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Comanche

The Comanche are a Native-American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. Within the United States, the government federally recognizes the Comanche people as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche became the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their erstwhile prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria, which came to include large portions of present-day Texas, New Mexico and Kansas. Comanche power depended on bison, horses and raiding; the Comanche hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins. They took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers, they took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.

Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, most Comanches were forced into life on the reservation. A number of them returned in early 1900s. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional areas around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance takes place annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak this language today; the name "Comanche" comes from the Ute name for the people: kɨmantsi. The name Padouca, which before about 1740 was applied to Plains Apaches, was sometimes applied to the Comanche by French writers from the east; the Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum.

The tribe issues tribal vehicle tags. They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Proto-Comanche movement to the Plains was part of the larger phenomenon known as the “Shoshonean Expansion” in which that language family spread across the Great Basin and across the mountains into Wyoming. The Kotsoteka were among the first. Other groups followed. Contact with the Shoshones of Wyoming was maintained until the 1830s when it was broken by the advancing Cheyennes and Arapahoes.

After the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, various Plains peoples acquired horses, but never had many for quite some time. As late as 1725, Comanches were described as using large dogs rather than horses to carry their buffalo hide "campaign tents." The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture. It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche have the longest documented existence as horse-mounted Plains peoples; the Comanche supplied mules to all comers. As early as 1795, Comanches were selling horses to Anglo-American traders and by the mid-19th century, Comanche supplied horses were flowing into St. Louis via other Indian middlemen, their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. The earliest references to them in the Spanish records date from 1706, when reports reached Santa Fe that Utes and Comanches were about to attack.

In the Comanche advance, the Apaches were driven off the Plains. By the end of the eighteenth century the struggle between Comanches and Apaches had assumed legendary proportions: in 1784, in recounting the history of the southern Plains, Texas governor Domingo Cabello recorded that some sixty years earlier the Apaches had been routed from the southern Plains in a nine-day battle at El Gran Cierra del Fierro ‘The Great Mountain of Iron’, somewhere northwest of Texas. There is, however, no other record, legendary, of such a fight, they were formidable opponents who developed strategies for usin

Premier Handball League

The Premier Handball League is the highest level of club handball in England. It is organised by the England Handball Association; the Premier Handball League was known as the Super 8, was re-branded for the 2017/18 season Data sources: 1975-1976 Wirral Handball Club Clubs and Honours. Page 12.. No.5 page 3. 3 points are awarded for each win, 2 points for a draw, 1 point for a loss. Should the situation occur that two or more clubs finish with the same number of points, their final positions shall be determined by: a. goal difference. The team finishing bottom of the Men's Premier Handball League will be relegated directly to their nearest Championship League. Following the final matches of the Championship, a series of playoff matches will take place to determine the club which will be promoted to the following season's Super 8; the top 2 clubs from each Championship league will play 2 semifinals as follows: North 1 v South 2 South 1 v North 2. The winners of the above semifinals will play one match to determine the promotion spot.

The Premier Handball League contributes teams to European Handball Federation club competitions. The England Handball Association is awarded places in European competition based on its EHF coefficient rank; the Premier Handball League provides 1 team to the EHF Cup and 3 teams to the EHF Challenge Cup Teams for the 2016/17 season: Cambridge HC Coventry Sharks London GD Handball Club NEM Hawks Nottingham Olympia HC Warrington Wolves West London Eagles 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 - Warrington Wolves 2015/16 - London GD Handball Club 2016/17 - Warrington Wolves England Handball Association List of handball clubs in England

Human rights in Eswatini

Eswatini, Africa's last remaining absolute monarchy, was rated by Freedom House from 1972 to 1992 as "Partly Free". During these years the country's Freedom House rating for "Political Rights" has slipped from 4 to 7, "Civil Liberties" from 2 to 5. Political parties have been banned in Eswatini since 1973. A 2011 Human Rights Watch report described the country as being "in the midst of a serious crisis of governance", noting that "ears of extravagant expenditure by the royal family, fiscal indiscipline, government corruption have left the country on the brink of economic disaster". In 2012, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights issued a sharp criticism of Eswatini's human-rights record, calling on the Swazi government to honor its commitments under international law in regards to freedom of expression and assembly. HRW notes that owing to a 40% unemployment rate and low wages that oblige 80% of Swazis to live on less than US$2 a day, the government has been under "increasing pressure from civil society activists and trade unionists to implement economic reforms and open up the space for civil and political activism" and that dozens of arrests have taken place "during protests against the government's poor governance and human rights record".

Human-rights problems in Eswatini include, according to a 2011 report by the U. S. State Department, "extrajudicial killings by security forces. In August 2011 the International Monetary Fund urged Eswatini's government to implement fiscal reforms to address its deepening crisis. In that same month South Africa agreed to loan Eswatini $355 million on the condition that it institute political and economic reforms; the conditions were rejected. Amnesty International noted in 2011 that the Swazi constitution provides for the establishment of a Human Rights and Public Administration Commission; that commission was appointed in 2009, but operates "in the absence of an enabling statutory law", which keeps it "from discharging its mandate and obligations". The organizations most active in human rights in Eswatini include the Eswatini Action Group Against Abuse, Lawyers for Human Rights of Eswatini and Law in Southern Africa, the Council of Eswatini Churches, the Roman Catholic Church; these and other groups are able to operate without restriction, but the government is responsive to their input.

The government cooperates with the UN and other international bodies. In 2011, according to Human Rights Watch, the harassment and surveillance of civil society organizations by police intensified, with activists being "arrested and tried under security legislation" and charged with treason and other offenses. "Civil society activists and government critics have reported increased incidents of harassment and seizures of office materials, as well as monitoring of electronic communications, telephones calls, meetings by the authorities", noted HRW, which added that activists are subjected to excessive force and other ill treatment, that there is no "independent complaints investigation body...for victims of police abuses". The constitution prohibits discrimination based on race, disability, ethnicity, political opinion, or social status. Corruption is not vigorously combatted; the police forces are considered to be rife with corruption. Principals and teachers take bribes to admit students to schools.

Nepotism is common. Authorities commit unlawful killings. Torture by police is not prohibited by law, a constitutional provision concerning torture is not enforceable. Mob violence is a frequent occurrence, with rape suspects often being beaten by mobs, the members of which are punished. Local government is principally in hands of tribal chiefs; the constitution includes worded guarantees of fundamental freedom, but it permits the government to restrict or suspend these rights. Amnesty International maintains that these rights are threatened by "draconian security legislation such as the Sedition and Subversive Activities Act and the 2008 Suppression of Terrorism Act", notes that "the provisions of the former Act are vague and can be interpreted in such a manner as to curtail the enjoyment of freedom of expression, among other rights, allow for punishments of up to twenty years' imprisonment without the option of a fine". Amnesty International points out that "provisions in the STA are sweeping and imprecise while the penalties for breaches are severe", with the term "terrorist act" in particular being defined broadly.

Human Rights Watch, has used the word "draconian" to describe the Sedition and Subversive Activities Act. An individual's freedom of speech or of the press may be waived by the king at will. Freedom of speech