An automatic firearm continuously fires rounds as long as the trigger is pressed or held and there is ammunition in the magazine/chamber. In contrast, a semi-automatic firearm fires one round with each individual trigger-pull. Although all "semi-automatic", "burst fire", "fully automatic" firearms are "automatic" in the technical sense that the firearm automatically cycles between rounds with each trigger pull, the terms "automatic weapon" and "automatic firearm" are conventionally reserved by firearm enthusiasts to describe automatic firearms. Use of the terms "fully automatic" or "full auto" can avoid confusion. Firearms are further defined by the type of firearm action used. Self-loading firearms are designed with varying rates of fire due to having different purposes; the speed with which a self-loading firearm can cycle through the functions of: Fire Eject Load Cockis called the cyclic rate. In automatic firearms the cyclic rate is tailored to the purpose that the gun is made to serve. Anti-aircraft machine guns have high rates of fire to maximize the probability of a hit.
In infantry support weapons these rates of fire are much lower and in some cases variable within the design of the firearm. The MG 34 is a WWII-era machine gun which today would be referred to as a general purpose machine gun, it came in several variations with a cyclic rate as high as 1200 rounds per minute, but made an infantry model which fired at 900 rounds per minute. Firing any firearm generates a high temperature in the firearm's barrel and elevated temperature throughout much of its structure. If fired too fast, the components of the firearm will suffer a structural failure; this means that all firearms, regardless of whether they are semi-automatic automatic, or burst mode in their firing methods, will overheat and fail if fired too often. This is a problem with automatic fire. In actual use, a gun might be able to fire at 1200 rounds per minute, but in one minute it may overheat and fail. So guns used in a repeated firing mode must not be fired too often; the MG34 is fired manually in bursts of 5 to 7 rounds.
It can fire at an effective rate of 150 rounds per minute. Semi-automatic firearms will overheat if not allowed to cool. A semi-automatic rifle has an effective firing rate of 40 rounds per minute. A large part of the reason that this is so low, is that the recoil of firing a round pushes the gun's aim off target; the time it takes to "reacquire" the target slows the effective firing rate. The Army Study Guide lists the sustained rate of fire for an M4 Rifle at 12 to 15 rounds per minute. Automatic firearms can be divided into six main categories: Automatic rifle The standard type of service rifles in most modern armies capable of selective fire. Assault rifles are a specific type of select-fire rifle chambered in an intermediate cartridge and fed via a high-capacity detachable magazine. Battle rifles chambered in a full-powered cartridge. Automatic shotgun A type of combat shotgun, capable of firing shotgun shells automatically also semi-automatically. Machine gun A large group of heavier firearms used for suppressive automatic fire of rifle ammunition attached to a mount or supported by a bipod.
Depending on size and role, machine guns are divided into heavy, medium or light machine guns. The ammunition is belt-fed. Submachine gun An short rifle that uses pistol cartridges. Today used militarily, due to body armour making them ineffective, but they are used by police forces and close protection units in many parts of the world. Personal defense weapon A new breed of automatic firearms that combine the lightness and size of the submachine gun with the medium power calibre ammunition of rifle, thus in practice creating a submachine gun with body armor penetration capability. Machine pistol A handgun-style firearm, capable of automatic or burst fire, they are sometimes equipped with a foldable shoulder stock, to enable better accuracy during automatic fire, which makes them similar to submachine guns. Some machine pistols are shaped similar to semi-automatics; as with SMGs, machine pistols fire pistol caliber cartridges. Burst mode is used in military firearms to limit the number of rounds fired due to the inaccuracy of automatic fire.
In the US M16/M4 rifles for example, the burst mode is 3 rounds. The trigger once held, results in 3 rounds being fired; the gun will not fire again until the trigger is released and pulled again. There are suggestions that automatic fire has no genuine benefit and has been restricted or banned in combat due to being a waste of ammunition; the US M4 Carbine is now the main combat rifle of the US armed forces and has been available until in semi-automatic and burst mode of 3 rounds only. Automatic weapons tend to be restricted to military and police organizations in most developed countries that permit the use of semi-automatic firearms. Where automatic weapons are permitted and regulations on their possession and use may be much more severe than for other firearms. In the United States and strict regulations affect the manufacture and sale of automatic firearms under the National Firearms Act. A prospective user must go through an application process administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, which requires a federal tax payment of $200 and a thorough criminal background check.
The tax payment buys a revenue stamp, the legal document allowing possession of an automatic firearm. The use of a gu
A cartridge is a type of pre-assembled firearm ammunition packaging a projectile, a propellant substance and an ignition device within a metallic, paper or plastic case, made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting. Although in popular usage the term "bullet" is used to refer to a complete cartridge, it is used only to refer to the projectile. Cartridges can be categorized by the type of their primers — a small charge of an impact- or electric-sensitive chemical mixture, located at the center of the case head, inside the rim of the case base, in a sideway projection, shaped like a pin or a lip, or in a small nipple-like bulge at the case base. Military and commercial producers continue to pursue the goal of caseless ammunition; some artillery ammunition uses the same cartridge concept. In other cases, the artillery shell is separate from the propellant charge. A cartridge without a projectile is called a blank.
One, inert is called a dummy. One that failed to ignite and shoot off the projectile is called a dud, one that ignited but failed to sufficiently push the projectile out of the barrel is called a squib; the primary purpose is to be a handy all-in-one for a shot. In modern, automatic weapons, it provides the energy to move the parts of the gun which make it fire repeatedly. Many weapons were designed to make use of a available cartridge, or a new one with new qualities; the cartridge case seals a firing chamber in all directions excepting the bore. A firing pin ignites it; the primer compound deflagrates, it does not detonate. A jet of burning gas from the primer ignites the propellant. Gases from the burning powder expand the case to seal it against the chamber wall; these propellant gases push on the bullet base. In response to this pressure, the bullet will move in the path of least resistance, down the bore of the barrel. After the bullet leaves the barrel, the chamber pressure drops to atmospheric pressure.
The case, elastically expanded by chamber pressure, contracts slightly. This eases removal of the case from the chamber. To manufacture brass for cartidges, a sheet of brass is punched into disks; these disks go through a series of punches and dies and are annealed and washed before moving to the next series of dies. Making bullets involves simular type of maching as for making brass cases; the projectile can be made of anything. Lead is a material of choice because of high density, ductility; the propellant was long gunpowder, still in use, but superseded by better compositions, generically called Smokeless powder. Early primer was fine gunpowder poured into a pan or tube where it could be ignited by some external source of ignition such as a fuse or a spark. Modern primers are shock sensitive chemicals enclosed in a small capsule, ignited by percussion. In some instance ignition is electricity-primed, there may be no primer at all in such design; the case is made of brass because it is resistant to corrosion.
A brass case head can be work-hardened to withstand the high pressures of cartridges, allow for manipulation via extraction and ejection without tearing the metal. The neck and body portion of a brass case is annealed to make the case ductile enough to allow reforming so that it can be reloaded many times. Steel is used in some plinking ammunition, as well as in some military ammunition. Steel is less expensive than brass. Military forces consider small arms cartridge cases to be disposable, one-time-use devices. However, case weight affects how much ammunition a soldier can carry, so the lighter steel cases do have a military advantage. Conversely, steel is more susceptible to contamination and damage so all such cases are varnished or otherwise sealed against the elements. One downside caused by the increased strength of steel in the neck of these cases is that propellant gas can blow back past the neck and into the chamber. Constituents of these gases condense on the chamber wall; this solid propellant residue can make extraction of fired cases difficult.
This is less of a problem for small arms of the former Warsaw Pact nations, which were designed with much larger chamber tolerances than NATO weapons. Aluminum cased; these are not reloaded as aluminum fatigues during firing and resizing. Some calibers have non-standard primer sizes to discourage reloaders from attempting to reuse these cases. Plastic cases are used in shotgun shells and some manufacturers offer polymer centerfire cartridges. Paper had been used in the earliest cartridges. Critical cartridge specifications include neck size, bullet weight and caliber, maximum pressure, overall length, case body diameter and taper, shoulder design, rim type, etc. Ever
The.223 Remington is a rifle cartridge developed in 1957, for the ArmaLite AR-15. In 1964, the ArmaLite AR-15 was adopted by the United States Army as the M16 rifle and it would become the standard U. S. Military rifle; the military version of the cartridge uses a 55 gr full metal jacket bullet and was designated M193. In 1980, the.223 Remington was transformed into a new cartridge, a 62 gr full metal jacket bullet with a seven grain steel core for better penetration and designated 5.56×45mm NATO. The development of the cartridge which became the.223 Remington was intrinsically linked to the development of a new lightweight combat rifle. The cartridge and rifle were developed by Fairchild Industries, Remington Arms and several engineers working toward a goal developed by U. S. Continental Army Command. Early development work began in 1957. A project to create a small caliber high velocity firearm was created. Eugene Stoner of ArmaLite was invited to scale down the AR-10 design. Winchester was invited to participate.
The parameters requested by CONARC were:.22 caliber Bullet exceeding supersonic speed at 500 yards Rifle weight 6 lbs Magazine capacity of 20 rounds Select fire for both semi-automatic and automatic use Penetration of US steel helmet one side, at 500 yards Penetration of.135" steel plate at 500 yards Accuracy and ballistics equal to M2 ball ammunition Wounding ability equal to the M1 CarbineSpringfield Armory's Earle Harvey lengthened the.222 Remington cartridge case to meet the requirements. It was known as the.224 Springfield. Concurrently with the SCHV project Springfield armory was developing a 7.62 mm rifle. Harvey was ordered to cease all work on the SCHV to avoid any competition of resources. Eugene Stoner of ArmaLite had been advised to produce a scaled down version of the 7.62×51mm NATO AR-10 design. In May 1957 Stoner gave a live fire demonstration of the prototype of the ArmaLite AR-15 for General Wyman; as a result, CONARC ordered rifles to test. Stoner and Sierra Bullet's Frank Snow began work on the.222 Remington cartridge.
Using a ballistic calculator they determined that a 55 grain bullet would have to be fired at 3,300 ft/s to achieve the 500 yard performance necessary. Robert Hutton started development of a powder load to reach the 3,300 ft/s goal, he used IMR3031 and an Olin powder to work up loads. Testing was done with a Remington 722 rifle with a 22" Apex barrel. During a public demonstration the round penetrated the US steel helmet as required, but testing showed chamber pressures to be excessively high. Stoner contacted both Remington about increasing the case capacity. Remington created; this cartridge is loaded with DuPont IMR4475 powder. During parallel testing of the T44E4 and the ArmaLite AR-15 in 1958 the T44E4 experienced 16 failures per 1,000 rounds fired compared to 6.1 for the ArmaLite AR-15. Because of several different.222 caliber cartridges which were being developed for the SCHV project, the.222 Special was renamed.223 Remington. In May 1959 a report was produced stating that five to seven man squads armed with ArmaLite AR-15 rifles have a higher hit probability than 11 man squads armed with the M-14 rifle.
At an Independence Day picnic air force general Curtis Le May tested the ArmaLite AR-15 and was impressed with it. He ordered a number of them to replace M2 carbines by the air force. In November of that year, testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground showed the ArmaLite AR-15 failure rate had declined to 2.5/1,000, resulting in the ArmaLite AR-15 being approved for air force trials. In 1961 a marksmanship testing compared the AR-15 and M-14. 43 % of ArmaLite AR-15 shooters achieved Expert. Le May ordered 80,000 rifles. In July 1962, operational testing ended with a recommendation for adoption of the ArmaLite AR-15 rifle chambered in.223 Remington. In September 1963 the.223 Remington cartridge was accepted and named "Cartridge, 5.56 mm ball, M193". The following year, the ArmaLite AR-15 was adopted by the United States Army as the M16 rifle and it would become the standard U. S. Military rifle; the specification included a Remington-designed bullet and the use of IMR4475 powder which resulted in a muzzle velocity of 3,250 ft/s and a chamber pressure of 52,000psi.
In the spring of 1962 Remington submitted the specifications of the.223 Remington to the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute. In December 1963, Remington introduced its first rifle chambered for.223 Remnington a Model 760 rifle. The.223 Remington has a 28.8 grain cartridge case capacity..223 Remington maximum C. I. P. Cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters. Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2; the common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 305 mm, 6 grooves, Ø lands = 5.56 millimetres, Ø grooves = 5.69 millimetres, land width = 1.88 millimetres and the primer type is small rifle. According to the official C. I. P. Rulings the.223 Remington can handle up to 430.00 MPa Pmax piezo pressure. In C. I. P. Regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C. I. P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. This means that.223 Remington chambered arms in C. I. P. Regulated countries are proof tested at 537.50 MPa PE piezo pressure.
This is equal to the NATO maximum service pressure guideline for the 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge. The SAA
A carbine, from French carabine, is a long gun firearm but with a shorter barrel than a rifle or musket. Many carbines are shortened versions of full-length rifles, shooting the same ammunition, while others fire lower-powered ammunition, including types designed for pistols; the smaller size and lighter weight of carbines make them easier to handle. They are issued to high-mobility troops such as special-operations soldiers and paratroopers, as well as to mounted, logistics, or other non-infantry personnel whose roles do not require full-sized rifles, although there is a growing tendency for carbines to be issued to front-line soldiers to offset the increasing weight of other issued equipment. An example of this is the US Army's M4 carbine, standard-issue; the name comes from its first users — cavalry troopers called "carabiniers", from the French carabine, from Old French carabin, whose origin is unclear. One theory connects it to an "ancient engine of war" called a calabre; the carbine was a lighter, shortened weapon developed for the cavalry.
Carbines were short enough to be loaded and fired from horseback, but this was done – a moving horse is a unsteady platform, once halted, a soldier can load and fire more if dismounted, which makes him a smaller target. After the Napoleonic Wars, cavalry began fighting dismounted, using the horses only for greater mobility, an early form of what is today known as motorized infantry. By the American Civil War, dismounted cavalry were the rule; the principal advantage of the carbine was that its length made it portable. Troops could carry full-length muskets comfortably enough on horseback if just riding from A to B. Cavalry proper had to ride with some agility and engage in sword-wielding melées with opposing cavalry or pursue running infantry, so carrying anything long would be a dangerous encumbrance. A carbine was no longer than a sheathed sabre, like a sheathed sabre was carried arranged to hang clear of the rider's elbows and horse's legs. Carbines were less accurate and less powerful than the longer muskets of the infantry, due to a shorter sight plane and lower velocity of bullets fired from the shortened barrel.
With the advent of fast-burning smokeless powder, the velocity disadvantages of a shorter barrel became less of an issue. The use of horse-mounted cavalry would decline, but carbines continued to be issued and used by many who preferred a lighter, more compact weapon at the cost of reduced long-range accuracy and power, such as artillery troops, who might need to defend themselves from attack but would be hindered by keeping full-sized rifles around. During the early 19th century, carbines were developed separately from the infantry rifles and, in many cases, did not use the same ammunition, which made for supply difficulties. A notable weapon developed towards the end of the American Civil War by the Union was the Spencer carbine, one of the first breechloading, repeating weapons, it had a spring-powered, removable tube magazine in the buttstock which held seven rounds and could be reloaded by inserting spare tubes. It was intended to give the cavalry a replacement weapon which could be fired from horseback without the need for awkward reloading after each shot.
In the late 19th century, it became common for a number of nations to make bolt-action rifles in both full-length and carbine versions. One of the most popular and recognizable carbines were the lever-action Winchester carbines, with several versions available firing revolver cartridges; this made it an ideal choice for cowboys and explorers, as well as other inhabitants of the American West, who could carry a revolver and a carbine, both using the same ammunition. The Lee Enfield Cavalry Carbine a shortened version of the standard British Army infantry rifle was introduced in 1896, although it did not become the standard British cavalry weapon until 1903. In the decades following World War I, the standard battle rifle used by armies around the world had been growing shorter, either by redesign or by the general issue of carbine versions instead of full-length rifles; this move was initiated by the US Model 1903 Springfield, produced in 1907 with a short 24-inch barrel, providing a short rifle, longer than a carbine but shorter than a typical rifle, so it could be issued to all troops without need for separate versions.
Other nations followed suit after World War I, when they learned that their traditional long-barreled rifles provided little benefit in the trenches and proved a hindrance to the soldiers. Examples include the Russian Model 1891 rifle with an 800 mm barrel shortened to 730 mm in 1930, to 510 mm in 1938, the German Mauser Gewehr 98 rifles went from 740 mm in 1898 to 600 mm in 1935 as the Karabiner 98k, or "short carbine"; the barrel lengths in rifles used by the United States did not change between the bolt-action M1903 rifl
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte
Colt's Manufacturing Company
Colt's Manufacturing Company, LLC is an American firearms manufacturer, founded in 1855 by Samuel Colt. It is the successor corporation to Colt's earlier firearms-making efforts, which started in 1836. Colt is known for the engineering and marketing of firearms, most between the 1850s and World War I, when it was a dominating force in its industry and a seminal influence on manufacturing technology. Colt's earliest designs played a major role in the popularization of the revolver and the shift away from earlier single-shot pistols. Although Samuel Colt did not invent the revolver concept, his designs resulted in the first successful ones; the most famous Colt products include the Colt Walker, made 1847 in the facilities of Eli Whitney Jr. the Single Action Army or Peacemaker, the Colt Python, the Colt M1911 pistol, the longest-standing military and law enforcement service handgun in the world and is still used today. Though they did not develop it, for a long time Colt was primarily responsible for all AR-15 and M16 rifle production, as well as many derivatives of those firearms.
The most successful and famous of these are numerous M16 carbines, including the Colt Commando family, the M4 carbine. In 2002, Colt Defense was split off from Colt's Manufacturing Company. Colt's Manufacturing Company now serves the civilian market, while Colt Defense serves the law enforcement and private security markets worldwide; the two companies remained in the same West Hartford, Connecticut location cross-licensing certain merchandise before reuniting in 2013. Following the loss of its M4 contract in 2013, the reunited Colt was in Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, starting in 2015 and reemerging in January 2016. Samuel Colt received a British patent on his improved design for a revolver in 1835, two U. S. patents in 1836, one on February 25 and another on August 29. That same year, he founded his first corporation for its manufacture, the Patent Arms Manufacturing Company of Paterson, New Jersey, Colt's Patent; the first firearm manufactured at the new Paterson plant, was the Colt First Model Ring Lever rifle beginning in 1837.
This was followed shortly thereafter in late 1837 by the introduction of the Colt Paterson. This corporation suffered quality problems in production. Making firearms with interchangeable parts was still rather new, it was not yet easy to replicate across different factories. Interchangeability was not complete in the Paterson works, traditional gunsmithing techniques did not fill the gap there; the Colt Paterson revolver found patchy failure. The United States Marine Corps and United States Army reported quality problems with these earliest Colt revolvers. Production had ended at the New Jersey corporation by 1842. Colt made another attempt at revolver production in 1846 and submitted a prototype to the US government. During the Mexican–American War, this prototype was seen by Captain Samuel Hamilton Walker who made some suggestions to Colt about making it in a larger caliber. Having no factory or machinery to produce the pistols, Samuel Colt collaborated with the Whitney armory of Whitneyville, Connecticut.
This armory was run by the family of Eli Whitney. Eli Whitney Jr, the son of the cotton-gin-developer patriarch, was the head of the family armory and a successful arms maker and innovator of the era. Colt used a combination of renting the Whitney firm's facilities and subcontracting parts to the firm to continue his pursuit of revolver manufacture. Colt's new revolvers found favor with Texan volunteers, they placed an order for 1,000 revolvers that became known as the Colt Walker, ensuring Colt's continuance in manufacturing revolvers. In 1848, Colt was able to start again with a new business of his own, 1855, he converted it into a corporation under the name of Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company in Hartford, Connecticut. Colt purchased a large tract of land beside the Connecticut River, where he built his first factory in 1848, a larger factory called the Colt Armory in 1855, a manor that he called Armsmear in 1856, employee tenement housing, he established a ten-hour day for employees, installed washing stations in the factory, mandated a one-hour lunch break, built the Charter Oak Hall, a club where employees could enjoy games and discussion rooms.
Colt ran his plant with a military-like discipline, he would fire workers for tardiness, sub-par work or suggesting improvements to his designs. In an attempt to attract skilled German workers to his plant, Colt built a village near the factory away from the tenements which he named Coltsville and modeled the homes after a village near Potsdam. In an effort to stem the flooding from the river he planted German osiers, a type of willow tree in a 2-mile long dike, he subsequently built a factory to manufacture wicker furniture made from these trees. The 1850s were a decade of phenomenal success for the new Colt corporation. Colt was the first to commercialize the total use of interchangeable parts throughout a product, it was a leader in assembly line practice. It was a major training ground in manufacturing technology in this decade. Soon after establishing his Hartford factory, Colt set out to establish a factory in Europe and chose London, England, he organized a large display of his firearms at the Great Exhibition of 1851 at Hyde Park and ingratiated himself by presenting cased engraved Colt revolvers to such appropriate o
Selective fire means the capability of a weapon to be adjusted to fire in semi-automatic, burst mode, and/or automatic firing mode. The modes are chosen by means of a selector; some selective-fire weapons have burst fire mechanisms to limit the maximum number of shots fired automatically in this mode. The most common limits are three rounds per trigger pull. Automatic fire refers to the ability for a weapon to fire continuously until either the feeding mechanism is emptied or the trigger is released. Semi-automatic refers to the ability to fire one round per trigger pull; the presence of selective fire modes on firearms permits more efficient use of rounds to be fired for specific needs, versus having a single mode of operation, such as automatic, thereby conserving ammunition while maximizing on-target accuracy and effectiveness. This capability is most found on military weapons of the 20th and 21st centuries. Early attempts at this technology were hindered by one or both of two obstacles: over-powerful ammunition and mechanical complexity.
The latter led to excessive unreliability in the firearm. One of the earliest designs dates to just before the end of the 19th century with the development of the Cei-Rigotti, an early automatic rifle created by Italian Army officer Amerigo Cei-Rigotti that had selective-fire capability. Another is the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle developed during the First World War; the BAR and its subsequent designs incorporated a variety of selective-fire functions. The first design is a selective-fire, air-cooled automatic rifle that used a trigger mechanism with a fire selector lever that enabled operating in either semi-automatic or automatic firing modes; the selector lever is located on the left side of the receiver and is the manual safety. The next version had a unique rate-of-fire reducer mechanism purchased from FN Herstal with two rates of automatic fire; this reducer mechanism was changed to one designed by the Springfield Armory. The final version provided two selectable rates of automatic fire only.
During World War II the Germans began development of the selective-fire function which resulted in the FG 42 battle rifle developed in 1942 at the request of the German Air Force in 1941. Another German design that used selective fire was the StG 44, the first of its kind to see major deployment and is considered by many historians to be the first modern assault rifle. "The principle of this weapon -- the reduction of muzzle impulse to get useful automatic fire within actual ranges of combat -- was the most important advance in small arms since the invention of smokeless powder."The selective-fire function was seen in the Russian AK-47, the British EM-2, the U. S. AR-15 and its AR derivatives. Selective-fire weapons, by definition, have a semi-automatic mode, where the weapon automatically reloads the chamber after each fired round, but requires the trigger be released and pulled again before firing the next round; this allows for rapid and aimed fire. In some weapons, the selection is between different rates of automatic fire and/or varying burst limiters.
The selection is by a small rotating switch integrated with the safety catch or a switch separate from the safety, as in the British SA80 family. Another method is a weighted trigger, such as the Steyr AUG, which will fire a single shot when 4,0 - 7,1 kg of weight is exerted on the trigger, become automatic when over 7,1 kg of weight is applied; this is useful for emergency situations where a rapid volley of rounds is more effective for suppressing a close enemy rather than a single-round burst. Some selective-fire weapons offer a burst mode as the second option, where each pull of the trigger automatically fires a predetermined number of rounds, but will not fire any more until the trigger is pulled again; the current U. S. standard assault rifle, the M16A4, the M4 carbine variant of this rifle fire a maximum of three rounds with each pull of the trigger in burst mode. In this design, it retains the count of fired rounds and may fire fewer than three rounds. Other designs reset the count with each trigger pull, allowing a uniform three-round burst as long as rounds remain.
A common version of the Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun fires single shots, three-round-bursts, automatically. A special variant uses a two-round-burst to minimize the chances of missing with a third round; some automatic cannons have larger burst limiters to coincide with higher rates of fire. Bump fire, a method used for simulating automatic fire Selective-fire shotgun List of firearms