many book collectors place maximum value on the earliest bound copies of a book—promotional advance copies, bound galleys, uncorrected proofs, advance reading copies sent by publishers to book reviewers and booksellers.
It is true. Publishers use "first edition" according to their own purposes, among them the designation is used inconsistently; the "first edition" of a trade book may be the first iteration of the work printed by the publisher in question or the first iteration of the work that includes a specific set of illustrations or editorial commentary. Publishers of non-fiction, academic works, textbooks distinguish between revisions of the text of the work, by citing the dates of the first and latest editions of the work in the copyright page. Exceptions to this rule of thumb include denominating as a "second edition" a new textbook that has a different format, and/or author because a previous textbook that shares only the same subject matter as the "second edition" is considered the first edition; the reason for this stretch of the definition is for the short-term marketing advantage of the
Sir Rupert Charles Hart-Davis was an English publisher and editor. He founded the publishing company Rupert Hart-Davis Ltd; as a biographer, he is remembered for his Hugh Walpole, as an editor, for his Collected Letters of Oscar Wilde, and, as both editor and part-author, for the Lyttelton/Hart-Davis Letters. Working at a publishing firm before the Second World War, Hart-Davis began to forge literary relationships that would be important in his career. Founding his publishing company in 1946, Hart-Davis was praised for the quality of the firm's publications and production. After relinquishing control of the firm, Hart-Davis concentrated on writing and editing, producing collections of letters and other works which brought him the sobriquet "the king of editors." Hart-Davis was born in London. He was the son of Richard Hart-Davis, a stockbroker, his wife Sybil née Cooper, but by the time of his conception the couple were estranged, though still living together, Sybil Hart-Davis had many lovers at that period.
Hart-Davis believed the most candidate for his natural father to be a Yorkshire banker called Gervase Beckett. As a child, Rupert Hart-Davis and his sister Deirdre Hart-Davis were drawn by Augustus John and painted by William Nicholson. Hart-Davis was educated at Eton and Balliol College, though he found university life not to his taste and left after less than a year. Hart-Davis decided to become an actor, he studied at The Old Vic, where he came to realise that he was not a talented enough actor to succeed, he turned instead to publishing in 1929, joining William Heinemann Ltd. as an office boy and assistant to the managing director Charley Evans. He spent two years with a year as manager of the Book Society. In his seven years with Cape, Hart-Davis recruited a successful group of authors ranging from the poets William Plomer, Cecil Day-Lewis, Edmund Blunden and Robert Frost, to the humorist Beachcomber, he was well placed to secure Duff Cooper's life of Talleyrand. As the junior partner at Cape, he had to handle their difficult authors including Robert Graves, Wyndham Lewis and Arthur Ransome, the last being seen as difficult because of his wife Genia, with her "distrustfulness and guile".
Hart-Davis was a close friend of Ransome, sharing an enthusiasm for rugby. After Cape's death he commented to George Lyttelton that Cape had been "one of the tightest-fisted old bastards I've encountered"; the second partner, Wren Howard, was "even tighter" than Cape, neither of them liked fraternising with authors, which they left to Hart-Davis. In World War II Hart-Davis volunteered for military service as a private soldier, but was soon commissioned into the Coldstream Guards, he did not see active service. After the war, Hart-Davis was unable to obtain satisfactory terms from Jonathan Cape to return to the company, in 1946 he struck out on his own, founding Rupert Hart-Davis Ltd, in partnership with David Garnett and Teddy Young and with financial backing from Eric Linklater, Arthur Ransome, H. E. Bates, Geoffrey Keynes, Celia and Peter Fleming, his own literary tastes dictated which rejected. He turned down commercial successes because he thought little of the works' literary merit, he said, "I found that the sales of the books I published were in inverse ratio to my opinion of them.
That's why I established some sort of reputation without making any money."In 1946 paper was still rationed. However, the firm was given the allocation at cost of a Glasgow bookseller and occasional prewar publisher, Alan Jackson; the partners decided to start with reprints of dead authors, as if a new book became a best-seller the firm would not have paper for a reprint and the author might leave. They made an exception for Stephen Potter's Gamesmanship, a short book, collected every ream of paper they could buy and printed 25,000 copies. 25,000 copies of Eric Linklater's Sealskin Trousers were printed. The firm had best-sellers such as Gamesmanship and Heinrich Harrer's Seven Years in Tibet, which sold more than 200,000 copies. In the early years Hart-Davis secured Ray Bradbury for his firm, recognising the quality of a science fiction author who wrote poetry. Other good sellers were Eric Linklater and Gerald Durrell. A further expense was added when G. M. Young's biography of Stanley Baldwin was published in 1952.
With the help of the lawyer Arnold Goodman an agreement was reached to replace the offending sentences, but the firm had the "hideously expensive" job of removing and replacing seven leaves from 7,580 copies. By the mid-fifties, Rupert Hart-Davis Ltd could no longer sustain an independent existence and in 1956 it was absorbed into the Heinemann group. Heinemann sold the imprint to the American firm Harcourt Brace in 1961, who sold it to the Granada Group in 1963, when Hart-Davis retired from publishing, though remaining as non-executive chairman until
The Moscow–Washington hotline is a system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and Russia. This hotline links the Pentagon with the Kremlin. Although in popular culture it is known as the "red telephone", the hotline was never a telephone line, no red phones were used; the first implementation used Teletype equipment, shifted to fax machines in 1986. Since 2008, the Moscow–Washington hotline has been a secure computer link over which messages are exchanged by a secure form of email. Several people came up with the idea for a hotline, they included Harvard professor Thomas Schelling, who had worked on nuclear war policy for the Defense Department previously. Schelling credited the pop fiction novel Red Alert with making governments more aware of the benefit of direct communication between the superpowers. In addition, Parade magazine editor Jess Gorkin badgered 1960 presidential candidates John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon, buttonholed the Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev during a U.
S. visit to adopt the idea. During this period Gerard C. Smith, as head of the State Department Policy Planning Staff, proposed direct communication links between Moscow and Washington. Objections from others in the State Department, the U. S. military, the Kremlin delayed introduction. The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis made the hotline a priority. During the standoff, official diplomatic messages took six hours to deliver. During the crisis, the United States took nearly twelve hours to receive and decode Nikita Khrushchev's 3,000-word initial settlement message – a dangerously long time. By the time Washington had drafted a reply, a tougher message from Moscow had been received, demanding that U. S. missiles be removed from Turkey. White House advisers thought faster communications could have averted the crisis, resolved it quicker; the two countries signed the Hot Line Agreement in June 1963 – the first time they formally took action to cut the risk of starting a nuclear war unintentionally. The "hotline", as it would come to be known, was established after the signing of a "Memorandum of Understanding Regarding the Establishment of a Direct Communications Line" on June 20, 1963, in Geneva, Switzerland, by representatives of the Soviet Union and the United States.
At the Pentagon, the hotline system is located at the National Military Command Center. Each MOLINK team worked an eight-hour shift: a non-commissioned officer looked after the equipment, a commissioned officer, fluent in Russian and well-briefed on world affairs was translator. Messages received in Washington automatically carry the U. S. government's highest security classification, "Eyes Only - The President". The hotline was tested hourly. U. S. test messages have included excerpts of William Shakespeare, Mark Twain, a first-aid manual. MOLINK staffers take special care not to include innuendo or literary imagery that could be misinterpreted, such as passages from Winnie the Pooh, given that a bear is considered the national symbol of Russia; the Soviets asked, during the Carter administration, that Washington not send routine communications through the hotline. On New Year's Eve and on August 30, the hotline's anniversary, greetings replace the test messages. Upon receipt of the message at the NMCC, the message is translated into English, both the original Russian and the translated English texts are transmitted to the White House Situation Room.
However, if the message were to indicate "an imminent disaster, such as an accidental nuclear strike," the MOLINK team would telephone the gist of the message to the Situation Room duty officer who would brief the president before a formal translation was complete. The Republican Party criticized the hotline in its 1964 national platform, it has alienated proven allies by opening a'hot line' first with a sworn enemy rather than with a proven friend, in general pursued a risky path such as it began at Munich a quarter century ago." The Moscow–Washington hotline was intended for text only. Leaders wrote in their native language and messages were translated at the receiving end; the first generation of the hotline used two full-time duplex telegraph circuits. The primary circuit was routed from Washington, D. C. via London, Copenhagen and Helsinki to Moscow. TAT-1, the first submarine transatlantic telephone cable carried messages from Washington to London. A secondary radio line for back-up and service messages linked Moscow via Tangier.
This network was built by Harris Corporation. In July 1963 the United States sent four sets of teleprinters with the Latin alphabet to Moscow for the terminal there. A month the Soviet equipment, four sets of East German teleprinters with the Cyrillic alphabet made by Siemens, arrived in Washington; the hotline started operations on August 30, 1963. A Norwegian-built device called Electronic Teleprinter Cryptographic Regenerative Repeater Mixer II encrypted the teletype messages; this used the unbreakable one-time pad cryptosystem. Each country delivered keying tapes used to encode its messages via its embassy ab
An AI takeover is a hypothetical scenario in which artificial intelligence becomes the dominant form of intelligence on Earth, with computers or robots taking control of the planet away from the human species. Possible scenarios include replacement of the entire human workforce, takeover by a superintelligent AI, the popular notion of a robot uprising; some public figures, such as Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk, have advocated research into precautionary measures to ensure future superintelligent machines remain under human control. Robot rebellions have been a major theme throughout science fiction for many decades though the scenarios dealt with by science fiction are very different from those of concern to scientists. Concerns include AI taking over economies through workforce automation and taking over the world for its resources, eradicating the human race in the process. AI takeover is a major theme in sci-fi; the traditional consensus among economists has been that technological progress does not cause long-term unemployment.
However, recent innovation in the fields of robotics and artificial intelligence has raised worries that human labor will become obsolete, leaving people in various sectors without jobs to earn a living, leading to an economic crisis. Many small and medium size businesses may be driven out of business if they won't be able to afford or licence the latest robotic and AI technology, may need to focus on areas or services that cannot be replaced for continued viability in the face of such technology. Computer-integrated manufacturing is the manufacturing approach of using computers to control the entire production process; this integration allows individual processes to exchange information with each other and initiate actions. Although manufacturing can be faster and less error-prone by the integration of computers, the main advantage is the ability to create automated manufacturing processes. Computer-integrated manufacturing is used in automotive, aviation and ship building industries; the 21st century has seen a variety of skilled tasks taken over by machines, including translation, legal research and low level journalism.
Care work and other tasks requiring empathy thought safe from automation, have begun to be performed by robots. An autonomous car is a vehicle, capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Many such vehicles are being developed, but as of May 2017 automated cars permitted on public roads are not yet autonomous, they all require a human driver at the wheel, ready at a moment's notice to take control of the vehicle. Among the main obstacles to widespread adoption of autonomous vehicles, are concerns about the resulting loss of driving-related jobs in the road transport industry. On March 18, 2018, the first human was killed by an autonomous vehicle in Tempe, Arizona by an Uber self-driving car. If a dominant superintelligent machine were to conclude that human survival is an unnecessary risk or a waste of resources, the result would be human extinction. While superhuman artificial intelligence is physically possible, scholars like Nick Bostrom debate how far off superhuman intelligence is, whether it would pose a risk to mankind.
A superintelligent machine would not be motivated by the same emotional desire to collect power that drives human beings. However, a machine could be motivated to take over the world as a rational means toward attaining its ultimate goals; as an oversimplified example, a paperclip maximizer designed to create as many paperclips as possible would want to take over the world so that it can use all of the world's resources to create as many paperclips as possible, additionally so that it can prevent humans from shutting it down or using those resources on things other than paperclips. AI takeover is a common theme in science fiction. Fictional scenarios differ vastly from those hypothesized by researchers in that they involve an active conflict between humans and an AI or robots with anthropomorphic motives who see them as a threat or otherwise have active desire to fight humans, as opposed to the researchers' concern of an AI that exterminates humans as a byproduct of pursuing arbitrary goals.
This theme is at least as old as Karel Čapek's R. U. R. which introduced the word robot to the global lexicon in 1921, can be glimpsed in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, as Victor ponders whether, if he grants his monster's request and makes him a wife, they would reproduce and their kind would destroy humanity. The word "robot" from R. U. R. comes from the Czech word, meaning laborer or serf. The 1920 play was a protest against the rapid growth of technology, featuring manufactured "robots" with increasing capabilities who revolt; some examples of AI takeover in science fiction include: AI rebellion scenarios Skynet in the Terminator series decides that all humans are a threat to its existence, takes efforts to wipe them out, first using nuclear weapons and H/K units and terminator androids. "The Second Renaissance", a short story in The Animatrix, provides a history of the cybernetic revolt within the Matrix series. The film 9, by Shane Acker, features an AI called B. R. A. I. N. Which is utilized to create war machines for his army.
However, the machine, because it lacks a soul, becomes corrupted and instead decides to exterminate all of humanity and life on Earth, forcing the machine's creator to sacrifice himself to bring life to rag doll like characters known as "stitchpunks" to co
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Pan Books is a publishing imprint that first became active in the 1940s and is now part of the British-based Macmillan Publishers, owned by the Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group of Germany. Pan Books began as an independent publisher, established in 1944 by Alan Bott known for his memoirs of his experiences as a flying ace in the First World War; the Pan Books logo, showing the ancient Greek god Pan playing pan-pipes, was designed by Mervyn Peake. A few years after it was founded, Pan Books was bought out by a consortium of several publishing houses, including Macmillan, Collins and Hodder & Stoughton, it became wholly owned by Macmillan in 1987. Pan specialised in publishing paperback fiction and, along with Penguin Books, was one of the first popular publishers of this format in the UK. A large number of popular authors saw their works given paperback publication through Pan, including Ian Fleming, whose James Bond series first appeared in paperback in the UK as Pan titles. So too did Leslie Charteris's books about The Saint, Peter O'Donnell's Modesty Blaise, novels by Georgette Heyer, Neville Shute, John Steinbeck, Josephine Tey and Arthur Upfield.
Pan published paperback editions of works by classic authors such as Jane Austen and Charles Dickens. Another notable title was The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams. During the 1950s and 1960s Pan Books editions were noted for their colourful covers, which have made many of them collectables the Fleming and Charteris novels; the Pan imprint continues to publish a broad list of popular non-fiction. Among its current authors are Ken Follett, Kate Morton, Jeffrey Archer, Peter James, David Baldacci, Joanna Trollope, C. J. Sansom, Scott Turow and Danielle Steel