Common ethanol fuel mixtures

Several common ethanol fuel mixtures are in use around the world. The use of pure hydrous or anhydrous ethanol in internal combustion engines is only possible if the engines are designed or modified for that purpose, used only in automobiles, light-duty trucks and motorcycles. Anhydrous ethanol can be blended with gasoline for use in gasoline engines, but with high ethanol content only after minor engine modifications. Ethanol fuel mixtures have "E" numbers which describe the percentage of ethanol fuel in the mixture by volume, for example, E85 is 85% anhydrous ethanol and 15% gasoline. Low-ethanol blends, from E5 to E25, although internationally the most common use of the term refers to the E10 blend. Blends of E10 or less are used in more than 20 countries around the world, led by the United States, where ethanol represented 10% of the U. S. gasoline fuel supply in 2011. Blends from E20 to E25 have been used in Brazil since the late 1970s. E85 is used in the U. S. and Europe for flexible-fuel vehicles.

Hydrous ethanol or E100 is used in Brazilian neat ethanol vehicles and flex-fuel light vehicles and hydrous E15 called hE15 for modern petrol cars in the Netherlands. E10, a fuel mixture of 10% anhydrous ethanol and 90% gasoline sometimes called gasohol, can be used in the internal combustion engines of most modern automobiles and light-duty vehicles without need for any modification on the engine or fuel system. E10 blends are rated as being 2 to 3 octane numbers higher than regular gasoline and are approved for use in all new U. S. automobiles, mandated in some areas for emissions and other reasons. The E10 blend and lower ethanol content mixtures have been used in several countries, its use has been driven by the several world energy shortages that have taken place since the 1973 oil crisis. Other common blends include E5 and E7; these concentrations are safe for recent engines that should run on pure gasoline. As of 2006, mandates for blending bioethanol into vehicle fuels had been enacted in at least 36 states/provinces and 17 countries at the national level, with most mandates requiring a blend of 10 to 15% ethanol with gasoline.

One measure of alternative fuels in the U. S. is the "gasoline-equivalent gallon". In 2002, the U. S. used as motor fuel, ethanol equal to 137,000 terajoules, the energy equivalent of 1.13 billion U. S. gallons of gasoline. This was less than 1% of the total fuel used that year. E10 and other blends of ethanol are considered to be useful in decreasing U. S. dependence on foreign oil, can reduce carbon monoxide emissions by 20 to 30% under the right conditions. Although E10 does decrease emissions of CO and greenhouse gases such as CO2 by an estimated 2% over regular gasoline, it can cause increases in evaporative emissions and some pollutants depending on factors such as the age of the vehicle and weather conditions. According to the Philippine Department of Energy, the use of not more than a 10% ethanol-gasoline mixture is not harmful to cars' fuel systems. Automobile gasoline containing alcohol is not recommended to be used in aircraft. E10 was introduced nationwide in Thailand in 2007, replaced 91 octane pure gasoline in that country in 2013.

E10 is available in the Midwestern United States. It was mandated for use in all standard automobile fuel in the state of Florida by the end of 2010. Due to the phasing out of MTBE as a gasoline additive and due to the mandates established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, ethanol blends have increased throughout the United States, by 2009, the ethanol market share in the U. S. gasoline supply reached 8% by volume. The Tesco chain of supermarkets in the UK have started selling an E5 brand of gasoline marketed as 99 RON super-unleaded, its selling price is lower than the other two forms of high-octane unleaded on the market, Shell's V-Power and BP's Ultimate. Many petrol stations throughout Australia now sell E10 at a few cents cheaper per litre than regular unleaded, it is more found throughout the state of Queensland due to its large sugarcane farming regions. The use of E10 is subsidised by the Queensland government. Many petrol stations no longer offer a "Regular 91" petrol option, instead only offering Regular E10, Premium and Premium, although regular unleaded remains available in Victoria.

In Sweden, all 95-octane gasoline is E5, while the status of 98-octane fuel is unclear. The product data sheets of the major fuel chains do not state ethanol content of their 98-octane gasoline. In the early-mid-1990s, some fuel chains sold E10. From January 2011, the Fuel Quality Directive will apply through its transposition into the law of Sweden as a member of the 27 member states of the EU. From January 2011, all 95-octane fuel in Finland is E10, 98E5 octane fuel is available. Mandatory blending of ethanol was approved in Mozambique, but the percentage in the blend has not been specified. South Africa approved a biofuel strategy in 2007, mandated an 8% blend of ethanol by 2013. A 2007 Uruguayan law mandates a minimum of 5% of ethanol blended with gasoline starting in January 2015; the monopolic, state-owned fuel producer ANCAP started blending premium gasoline with 10% of bioethanol in December 2009, which will be available in all the country by early January 2010. The other two gasolines will follow in 2010.

The Dominican Republic has a mandate for blending 15% of ethanol by 2015. Chile is considering the introduction of E5, Panama and Venezuela of E10. A 2011 study conducted by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland found no difference in fue

Michael Daly (soccer)

Michael "Mickey" Daly is an American soccer player. Daly played at California State University, Los Angeles where he made the 2009 NCAA Division II All America 1st team in 2009. Daly signed his first professional contract with USL Pro club Wilmington Hammerheads in April 2013, he made his debut on April 29, 2013 in a 3–1 loss to Phoenix FC. Prior to the 2014 season, Daly was signed by Sacramento Republic FC for their inaugural season. Daly impressed during the 2014 season earning 33 appearances, scoring 4 goals, earning two USL Team of the Week awards. Daly would win his first USL Championship with Sacramento defeating Harrisburg City Islanders 2-0 for the 2014 USL Pro Title; the 2015 season would see Daly keep his starting place in the making 33 appearances and scoring twice. Sacramento would go on to make the playoffs for the second consecutive season, but lost out in the first round to eventual finalists LA Galaxy II. On December 11, 2015, Daly signed with Bethlehem Steel FC. Daly would become an immediate starter for the club making 9 appearances and tallying 1 goal for Steel FC.

In July 2016, Bethlehem Steel FC loaned Daly out to Carolina Railhawks for a one-month loan with the option to buy after. Impressing through 6 matches, the Railhawks exercised their purchase option in September 2016, making the transfer permanent. Daly signed with USL side OKC Energy FC on January 17, 2017. Daly signed with new USL club Fresno FC on December 5, 2017; as of 6 November 2016 USL profile Michael Daly at USL Championship NASL profile


Lakawood, or laka wood, is a reddish aromatic heartwood used as incense in China and South East Asia. It had a number of other uses in the past, for example as a dye and for medicinal purposes; the name lakawood can refer to the wood of different plants, such as Acronychia pedunculata, A. Laurifolia, in particular, Dalbergia parviflora found in South East Asia, it was one of the most commonly-traded commodities of South East Asia in the trade between China and South East Asia from the Song dynasty onwards earlier. The lakawood of Dalbergia parviflora is a product of the Malay peninsula and archipelago, its native name in Malay is kayu laka, from which the words cayolaque and lakawood are derived. In old Javanese literature, the word "laka" was used to denote a shade of red on cloth, the word manglaka meant "processor of laka-wood dye", although the tree from which the dye was derived from is Emblica officinalis. In Chinese, lakawood may be called zitengxiang; the two names referred to different types of fragrant wood in the early period, but by the early 13th century, the two names were regarded as referring to the same product.

The older term ziteng has been identified as a plant grown in Southern China Acronychia pedunculata and A. Laurifolia; the fragrance and appearance of the heartwood and root wood from Dalbergia parviflora of South East Asia, known to have been imported into China in the 10th century, is similar to the earlier Chinese incense wood, it therefore became a substitute for the Chinese product. Its fragrance was appreciated by Taoists, it therefore gained the name jiangzhenxiang meaning "the incense that summons the Perfected Ones to descend among us". Historical records however used two similar terms and jiangzhen, which may have been two different products. Lakawood was once referred to as Tanarius major in some English sources; the wood has been used as incense in China from an early period, it was said to be favoured by the Taoists. It is powdered and mixed with other substances to make incense in the form of joss sticks, it was first mentioned in 304 AD as a preservative in wine and an incense wood for the summoning of spirit.

During the Tang dynasty, it was used for magical and medicinal purposes, burnt in home to rid of all that's "weird and strange", pieces of the wood were attached to children to ward off "evil vapours". The wood of Dalbergia parviflora has no smell until it is burnt, only a small amount is used in joss sticks due to its strong aroma. According to 16th century herbologist and doctor Li Shizhen, it was used "as an astringent, as a wash to cleanse sores and to excite granulations, as a deodorizing and disinfecting agent." The sap of Emblica officinalis called laka, was used as a red dye by people of Java and the Malacca Strait area. According to Zhu Fan Zhi, the red-coloured sap of lakawood was once used as an ingredient in a product called "imitation dragon's blood"; the essential oils found in Dalbergia parviflora are nerolidol, furfurol, aryl-benzofurans, neoflavonoids. Ziteng was first described in 304 AD in a book on plants, Nanfang Caomu Zhuang written by Ji Han, as having long and slender leaves, white flower and black seed.

Its wood was used as incense. The 9th century Tang poet Cao Tang wrote a poem on a Taoist theme that refers to the lakawood jiangzhenxiang: "Reddish dew gives me an image of upturning "the wine which extends life", Whitish smoke puts me in mind of burning or "jiangzhenxiang"". Lakawood from South East Asia was first noted in 982 as one of the 37 foreign products that can be traded in China. Descriptions of lakawood and its trade are given in accounts from the Sung and Yuan dynasty, Zhu Fan Zhi and Daoyi Zhilüe; these texts indicate that Lakawood was a product of various states in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, as well as Borneo. They suggest a significant trade in lakawood, but it was regarded as a cheap import during the Song dynasty, such that people of Quanzhou be they rich or poor can afford to buy the incense to burn at the end of the year as a sacrifice to Heaven. Lambri in Sumatra was mentioned as producing the best quality lakawood; the value of lakawood however increased during the Ming dynasty.

The product was mentioned in accounts of Zheng He's voyages such Yingya Shenglan by Ma Huan during the Ming dynasty, its value was considered high enough to be presented to the imperial court as tributes by various ports of Sumatra as well as Siam