Kansas is a U. S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe; the tribe's name is said to mean "people of the wind" although this was not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. Kansas was first settled by European Americans in 1827 with the establishment of Fort Leavenworth; the pace of settlement accelerated in the 1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery debate. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. government in 1854 with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring Missouri rushed to the territory to determine whether Kansas would become a free state or a slave state.
Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided, was known as Bleeding Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, on January 29, 1861, Kansas entered the Union as a free state. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50 states with a population of 2,911,505. Residents of Kansas are called Kansans. Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet. For a millennium, the land, Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans; the first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was acquired by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain and the Republic of Texas until the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, when these lands were ceded to the United States.
From 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30, 1854, establishing Nebraska Territory and Kansas Territory, opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs, Pueblo. Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border; these settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the violence in Kansas had subsided, but during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200 people, he was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record. After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas. Many African Americans looked to Kansas as the land of "John Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known as Exodusters. At the same time, the Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok was a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild cowboy town, both Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns." In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical Protestants, in 1881 Kansas became the first U. S. state to adopt a constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, repealed in 1948. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; the state is divided into 105 counties with 628 cities, is located equidistant from the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48 contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon; until 1989, the Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of North America. The geographic center of Kansas is in Barton County. Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to westward dipping sedimentary rocks.
A sequence of Mississippian and Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the state
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses dry heat in an oven, but can be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is transferred "from the surface of cakes and breads to their center; as heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit; because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for day-to-day meals and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories; the art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods breads, are a common and important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view.
A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker. All types of food can be baked. Various techniques have been developed to provide this protection. In addition to bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pies, quiches, scones, crackers and more; these popular items are known collectively as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery, a store that carries only baked goods, or at markets, grocery stores, farmers markets or through other venues. Meat, including cured meats, such as ham can be baked, but baking is reserved for meatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats, or whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as bread crumbs or buttermilk batter; some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid in the bottom of a closed pan, letting it steam up around the food, a method known as braising or slow baking. Larger cuts prepared without stuffing or coating are more roasted, a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times.
Roasting, however, is only suitable for finer cuts of meat, so other methods have been developed to make tougher meat cuts palatable after baking. One of these is the method known as en croûte, which protects the food from direct heat and seals the natural juices inside. Meat, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte. Well-known examples include Beef Wellington; the en croûte method allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire – a favorite method of cooking venison. Salt can be used to make a protective crust, not eaten. Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking is to cook it en papillote. In this method, the food is covered by baking paper to protect it; the cooked parcel of food is sometimes served unopened, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves which adds an element of surprise. Eggs can be used in baking to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products cheese, they are prepared as a dessert.
For example, although a baked custard can be made using starch, the flavor of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, the bain-marie method serves this purpose; the cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more applied during the baking process. Baking a successful soufflé requires that the baking process be controlled; the oven temperature must be even and the oven space not shared with another dish. These factors, along with the theatrical effect of an air-filled dessert, have given this baked food a reputation for being a culinary achievement. A good baking technique are needed to create a baked Alaska because of the difficulty of baking hot meringue and cold ice cream at the same time. Baking can be used to prepare other foods such as pizzas, baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans, some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagne.
The first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by resulting in a bread-like substance; when humans mastered fire, the paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created. The world's oldest oven was discovered in Croatia in 2014 dating back 6500 years ago; the Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast, which they had been using to brew beer. Bread baking began in Ancient Greece around 600 BC. "Ovens and worktables have been discovered in archaeological digs from Turkey to Palestine and date back to 5600 BC."Baking flourished during the Roman Empire. Beginning around 300 B. C. the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans and became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, Romans loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastr
Spelt known as dinkel wheat or hulled wheat, is a species of wheat cultivated since 5000 BC. Spelt was an important staple in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the related species common wheat, in which case its botanical name is considered to be Triticum aestivum subsp. Spelta, it is a hexaploid wheat. Spelt has a complex history, it is a wheat species known from genetic evidence to have originated as a occurring hybrid of a domesticated tetraploid wheat such as emmer wheat and the wild goat-grass Aegilops tauschii. This hybridisation must have taken place in the Near East because this is where Aegilops tauschii grows, it must have taken place before the appearance of common or bread wheat in the archaeological record about 8,000 years ago. Genetic evidence shows that spelt wheat can arise as the result of hybridisation of bread wheat and emmer wheat, although only at some date following the initial Aegilops–tetraploid wheat hybridisation.
The much appearance of spelt in Europe might thus be the result of a second, hybridisation between emmer and bread wheat. Recent DNA evidence supports an independent origin for European spelt through this hybridisation. Whether spelt has two separate origins in Asia and Europe, or single origin in the Near East, is unresolved. In Greek mythology spelt was a gift to the Greeks from the goddess Demeter; the earliest archaeological evidence of spelt is from the fifth millennium BC in Transcaucasia, north-east of the Black Sea, though the most abundant and best-documented archaeological evidence of spelt is in Europe. Remains of spelt have been found in some Neolithic sites in Central Europe. During the Bronze Age, spelt spread in central Europe. In the Iron Age, spelt became a principal wheat species in southern Germany and Switzerland, by 500 BC, it was in common use in southern Britain. References to the cultivation of spelt wheat in Biblical times, in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and in ancient Greece are incorrect and result from confusion with emmer wheat.
In the Middle Ages, spelt was cultivated in parts of Switzerland, Germany, northern France and the Netherlands. Spelt became a major crop in Europe in the 9th century CE because it is husked, unlike other grains, therefore more adaptable to cold climates and is more suitable for storage. Spelt was introduced to the United States in the 1890s. In the 20th century, spelt was replaced by bread wheat in all areas where it was still grown; the organic farming movement revived its popularity somewhat toward the end of the century, as spelt requires less fertilizer. Since the beginning of the 21st century, spelt became a common wheat substitute for making artisanal breads and flakes. In a 100 gram serving, uncooked spelt provides 338 calories and is an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals. Richest nutrient contents include manganese and niacin. Spelt contains about 70% total carbohydrates, including 11% as dietary fibre, is low in fat. Spelt contains gluten and is therefore suitable for baking, but this component makes it unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, wheat allergy.
In comparison to hard red winter wheat, spelt has a more soluble protein matrix characterized by a higher gliadin:glutenin ratio. In Germany and Austria, spelt loaves and rolls are available in bakeries as is spelt flour in supermarkets; the unripe spelt grains are eaten as Grünkern. Dutch Jenever makers distill with spelt. Beer brewed from spelt is sometimes seen in Bavaria and Belgium and spelt is distilled to make vodka in Poland. Spelt is a specialty crop, but its popularity in the past as a peasants' staple food has been attested in literature. Although today's Russian-speaking children do not know what polba looks or tastes like, they may recognize the word as something that can be made into porridge, having heard Pushkin's well-rhymed story in which the poor workman Balda asks his employer the priest "to feed me boiled spelt". In Horace's Satire 2.6, which ends with the story of the Country Mouse and the City Mouse, the country mouse eats spelt at dinner while serving his city guest finer foods.
In The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, Pietro della Vigna appears as a suicide in Circle VII, ring ii, Canto XIII of the Inferno. Pietro describes the fate awaiting souls guilty of suicide to Dante the Virgil. According to Pietro, the soul of the suicide grows into a wild tree and is tormented by harpies that feast upon its leaves. Pietro likens the initial growth and transformation of the soul of the suicide to the germination of a grain of spelt. Spelt is mentioned in the Bible; the seventh plague in Egypt in Exodus, did not damage the harvest of wheat and spelt, as these were "late crops". Ezekiel 4:9 says: "Take thou unto thee wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, spelt, put them in one vessel, make thee bread thereof...", though as noted above this is a mistranslation and should be "emmer". It is mentioned again in Isaiah 28:25: "...and put in the wheat in row
Deggendorf is a town in Bavaria, capital of the Deggendorf district. It is located on the left bank in the middle between the Danube cities of Regensburg and Passau; the Danube forms the town's natural border towards the south. Towards the west and east the town is surrounded by the foothills of the central Bavarian Forest. Near the southwestern rim of the town, the railway bridge crosses the Danube at river-kilometer 2286. Directly south of the town Autobahn A3 and A92 form an important crossing. A few miles downstream, east of the district Deggenau, lies the confluence of the River Isar with the Danube; the earliest traces of settlement in the area were found near the Danube and date back 8,000 years. Both Bronze Age and Celtic era archeological finds indicate continuous habitation through the millennia; the first written mention of Deggendorf occurred in 868, Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor established his supremacy over the area in 1002. Deggendorf is first mentioned as a town in 1212. Heinrich of the Landshut branch of the ruling family of Bavaria made it the seat of a custom-house.
The ruins of Natternberg castle are still a popular destination for hikers. In the early 1330s, Deggendorf was an expanding market town with trade. At the beginning of that decade, however, it was caught in the middle of a conflict between the Bavarian dukes. A fire damaged large parts of the town, it is presumed that this was one of the reasons for the massive indebtedness with the local Jewish community. That culminated in a massacre; the first reference to this murder of the local Jews is found in an official document by Duke Heinrich XIV originating from 1338. In this document, the duke pardonned the citizens of Deggendorf and spared them any kind of punishment for killing the Jews, he granted them the right to keep every item they looted from their victims. Further clues to the murders are found, for example, in the annals of some important monasteries of the time and in the works of Johann von Viktring. For 1338, these sources mention a plague of locusts. Johann von Viktring refers to this infestation in connection to the murder of the Jews of Deggendorf.
Yet, the inscription in the basilica of Deggendorf differs from all former sources. As the date of events it gives 1337; the Jews are purported to have set fire to the town. The body of God was found so that the community of Deggendorf started to build a church.""Im Jahre des Herrn 1337, am nächsten Tag nach St. Michaels-Tag, wurden die Juden erschlagen, die Stadt zündeten sie an, da wurde Gottes Leichnam gefunden, das sahen Frauen und Männer, da hob man das Gotteshaus zu bauen an." In the year of the Lord 1337, on the day after Michaelmas, the Jews were slain. They had set fire to the town; the body of God was found. This was seen by women and men and the building of the house of God was begun; the wrong date indicates that this inscription stems from a much date. The mention of the body of God points to a host desecration, it must be assumed that the accusation of host desecration had taken on a life of its own at that time so that further explanations were not needed. Everyone was familiar with the narratives of this legend.
The formed legend of the host desecration by the Jews of Deggendorf and about the miracles happening after their "punishment" appears in a composite manuscript in the library of the monastery St Emmeram in Regensburg not before the 15th century. "Das Gedicht von den Deggendorfer Hostien" has no credibility at all. Its sudden appearance centuries after the actual events took place makes just one piece of evidence for this, its content is clichéd. Stereotypically, Easter Day is given as the date and the accusation of well poisoning is added though it had never been mentioned before in this context. Details that could be interpreted as specific to Deggendorf are left out; the only name given is that of Hartmann von Degenberg who could not be identified as an actual historical person. A complete deformation of reality becomes manifest in the poem. What happened in Deggendorf in 1338 is that the pogrom came about because of the high debts the Christian citizens owed the Jews; the locusts destroying much of the crop tightened the situation.
The end of September or the beginning of October 1338 is the correct date This means the Jews were murdered for economic reasons. Events were reworked to justify the act so that in the 15th century the stereotypical legend took on its own life. In the years following the economic downturn and the aforementioned massacre, Deggendorf regained some of its former wealth. Thus, the construction of the basilica could be completed by 1400. By the beginning of the 15th century the formed legend had spread far enough to encourage more and more people to pilgrimage to Deggendorf. An average of 40.000 people per year traveled to its famous hosts. The development of the pilgrimage to become a time of worship of the magic hosts of Deggendorf was promoted by pastor Johannes Sartorius and Duke Albrecht of Bavaria; the much admired hosts, had been retrospectively purchased and had to be replaced regularly. During the 18th and 19th century and in 1737 the "Gnad" reached its peak attracting six-figure attendances.
The pilgrimage constituted one of the major factors of the Deggendorf economy. Yet, after its peak, attendances decreased until 1927. In 1970, on
Norman Ernest Borlaug was an American agronomist who led initiatives worldwide that contributed to the extensive increases in agricultural production termed the Green Revolution. Borlaug was awarded multiple honors for his work, including the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Borlaug received his B. S. in forestry in 1937 and Ph. D. in plant pathology and genetics from the University of Minnesota in 1942. He took up an agricultural research position in Mexico, where he developed semi-dwarf, high-yield, disease-resistant wheat varieties. During the mid-20th century, Borlaug led the introduction of these high-yielding varieties combined with modern agricultural production techniques to Mexico and India; as a result, Mexico became a net exporter of wheat by 1963. Between 1965 and 1970, wheat yields nearly doubled in Pakistan and India improving the food security in those nations. Borlaug was called "the father of the Green Revolution", is credited with saving over a billion people worldwide from starvation.
According to Jan Douglas, executive assistant to the president of the World Food Prize Foundation, the source of this number is Gregg Easterbrook's 1997 article "Forgotten Benefactor of Humanity." The article states that the "form of agriculture that Borlaug preaches may have prevented a billion deaths." He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 in recognition of his contributions to world peace through increasing food supply. In his life, he helped apply these methods of increasing food production in Asia and Africa. Borlaug was the great-grandchild of Norwegian immigrants. Ole Olson Dybevig and Solveig Thomasdatter Rinde, of Feios, a small village in Vik kommune, Sogn og Fjordane, emigrated to Dane County, Wisconsin in 1854; the family moved to the small Norwegian-American community of Saude, near Cresco, Iowa. There they were members of Saude Lutheran Church, where Norman was both confirmed. Borlaug was born to Henry Oliver and Clara Borlaug on his grandparents' farm in Saude in 1914, the first of four children.
His three sisters were Palma Lillian and Helen. From age seven to nineteen, he worked on the 106-acre family farm west of Protivin, fishing and raising corn, timothy-grass, cattle and chickens, he attended the one-teacher, one-room New Oregon #8 rural school in Howard County, through eighth grade. Today, the school building, built in 1865, is owned by the Norman Borlaug Heritage Foundation as part of "Project Borlaug Legacy". Borlaug was a member of the football and wrestling teams at Cresco High School, where his wrestling coach, Dave Barthelma, continually encouraged him to "give 105%". Borlaug attributed his decision to leave the farm and pursue further education to his grandfather's urgent encouragement to learn: Nels Olson Borlaug once told him, "you're wiser to fill your head now if you want to fill your belly on." When Borlaug applied for admission to the University of Minnesota in 1933, he failed its entrance exam, but was accepted at the school's newly created two-year General College.
After two quarters, he transferred to the College of Agriculture's forestry program. As a member of University of Minnesota's varsity wrestling team, Borlaug reached the Big Ten semifinals, promoted the sport to Minnesota high schools in exhibition matches all around the state. Wrestling taught me some valuable lessons... I always figured, it made me tough. Many times, I drew on that strength. It's an inappropriate crutch but that's the way I'm made. To finance his studies, Borlaug put his education on hold periodically to earn some income, as he did in 1935 as a leader in the Civilian Conservation Corps, working with the unemployed on Federal projects. Many of the people who worked for him were starving, he recalled, "I saw how food changed them... All of this left scars on me". From 1935 to 1938, before and after receiving his bachelor of science in forestry in 1937, Borlaug worked for the United States Forest Service at stations in Massachusetts and Idaho, he spent one summer in the middle fork of Idaho's Salmon River, the most isolated piece of wilderness in the nation at that time.
In the last months of his undergraduate education, Borlaug attended a Sigma Xi lecture by Elvin Charles Stakman, a professor and soon-to-be head of the plant pathology group at the University of Minnesota. The event was a pivot for Borlaug's future. Stakman, in his speech entitled "These Shifty Little Enemies that Destroy our Food Crops", discussed the manifestation of the plant disease rust, a parasitic fungus that feeds on phytonutrients in wheat and barley crops, he had discovered. His research interested Borlaug, when Borlaug's job at the Forest Service was eliminated because of budget cuts, he asked Stakman if he should go into forest pathology. Stakman advised him to focus on plant pathology instead, he subsequently enrolled at the University to study plant pathology under Stakman. Borlaug earned a master of science degree in 1940, a Ph. D. in plant pathology and genetics in 1942. Borlaug was a member of the Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity. While in college, he met his future wife, Margaret Gibson, as he waited tables at a coffee shop in the university's Dinkytown, where the two of them worked.
They were married in 1937 and had three children, Norma Jean "Jeanie" Laube and William. On March 8, 2007, Margaret Borlaug died at the
The Pooideae are the largest subfamily of the grass family Poaceae, with over 4,200 species in 14 tribes and 200 genera. They include some major cereals such as wheat, oat and many lawn and pasture grasses, they are referred to as cool-season grasses, because they are distributed in temperate climates. All of them use the C3 photosynthetic pathway; the Pooideae are the sister group of the bamboos within the BOP clade, are themselves subdivided into 14 tribes. Relationships of tribes in the Pooideae according to a 2015 phylogenetic classification showing the bamboos as sister group
Aegilops speltoides is an edible plant in the Poaceae family native to Southeastern Europe and Western Asia, used for animal feed, it has grown in cultivated beds. This plant is an important natural source disease resistance in wheat, it is known or to be susceptible to barley mild mosaic bymovirus. Brunt, A. A. Crabtree, K. Dallwitz, M. J. Gibbs, A. J. Watson, L. and Zurcher, E. J.. Barley mild mosaic bymovirus. Plant Viruses Online: Descriptions and Lists from the VIDE Database. Version: 20 August 1996. "Aegilops speltoides". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Plants For A Future: Aegilops speltoides "Aegilops speltoides". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. USDA Plants Profile: Aegilops speltoides Aegilops speltoides at the Encyclopedia of Life