Communist party

A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the social and economic goals of communism through revolution and the establishment of a strong state. The term communist party was popularized by the title of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; as a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class. Vladimir Lenin developed the idea of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when social democracy in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism, which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. In contrast, the Menshevik faction included Trotsky, who emphasized that the party should not neglect the importance of mass populations in realizing a communist revolution. In the course of revolution, the Bolshevik party, which became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, assumed government power in Russia after the October Revolution in 1917.

With the creation of the Communist International in 1919, the concept of "communist party leadership" was adopted by many revolutionary parties, worldwide. In an effort to standardize the international communist movement ideologically and maintain central control of the member parties, the Comintern required that parties identify as a communist party. Under the leadership of the CPSU, the interpretations of Orthodox Marxism were applied to Russia and led to the Leninist and Marxist–Leninist political parties throughout the world. After the death of Lenin, the Comintern's official interpretation of Leninism was the book Foundations of Leninism, by Joseph Stalin; as the membership of a communist party was to be limited to active cadres in Lenin's theory, there was a need for networks of separate organizations to mobilize mass support for the party. Communist parties built up various front organizations whose membership was open to non-communists. In many countries the single most important front organization of the communist parties was its youth wing.

During the time of the Communist International, the youth leagues were explicit communist organizations, using the name'Young Communist League'. The youth league concept was broadened in many countries, names like'Democratic Youth League' were adopted; some trade unions and students', women's, grifters', peasants', cultural organizations have been connected to communist parties. Traditionally, these mass organizations were politically subordinated to the political leadership of the party. After the fall of communist party regimes in the 1990s, mass organizations sometimes outlived their communist party founders. At the international level, the Communist International organized various international front organizations, such as the Young Communist International, Krestintern, International Red Aid, etc. Many of these organizations were disbanded after the dissolution of the Communist International. After the Second World War new international coordination bodies were created, such as the World Federation of Democratic Youth, International Union of Students, World Federation of Trade Unions, Women's International Democratic Federation and the World Peace Council.

The Soviet Union unified many of the Comintern's original goals among its East European allies under the aegis of a new organization, the Cominform. In countries where communist parties were struggling to attain state power, the formation of wartime alliances with non-communist parties and wartime groups was enacted. Upon attaining state power these Fronts were transformed into nominal "National" or "Fatherland" Fronts in which non-communist parties and organizations were given token representation, the most popular examples of these being the National Front of East Germany and the United Front of the People's Republic of China. Other times the formation of such Fronts were undertaken without the participation of other parties, such as the Socialist Alliance of Working People of Yugoslavia and the National Front of Afghanistan, though the purpose was the same: to promote the communist party line to non-communist audiences and to mobilize them to carry out tasks within the country under the aegis of the Front.

Recent scholarship has developed the comparative political study of global communist parties by examining similarities and differences across historical geographies. In particular, the rise of revolutionary parties, their spread internationally, the appearance of charismatic revolutionary leaders and their ultimate demise during the decline and fall of communist parties worldwide have all been the subject of investigation. A uniform naming scheme for communist parties was adopted by the Communist International. All parties were required to use the name'Communist Party of', resulting in separate communist parties in some countries operating using homonymous party names. Today, there are a few cases where the original sections of the Communist International have retained those names, but throughout the twentieth century, many parties changed their names. A common causes


The Plus 15 or +15 Skyway network in Calgary, Canada, is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems, with a total length of 18 kilometres and 62 bridges. The system is so named because the skywalks are 15 feet above street level; the system was conceived and designed by architect Harold Hanen, who worked for the Calgary Planning Department from 1966 to 1969. This development earned him the 1970 Vincent Massey Award for Merit in Urban Planning. Opening in 1970, the +15 network has expanded to include 59 enclosed bridges connecting dozens of downtown Calgary buildings; the central core of the system is a series of enclosed shopping centres, the city's flagship department stores. New developments were required to connect to the walkway system; when not physically able to connect to nearby buildings, developers contribute to the "Plus 15 Fund", managed by the city, used to finance other missing connections. The system has been identified with a decline in street life in the Downtown Commercial Core.

Street life is instead concentrated in neighbourhoods where there are no bridges. In 1998, the city began to re-evaluate the system. Part of the goal of these studies was reinvigorating decreased daytime street life on some downtown streets; the possibility of limiting expansion to encourage more pedestrian street traffic was raised. The system's bridges are integral to the buildings. City planning by-laws now confer tax credits to owners. Businesses and the general public make extensive use of the system's enhanced flow of human traffic; the Plus 15 is one of the central plot elements in the 2000 film Waydowntown, directed by Gary Burns. List of attractions and landmarks in Calgary Skyway Edmonton Pedway Underground City, Montreal PATH City of Calgary PDF Map +15 Map with iPhone app +15 Ninja - Directions, Meetups & Directory

Return to Treasure Island (TV series)

Return to Treasure Island is a 1986 Disney HTV TV series, starring Brian Blessed as Long John Silver, Christopher Guard as Jim Hawkins and Kenneth Colley as Ben Gunn. Disney Channel contracted the UK ITV broadcaster HTV Wales, part of Harlech Television Group, to produce the series, it was shot in Wales and Jamaica, it was written by John Goldsmith, directed by Piers Haggard and Alex Kirby. HTV Wales had produced other Robert Louis Stevenson books for television, namely Kidnapped in 1979 and The Master of Ballantrae in 1984 and producer Patrick Dromgoole would go on to helm Treasure Island, their expertise in making these productions was used when Disney chose to work with HTV to produce a series, in 10 parts. The story begins 10 years after the original Treasure Island adventure. Jim Hawkins returns home to The Admiral Benbow Inn after graduating at Oxford University, his mother has laid on a surprise party, including as guests his old friends, Squire Trelawney, Dr Livesey, Captain Smollett and Ben Gunn.

At the same time, a small rowing boat is beached at night with Long John Silver. Trelawney has been communicating with Jim Hawkins during his time at Oxford, has appointed him agent to his plantations in Jamaica because of their failure to make any profits in the last year. Trelawny's announcement of Jim's impending departure shocks Hawkins mother, she reels, catches sight of John Silver at the window. A search of the area reveals nothing, but that night Silver appears in Jim's bedroom and demands the map of Treasure Island. Hawkins thinks it's worthless, but Silver believes that a hoard of precious stones is still buried on the island, worth four times the gold found, they go downstairs to retrieve the map. Silver's accomplices appear and want to burn the inn to the ground, with everybody inside, to eliminate all witnesses. Silver changes sides to protect Jim, but he is caught and put on trial for piracy and murder, he is sentenced to death. Hawkins gets the sentence commuted to transportation.

He and Silver sail on the Saracen to the West Indies. On board, they meet Dutchman Hans Van Der Brecken, Reverend Morgan and the beautiful Isabella, daughter of the Grandee of Spain. During the voyage, Silver escapes his shackles, throws the sea cook overboard and claims the position for himself, he persuades the crew and other captives to commit mutiny and they take the ship, only to find that Hawkins and Van Der Brecken are against them. During their parley, the Spanish attack the ship; the crew and mutineers must fight together to save themselves. Silver takes Isabella hostage and confiscates a long boat with Hawkins, Van Der Brecken, Morgan on board and they row to safety. After many adventures, they arrive on Jamaica. There, Hawkins discovers that the plantation manager is defrauding Trelawney by selling molasses on the black market, they discover that he is in league with the Governor to steal the map of Treasure Island and claim the treasure, left there. Many adventures follow which culminate in everybody converging on Treasure Island for a final battle.

Ep.1 - The Map Ep.2 - Mutiny Ep.3 - Island of the Damned Ep.4 - Jamaica Ep.5 - Manhunt Ep.6 - The Crow's Nest Ep.7 - Fugitives Ep.8 - In Chains Ep.9 - Spanish Gold Ep.10 - Treasure Island The script was developed over a long period: Ivor Dean played Silver in the successful 1966 miniseries Treasure Island and wanted to continue this with a sequel miniseries. Together with writer Robert S. Baker, he developed a story, but it had to be shelved after Deans death in 1974, it was adapted into this miniseries. The final close-ups of Long John Silver rowing away from Jim Hawkins' ship and revealing that he had stolen all the diamonds from the treasure casket were filmed on the roof of HTV's Pontcanna Studio in Cardiff; the tall ship Kaskelot was used for the filming of the series. Music for the series was composed by Tom McGuinness. Oldfield had produced work for the BBC as well as appearing on a number of his brother's Mike Oldfield records, playing the flute; the theme music was released on 7-inch single, though different from the television version.

Included were two tracks on Side B, "Isabella" and "Island of Dreams". These were extended versions on the single of themes; the series was aired in 1986 and shortly afterwards, was released on video. However, the format was much edited but releases returned to the full ten-episode format; the series did not appear on DVD until Network Releasing produced a three-disc set, released on 26 May 2008. It was not digitally reworked however. Brian Blessed as Long John Silver Christopher Guard as Jim Hawkins Reiner Schöne as Hans Van Der Brecken Deborah Poplett as Lady Isabella Peter Lloyd as Abed Jones Kenneth Colley as Ben Gunn Dicken Ashworth as Gaines Donald Pickering as Joshua Hallows Artro Morris as Rev. Morgan Bruce Purchase as Squire Trelawney Peter Copley as Dr. Livesey Richard Beale as Capt. Alexander Smollett W. Morgan Sheppard as Sam Boakes Nick Brimble as Keelhaul Return to Treasure Island on IMDb