Rogers Commission Report
The Rogers Commission Report was created by a Presidential Commission charged with investigating the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster during its 10th mission, STS-51-L. The failure of the O-rings was attributed to a design flaw, more broadly, the report determined the contributing causes of the accident. Most salient was the failure of both NASA and its contractor, Morton Thiokol, to respond adequately to the design flaw, the Commission found that as early as 1977, NASA managers had not only known about the flawed O-ring, but that it had the potential for catastrophe. This led the Rogers Commission to conclude that the Challenger disaster was an accident rooted in history, the report strongly criticized the decision making process that led to the launch of Challenger, saying that it was seriously flawed. There was a meeting the night before the launch to discuss any major pressing issues that might delay the launch further, several of the Morton Thiokol engineers stated their concerns about the O-rings and urged the council to delay the launch.
However, because there were no members of the safety council and it is certain that even though higher-ranking members of the council did know about the issues, there were plenty of members that could have stopped the launch but decided not to. This was done in part because of the management structure at NASA. One of the commissions members was theoretical physicist Richard Feynman. His style of investigating with his own direct methods rather than following the schedule put him at odds with Rogers. Feynmans own investigation reveals a disconnect between NASAs engineers and executives that was far more striking than he expected and his interviews of NASAs high-ranking managers revealed startling misunderstandings of elementary concepts. One such concept was the determination of a safety factor, in one example, early tests resulted in some of the booster rockets O-rings burning a third of the way through. These O-rings provided the gas-tight seal needed between the vertically stacked cylindrical sections that made up the fuel booster. NASA managers recorded this result as demonstrating that the O-rings had a safety factor of 3.
If a 1,000 pound truck drove across the bridge and it cracked at all, even just a third of the way through a beam, the safety factor is now zero, Feynman was disturbed by two aspects of this practice. First, NASA management assigned a probability of failure to each individual bolt, sometimes claiming a probability of 1 in 108, Feynman pointed out that it is impossible to calculate such a remote possibility with any scientific rigor. Secondly, Feynman was bothered not just by this sloppy science, Feynman suspected that the 1/100,000 figure was wildly fantastical, and made a rough estimate that the true likelihood of shuttle disaster was closer to 1 in 100. He decided to poll the engineers themselves, asking them to write down an estimate of the odds of shuttle explosion. Feynman found that the bulk of the engineers estimates fell between 1 in 50 and 1 in 200, not only did this confirm that NASA management had clearly failed to communicate with their own engineers, but the disparity engaged Feynmans emotions
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is an American spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit. The Orion MPCV was announced by NASA on May 24,2011 and its design is based on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle from the cancelled Constellation program. The Orion command module is being built by Lockheed Martin at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, the Orion Service Module, provided by the European Space Agency, is being built by Airbus Defence and Space. However, a July 2016 Government Accountability Office report cast doubt on even the 2023 launch date, the report gave only a 40% confidence in the 2021 launch date, and suggested the aggressive goal may be counterproductive to the program. On January 14,2004, U. S. President George W. Bush announced the Crew Exploration Vehicle as part of the Vision for Space Exploration. The CEV effectively replaced the conceptual Orbital Space Plane, which was proposed after the cancellation of the Lockheed Martin X-33 program to produce a replacement for the space shuttle.
Constellation proposed using the Orion CEV in both crew and cargo variants to support the International Space Station and as a vehicle for a return to the Moon. The Orion CEV weighs about 23 tonnes, less than the 30 tonne Apollo command/service module, the crew module would weigh about 8.9 tonnes, greater than the equivalent Apollo command module at 5.8 tonnes. With a diameter of 5 metres as opposed to 3.9 metres, the Orion CEV design consisted of two main parts, a conical crew module and a cylindrical service module holding the spacecrafts propulsion system and expendable supplies. Both were based substantially on the Apollo command and service modules flown between 1967 and 1975, on May 7,2009, the Obama administration enlisted the Augustine Commission to perform a full independent review of the ongoing NASA space exploration program. As a consequence, the commission recommended a significant re-allocation of goals, as one of the many outcomes based on these recommendations, on October 11,2010, the Constellation program was cancelled, ending development of the Altair, Ares I, and Ares V.
The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle survived the cancellation and was renamed the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Orion MPCV takes basic design elements from the Apollo Command Module that took astronauts to the moon, but its technology and capability are more advanced. It is designed to support long-duration deep space missions, with up to 21 days active crew time plus 6 months quiescent, during the quiescent period crew life support would be provided by another module such as a Deep Space Habitat. The spacecrafts life support, thermal protection and avionics systems are designed to be upgradeable as new technologies become available, the MPCV spacecraft includes both crew and service modules, and a spacecraft adaptor. The MPCVs crew module is larger than Apollos and can support more crew members for short or long-duration missions, the service module fuels and propels the spacecraft as well as storing oxygen and water for astronauts. The service modules structure is being designed to provide locations to mount scientific experiments, the crew module is the only part of the MPCV that returns to Earth after each mission and is a 57.
5° frustum shape, similar to that of the Apollo command module. As projected, the CM will be 5.02 meters in diameter and 3.3 meters in length, with a mass of about 8.5 metric tons and it was manufactured by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. It will have more than 50% more volume than the Apollo capsule, which had a volume of 5.9 m3
Edward Rolf Tufte is an American statistician and professor emeritus of political science and computer science at Yale University. He is noted for his writings on design and as a pioneer in the field of data visualization. Edward Rolf Tufte was born in 1942 in Kansas City, Missouri, to Virginia Tufte and he grew up in Beverly Hills, where his father was a longtime city official, and he graduated from Beverly Hills High School. He received a BS and MS in statistics from Stanford University and his dissertation, completed in 1968, was entitled The Civil Rights Movement and Its Opposition. In 1975, while at Princeton, Tufte was asked to teach a course to a group of journalists who were visiting the school to study economics. These course materials became the foundation for his first book on information design, after difficult negotiations with mainline publishers failed, Tufte decided to self-publish Visual Display in 1982, working closely with graphic designer Howard Gralla. He financed the work by taking out a mortgage on his home.
The book quickly became a success and secured his transition from political scientist to information expert. Tufte is an expert in the presentation of graphics such as charts and diagrams. He has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and he is intensely critical in the self-editing process. He pulls in and casts out ideas from books, posters, auction catalogs and he invites others to critique his work in-progress and may nurture dozens of ideas over months in various states of growth and fruition. He deletes almost every photograph he takes, over time, he deletes most of what he writes on his own forum, ET Notebooks. Every printing of every book corrects numerous small blemishes, ranging from color registration to kerning and hinting, Tuftes writing is important in such fields as information design and visual literacy, which deal with the visual communication of information. He coined the word chartjunk to refer to useless, non-informative, Tuftes other key concepts include what he calls the lie factor, the data-ink ratio, and the data density of a graphic.
He uses the term data-ink ratio to argue against using excessive decoration in visual displays of quantitative information, in Visual Display, Tufte explains, Sometimes decoration can help editorialize about the substance of the graphic. But it is wrong to distort the data measures—the ink locating values of numbers—in order to make a comment or fit a decorative scheme. Tufte encourages the use of illustrations that presented all available data. When such illustrations are examined closely, every point has a value
Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
On February 1,2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated upon reentering Earths atmosphere, killing all seven crew members. The disaster was the tragedy in the Space Shuttle program after Space Shuttle Challenger in 1986. During the launch of STS-107, Columbias 28th mission, a piece of foam broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank. A few previous shuttle launches had seen damage ranging from minor to major from foam shedding, NASA managers limited the investigation, reasoning that the crew could not have fixed the problem if it had been confirmed. After the disaster, Space Shuttle flight operations were suspended for more than two years, as they had been after the Challenger disaster. Commander, Rick D. Husband, a U. S. Air Force colonel and mechanical engineer, payload Commander, Michael P. Anderson, a U. S. Air Force lieutenant colonel and mission specialist who was in charge of the science mission. Payload Specialist, Ilan Ramon, a colonel in the Israeli Air Force, Mission Specialist, Kalpana Chawla, aerospace engineer who was on her second space mission.
Mission Specialist, David M. Brown, a U. S. Navy captain trained as an aviator, Mission Specialist, Laurel Blair Salton Clark, a U. S. Navy captain and flight surgeon. The shuttles main fuel tank is covered in thermal insulation foam intended to prevent ice from forming when the tank is full of liquid hydrogen and oxygen, such ice could damage the shuttle if shed during lift-off. Mission STS-107 was the 113th Space Shuttle launch, planned to begin on January 11,2001, the mission was delayed 18 times and eventually launched on January 16,2003, following STS-113. About 82 seconds after launch from Kennedy Space Centers LC-39-A, a piece of foam broke off from the External Tank. At the time of the strike, the orbiter was at an altitude of about 66,000 feet. The Left Bipod Foam Ramp is an approximately three-foot long aerodynamic component made entirely of foam, the foam, not normally considered to be a structural material, is required to bear some aerodynamic loads. Because of these requirements, the casting-in-place and curing of the ramps may be performed only by a senior technician.
Bipod Ramp insulation had been observed falling off, in whole or in part, on four flights, STS-7, STS-32, STS-50. All affected shuttle missions completed successfully, NASA management came to refer to this phenomenon as foam shedding. This phenomenon was termed normalization of deviance by sociologist Diane Vaughan in her book on the Challenger launch decision process. As it happened, STS-112 had been the first flight with the ET Cam, after STS-112, NASA leaders analyzed the situation and decided to press ahead under the justification that he ET is safe to fly with no new concerns of further foam strikes
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, often cited as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. Researchers worked on computers and inertial guidance during World War II, post-war defense research contributed to the rapid expansion of the faculty and campus under James Killian. The current 168-acre campus opened in 1916 and extends over 1 mile along the bank of the Charles River basin. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the sciences and engineering, and more recently in biology, linguistics. Air Force and 6 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT, the school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, and the aggregated revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the eleventh-largest economy in the world. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a Conservatory of Art and Science, but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars, two days after the charter was issued, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MITs first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865, in 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called Boston Tech, the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker. Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the curriculum drifted to a vocational emphasis, with less focus on theoretical science.
The fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership, during these Boston Tech years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliots repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard Colleges Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard, in its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding. Eventually the MIT Corporation approved an agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty, students. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court effectively put an end to the merger scheme, the neoclassical New Technology campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded largely by anonymous donations from a mysterious Mr. Smith, starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of production and processing
Skylab was the United States first space station, orbiting Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention. Launched and operated by NASA, Skylab included a workshop, a solar observatory and it was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V rocket, with a weight of 170,000 pounds. Lifting Skylab into low earth orbit was the mission and launch of a Saturn V rocket. Skylabs solar observatory was one aspect of study, and solar science was significantly advanced by the telescope. Each of these missions delivered a three-astronaut crew, carried in the Apollo Command/Service Module launched atop the Saturn IB rocket, which is much smaller than the Saturn V. For the final two manned missions to Skylab, a backup Apollo CSM/Saturn IB was assembled and made ready in case a rescue mission was needed. This deprived Skylab of most of its power, and removed protection from intense solar heating, threatening to make it unusable. However, the first crew was able to save Skylab by deploying a replacement heat shade and freeing the jammed solar panels, Skylab included the Apollo Telescope Mount, Multiple Docking Adapter, Airlock Module with extravehicular activity hatches, and the Orbital Workshop.
Electrical power came from solar arrays, as well as cells in the docked Apollo CSM. The rear of the station included a large tank, propellant tanks for maneuvering jets. Numerous scientific experiments were conducted aboard Skylab during its operational life, the Earth Resources Experiment Package was used to view Earth with sensors that recorded data in the visible and microwave spectral regions. Plans were made to refurbish and reuse Skylab by using the Space Shuttle to boost its orbit, due to delays with the development of the Space Shuttle, Skylabs decaying orbit could not be stopped. In the hours before re-entry, NASA ground controllers attempted to adjust Skylabs trajectory, NASAs attempted target was a spot 810 miles south-southeast of Cape Town, South Africa. Skylab did not burn up as fast as NASA expected, and Skylab debris landed southeast of Perth in Western Australia, over a single property in Esperance,24 pieces of Skylab were found. Analysis of some debris indicated that the Skylab station had disintegrated 10 mi above the Earth, after Skylab, NASA space station/laboratory projects included Spacelab, Shuttle-Mir, and Space Station Freedom.
Rocket engineer Wernher von Braun, science fiction writer Arthur C, and other early advocates of manned space travel, expected until the 1960s that a space station would be an important early step in space exploration. Von Braun participated in the publishing of a series of articles in Colliers magazine from 1952 to 1954. He envisioned a large, circular station 250 feet in diameter that would rotate to generate gravity and require a fleet of 7
STS-107 was the 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the disastrous final flight of Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven members of the crew were killed on February 1 when Columbia disintegrated during reentry into the atmosphere, during re-entry the damaged wing slowly overheated and came apart, eventually leading to loss of control and disintegration of the vehicle. The cockpit window frame is now exhibited in a memorial inside the Space Shuttle Atlantis Pavilion at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, sTS-107 carried the SPACEHAB Double Research Module on its inaugural flight, the Freestar experiment, and the Extended Duration Orbiter pallet. SPACEHAB was first flown on STS57, one of the experiments, a video taken to study atmospheric dust, may have detected a new atmospheric phenomenon, dubbed a TIGER. The copy was in the possession of Ilan Ramon and was lost in the disintegration, Ramon traveled with a dollar bill received from the Lubavitcher Rebbe. An Australian experiment, conducted by students from Glen Waverley Secondary College, was designed to test the reaction of zero gravity on the web formation of the Garden Orb Spider, examples of some of the experiments and investigations on the mission.
Because much of the data was transmitted during the mission, there was still large return on the mission even though it was lost on re-entry. Some of the experiments were found on the ground, KSC landing was planned for Feb.1 after a 16-day mission, but Columbia and crew were lost during reentry over East Texas at about 9 a. m. EST,16 minutes prior to the scheduled touchdown at KSC, the loss of the spacecraft and crew triggered a 7-month investigation and a search for debris, and over 85,000 pieces were collected over the course of the initial investigation. This amounted to roughly 38 percent of the orbiter vehicle, the central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol, µg, flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39 degree angle of the symbol to the Earths horizon. The sunrise is representative of the experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station. The breadth of science and the exploration of space is illustrated by the Earth, the constellation Columba was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia.
The seven stars represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. Six stars have five points, the seventh has six points like a Star of David, an Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of Payload Specialist Ramon, who was the first Israeli in space. The crew insignia or patch design was initiated by crew members Dr. Laurel Clark, first-time crew member Clark provided most of the design concepts as Chawla led the design of her maiden voyage STS-87 insignia. Clark pointed out that the dove in the Columba constellation was mythologically connected to the explorers The Argonauts who released the dove, william H. Starbuck, Moshe Farjoun, Organization at the Limit, Lessons from the Columbia Disaster
Ares I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA as part of the Constellation Program. The name Ares refers to the Greek deity Ares, who is identified with the Roman god Mars, Ares I was originally known as the Crew Launch Vehicle. NASA planned to use Ares I to launch Orion, the intended for NASA human spaceflight missions after the Space Shuttle was retired in 2011. Ares I was to complement the larger, unmanned Ares V, NASA selected the Ares designs for their anticipated overall safety and cost-effectiveness. However, the Constellation program, including Ares I was cancelled by Barack Obama in October 2010 with the passage of his 2010 NASA authorization bill, in September 2011, NASA detailed the Space Launch System as its new vehicle for human exploration beyond Earths orbit. In 1995 Lockheed Martin produced an Advanced Transportation System Studies report for the Marshall Space Flight Center, a section of the ATSS report describes several possible vehicles much like the Ares I design, with liquid rocket second stages stacked above segmented solid rocket booster first stages.
The variants that were considered included both the J-2S engines and Space Shuttle Main Engines for the second stage, the variants assumed use of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor as a first stage, but the ASRM was cancelled in 1993 due to significant cost overruns. President George W. Originally, the vehicle would have used a four-segment solid rocket booster for the first stage, an unmanned version was to use the five-segment booster, but with the second stage using the single SSME. The Exploration Systems Architecture Study concluded that the cost and safety of the Ares was superior to that of either of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, the cost estimates in the study were based on the assumption that new launch pads would be needed for human-rated EELVs. The ESAS launch safety estimates for the Ares were based on the Space Shuttle, despite the differences, the estimate counted each Shuttle launch as two safe launches of the Ares booster. The safety of the Atlas V and Delta IV was estimated from the rates of all Delta II, Atlas-Centaur.
Ares I was the crew launch component of the Constellation program, Originally named the Crew Launch Vehicle or CLV, the Ares name was chosen from the Greek deity Ares. Having two separate launch vehicles allows for more specialized designs for the crew and heavy cargo launch rockets, the Ares I rocket was specifically being designed to launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. Orion was intended as a capsule, similar in design to the Apollo program capsule, to transport astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon. Ares I might have delivered some resources to orbit, including supplies for the International Space Station or subsequent delivery to the planned lunar base. NASA selected Alliant Techsystems, the builder of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters, NASA announced that Rocketdyne would be the main subcontractor for the J-2X rocket engine on July 16,2007. NASA selected Boeing to provide and install the avionics for the Ares I rocket on December 12,2007, on August 28,2007 NASA awarded the Ares I Upper Stage manufacturing contract to Boeing.
Boeing built the S-IC stage of the Saturn V rocket at Michoud Assembly Facility in the 1960s
President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29,1958, disestablishing NASAs predecessor, the new agency became operational on October 1,1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data with various national and international such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. Since 2011, NASA has been criticized for low cost efficiency, from 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch a satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard, after the Soviet launch of the worlds first artificial satellite on October 4,1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 29,1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, a NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA, earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPAs early space programs were transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history.
Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter, the experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, to date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15 rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude,260,000 feet. The X-15 was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force, the design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems
Space Shuttle thermal protection system
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing 1,650 °C heat of atmospheric reentry. A secondary goal was to protect from the heat and cold of space while in orbit, used where reentry temperature exceeded 1,260 °C. High-temperature reusable surface insulation tiles, used on the orbiter underside, made of coated LI-900 Silica ceramics. Used where reentry temperature was below 1260 °C, fibrous refractory composite insulation tiles, used to provide improved strength, resistance to coating cracking and weight reduction. Some HRSI tiles were replaced by this type, flexible Insulation Blankets, a quilted, flexible blanket-like surface insulation. Used where reentry temperature was below 649 °C, low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation tiles, formerly used on the upper fuselage, but were mostly replaced by FIB. Used in temperature ranges roughly similar to FIB, toughened unipiece fibrous insulation tiles, a stronger, tougher tile which came into use in 1996.
Used in high and low temperature areas, white Nomex felt blankets on the upper payload bay doors, portions of the mid fuselage and aft fuselage sides, portions of the upper wing surface and a portion of the OMS/RCS pods. Used where temperatures stayed below 371 °C, each type of TPS had specific heat protection, impact resistance, and weight characteristics, which determined the locations where it was used and the amount used. The shuttle TPS has three key characteristics that distinguish it from the TPS used on spacecraft, Reusable. Previous spacecraft generally used ablative heat shields which burned off during reentry and this insulation was robust and reliable, and the single-use nature was appropriate for a single-use vehicle. By contrast, the reusable shuttle required a reusable thermal protection system, previous ablative heat shields were very heavy. For example the heat shield on the Apollo Command Module comprised about 1/3 of the vehicle weight. The winged shuttle had much more area than previous spacecraft.
The only known technology in the early 1970s with the thermal and weight characteristics was so fragile, due to the very low density. The orbiters aluminum structure could not withstand temperatures over 175 °C without structural failure, aerodynamic heating during reentry would push the temperature well above this level in areas, so an effective insulator was needed. Reentry heating differs from the atmospheric heating associated with jet aircraft. The skin of high-speed jet aircraft can become hot, but this is from frictional heating due to atmospheric friction, the orbiter reentered the atmosphere as a blunt body by having a very high angle of attack, with its broad lower surface facing the direction of flight
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster
After burnout, they were jettisoned and parachuted into the Atlantic Ocean where they were recovered, examined and reused. The SRBs were the most powerful rocket motors ever flown, each provided a maximum 13,800 kN thrust, roughly double the most powerful single-combustion chamber liquid-propellant rocket engine ever flown, the Rocketdyne F-1. With a combined mass of about 1,180,000 kg, the motor segments of the SRBs were manufactured by Thiokol of Brigham City, which was purchased by ATK. The prime contractor for most other components of the SRBs, as well as for the integration of all the components and retrieval of the spent SRBs, was USBI, a subsidiary of Pratt and Whitney. This contract was subsequently transitioned to United Space Alliance, a liability company joint venture of Boeing. Out of 270 SRBs launched over the Shuttle program, all but four were recovered – those from STS-4, over 5,000 parts were refurbished for reuse after each flight. The final set of SRBs that launched STS-135 included parts that flew on 59 previous missions, recovery allowed post-flight examination of the boosters, identification of anomalies, and incremental design improvements.
The two reusable SRBs provided the main thrust to lift the shuttle off the pad and up to an altitude of about 150,000 ft. While on the pad, the two SRBs carried the weight of the external tank and orbiter and transmitted the weight load through their structure to the mobile launch platform. Each booster had a liftoff thrust of approximately 2,800,000 pounds-force at sea level and they were ignited after the three Space Shuttle Main Engines thrust level was verified. Each is 149.16 ft long and 12.17 ft in diameter, only could any conceivable set of launch or post-liftoff abort procedures be contemplated. In addition, failure of an individual SRBs thrust output or ability to adhere to the designed performance profile was not survivable, each SRB weighed approximately 1,300,000 lb at launch. The two SRBs constituted about 69% of the total lift-off mass, the propellant for each solid rocket motor weighed approximately 1,100,000 lb. The inert weight of each SRB was approximately 200,000 pounds, while the terms solid rocket motor and solid rocket booster are often used interchangeably, in technical use they have specific meanings.
The term solid rocket motor applied to the propellant, igniter, each booster was attached to the external tank at the SRBs aft frame by two lateral sway braces and a diagonal attachment. The forward end of each SRB was attached to the tank at the forward end of the SRBs forward skirt. On the launch pad, each booster was attached to the launcher platform at the aft skirt by four frangible nuts that were severed at lift-off. The boosters were composed of seven individually manufactured steel segments and these were assembled in pairs by the manufacturer, and shipped to Kennedy Space Center by rail for final assembly
George Washington University
The George Washington University is a private research university in Washington, D. C. GW is the largest institution of education in Washington, D. C. In his will, Washington left his 50 shares in the Potomac Company to help endow the university, due to the companys financial difficulties, the funding did not materialize. The university was chartered by an act of Congress on February 9,1821 and its name was changed to Columbian University in 1873 and to the George Washington University in 1904, in honor of Washington. GWs Graduate School of Political Management is the school of applied politics in the nations capital. GWs professional schools and the Elliott School of International Affairs are consistently ranked highly in national and international college rankings lists, the Princeton Review consistently ranks GW as one of the Most Politically Active schools. Some of the graduates have gone on to high positions within both the U. S. government and foreign governments. Notable alumni include former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid, former Secretary of State Colin Powell and he presented numerous letters to Congress and included the subject in his last will and testament.
Baptist missionary and leading minister Luther Rice raised funds to purchase a site in Washington, the first commencement in 1824 was considered an important event for the young city of Washington, D. C. In attendance were President Monroe, John C, Henry Clay, Marquis de Lafayette and other dignitaries. During the Civil War, most students left to join the Confederacy, walt Whitman was among many of the volunteers to work on the campus. Following the war, in 1873, Columbian College became the Columbian University and moved to a downtown location centered on 15th and H streets. The university moved its operations to the D. C. neighborhood of Foggy Bottom in 1912. The George Washington University, like much of Washington, D. C. traces many of its origins back to the Freemasons, the Bible that the presidents of the university use to swear an oath on upon inauguration is the Bible of Freemason George Washington. Freemasonry symbols are displayed throughout the campus including the foundation stones of many of the university buildings.
Many of the Colleges of the George Washington University stand out for their age, the Law School is the oldest law school in the District of Columbia. The School of Medicine and Health Sciences is the 11th oldest medical school in the nation, the Columbian College was founded in 1821, and is the oldest unit of the university. The Elliott School of International Affairs was formalized in 1898, the majority of the present infrastructure and financial stability at GW is due to the tenures of Presidents Cloyd Heck Marvin, Lloyd Hartman Elliott and Stephen Joel Trachtenberg