Compact Disc Digital Audio known as Audio CD, is the standard format for audio compact discs. The standard is defined in the Red Book, one of a series of Rainbow Books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats; the Red Book specifies the physical parameters and properties of the CD, the optical parameters and error rate, modulation system and error correction facility, the eight subcode channels. These parameters are common to all compact discs and used by all logical formats: audio CD, CD-ROM, etc; the standard specifies the form of digital audio encoding. Although used, the specification allows for discs to be mastered with a form of emphasis; the first edition of the Red Book was released in 1980 by Sony. The second edition of IEC 60908 was published in 1999 and it replaces the first edition, amendment 1 and the corrigendum to amendment 1; the IEC 60908 however does not contain all the information for extensions, available in the Red Book, such as the details for CD-Text, CD+G and CD+EG.
The standard is not available and must be licensed. It is available from Philips and the IEC; as of 2013, Philips outsources licensing of the standard to Adminius, which charges US$100 for the Red Book, plus US$50 each for the Subcode Channels R-W and CD Text Mode annexes. The audio contained in a CD-DA consists of two-channel signed 16-bit Linear PCM sampled at 44,100 Hz; the sampling rate is adapted from that attained when recording digital audio on a PAL videotape with a PCM adaptor, an earlier way of storing digital audio. An audio CD can represent frequencies up to 22.05 kHz, the Nyquist frequency of the 44.1 kHz sample rate. The selection of the sample rate was based on the need to reproduce the audible frequency range of 20–20,000 Hz; the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem states that a sampling rate of more than twice the maximum frequency of the signal to be recorded is needed, resulting in a required rate of at least 40 kHz. The exact sampling rate of 44.1 kHz was inherited from a method of converting digital audio into an analog video signal for storage on U-matic video tape, the most affordable way to transfer data from the recording studio to the CD manufacturer at the time the CD specification was being developed.
The device that converts an analog audio signal into PCM audio, which in turn is changed into an analog video signal is called a PCM adaptor. This technology could store six samples in a single horizontal line. 60 field/s black and white video was required, in NTSC countries that video signal has 245 usable lines per field, which works out to be = 44,100 samples/s/stereo channel. PAL has 294 lines and 50 fields, which gives 44,100 samples/s/stereo channel; this system could store 14-bit samples with some error correction, or 16-bit samples with no error correction. There was a long debate over the use of 14-bit or 16-bit quantization, 44,056 or 44,100 samples/s or 44,000 samples/s; when the Sony/Philips task force designed the Compact Disc, Philips had developed a 14-bit D/A converter, but Sony insisted on 16-bit. In the end, 16 bits and 44.1 kilosamples per second prevailed. Philips found a way to produce 16-bit quality using its 14-bit DAC by using four times oversampling; some CDs are mastered with an artificial boost of high audio frequencies.
The pre-emphasis improves the apparent signal-to-noise ratio by making better use of the channel's dynamic range. On playback, the player applies a de-emphasis filter to restore the frequency response curve to an overall flat one. Pre-emphasis time constants are 50µs and 15µs, a binary flag in the disc subcode instructs the player to apply de-emphasis filtering if appropriate. Playback of such discs in a computer or'ripping' to wave files does not take into account the pre-emphasis, so such files play back with a distorted frequency response; the creators of the CD aimed at a playing time of 60 minutes with a disc diameter of 100 mm or 115 mm. Sony vice-president Norio Ohga suggested extending the capacity to 74 minutes to accommodate the recording of Wilhelm Furtwängler conducting Ludwig van Beethoven's Ninth Symphony at the 1951 Bayreuth Festival; the additional 14-minute playing time subsequently required changing to a 120 mm disc. Kees Schouhamer Immink, Philips' chief engineer, denies this, claiming that the increase was motivated by technical considerations, that after the increase in size, the Furtwängler recording would not have fit on one of the earliest CDs.
According to a Sunday Tribune interview, the story is more involved. In 1979, Philips owned one of the world's largest distributors of music. PolyGram had set up a large experimental CD plant in Hannover, which could produce huge numbers of CDs having a diameter of 115 mm. Sony did not yet have such a facility. If Sony had agreed on the 115-mm disc, Philips would have had a significant competitive edge in the market; the long playing time of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony imposed by Ohga was used to push Philips to accept 120 mm, so that Philips' PolyGram lost its edge on disc fabrication. The 74-minute playing time of a CD, longer than the 22 minutes per side typic
"No Son of Mine" is a song by British rock group Genesis, released as the lead single from their 1991 album, We Can't Dance. It reached No. 6 on the UK Singles Chart and No. 12 on the US Billboard Hot 100. It was a top-ten hit in several European countries and peaked atop Canada's RPM Top Singles chart for five weeks; the song's lyrics tell the story of a boy who runs away from his abusive home, and—after some reconsideration—attempts to return, only to be rebuked by his father. In interviews, Phil Collins has said that the lyrics are deliberately vague as to whether the narrator or his mother is the victim of the abuse; the song has a distinctive sound heard before the second verse. Referred to by the band as "elephantus," the sound was created by Tony Banks recording Mike Rutherford's guitar with a sampler and playing three notes on the bottom register of the keyboard lowering the pitch; the working title of "No Son of Mine" was "Elephantus". The sound is featured in the opening of the "I Can't Dance" single B-side "On the Shoreline".
A similar sound is heard in former Genesis member Peter Gabriel's song "I Grieve", released a few years on the soundtrack to City of Angels. The single included; the radio edit fades out the song's extended outro a minute in advance and deletes part of the second chorus. The music video makes use of the complete album version; the video for this song is melancholic, illustrating the scene in sepia tone. The video depicts what is discussed in the song, a conversation between a son and his father. During the last chorus, snowflakes begin appearing flying around the house; the song was played live during the tours of The Way We Walk, Calling All Stations, Turn It On Again. A live version appears on the albums The Way We Walk, Volume One: The Shorts, Live Over Europe 2007, as well as on their DVDs The Way We Walk - Live in Concert and When in Rome 2007. Former one-time lead singer Ray Wilson continued to cover the song on his solo live albums after his departure from Genesis. Phil Collins – drums and backing vocals Tony Banks – keyboards Mike Rutherford – lead and bass guitars Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
John Bergamo was an American percussionist and composer known for his film soundtrack contributions and his work with numerous other notable performers. From 1970 until his death, he was the coordinator of the percussion department at the California Institute of the Arts. In 1959 Bergamo attended the Lenox School of Jazz in Lenox, near Tanglewood, the summer home of the Boston Symphony. Under a scholarship, he studied drums with Max Roach. In 1962 Bergamo earned an M. M. degree from Manhattan School of Music, followed by three summers in Tanglewood and time in New York City as a freelance musician. In the fall of 1964, he joined the Creative Associates at the University at Buffalo; this group was formed by Lukas Foss, its members included percussionist Jan Williams. The Creative Associates explored avant-garde music in a variety of 20th Century styles, performed in Buffalo and in New York's Carnegie Hall; some of the results of this group included the first book of madrigals by George Crumb, Vibone by Vinko Globokar, Passion Selon Sade by Sylvano Bussotti, Songs from the Japanese by Fred Myrow.
From this group Bergamo became involved in smaller groups with Buell Neidlinger, Charles Gayle, Andrew White. Relocating to the west coast in 1968, Bergamo taught at the University of Washington before arriving at CalArts in 1970, where he taught from the school's origin until his retirement in 2005. On the west coast, he studied North and South Indian drumming as well as other non-European drumming traditions. Bergamo studied tabla with Mahaparush Misra, Shankar Ghosh, Swapan Chaudhuri, South Indian drumming with T. H. Subash Chandran, T. H. Vinayakram, T. Ranganathan Poovalur Srinivasan, P. S. Venkatesan. Bergamo has studied North Indian classical music with Ali Akbar Khan at the Ali Akbar College of Music in San Rafael, leading to a spell as Khansahib's road manager in late 1960s, playing with Ali Akbar Khan on works of a contemporary nature. In 1979 Bergamo studied the thavil in India. Bergamo co-founded two all-percussion groups: The Repercussion Unit in 1976 with Larry Stein, Ed Mann, James Hildebrandt, Gregg A. Johnson, Paul Anceau, Steven "Lucky" Mosko.
Over the course of his career, Bergamo performed with Frank Zappa, Dave Liebman, Ali Akbar Khan, Lou Harrison, Malcolm Goldstein, Mickey Hart, Emil Richards, Shadowfax, L. Shankar, Glen Velez, Repercussion Unit, Lukas Foss, Gunther Schuller, Walter Quintus, Charles Wuorinen, Shakti with John McLaughlin, Trichy Sankaran, Steve Gadd, participated in the "World Drums" performance at Expo 86. In addition, he has performed on the soundtracks of a number of Hollywood films, including Act of Violence, Altered States, Bad News Bears Go to Japan, Chapter Two, The Exorcist II, The Heretic, Island of Dr. Moreau, L. A. Story, National Lampoon's Class Reunion, Perfect Weapon, The Possessed, Project X, A Reflection of Fear, The Scarecrow Sniper, Tarzan the Ape Man, Who's Harry Crumb?. 1977 - Zappa in New York, Frank Zappa. 1986 - Bergamo, John. On the Edge. 1990 - Harrison, Lou. Music for Guitar and Percussion 1987 - World Drums. Directed by Niv Fichman. Produced by Rhombus Media. 1990 - Bergamo, John. The Art & Joy of Hand Drumming.
Dennis Lee Montgomery is an American software designer and former medical technician who sold federal officials computer programs he claimed would decode secret Al-Qaeda messages hidden in Al Jazeera broadcasts and identify terrorists based on Predator drone videos. A 2010 Playboy investigation called Montgomery "The man who conned the Pentagon", saying he won millions in federal contracts for his supposed terrorist-exposing intelligence software; the software was reported to have been an elaborate "hoax" and Montgomery's former lawyer Michael J. Flynn called him a "con artist" and "habitual liar engaged in fraud". In 1998 Montgomery co-founded eTreppid Technologies with partner Warren Trepp to develop video compression and noise filtering software for the gaming and casino industries. Montgomery and Trepp evolved their offerings for military applications and in 2004 won a no-bid contract with the United States Department of Defense. Following a dispute over software ownership, Montgomery was separated from eTreppid in 2006 and formed a new venture with billionaire backers Edra and Tim Blixseth.
Called OpSpring, the venture was renamed Blxware, Montgomery had the title of Chief Scientist. Blxware was dissolved in 2009 as part of Edra Blixseth's bankruptcy. Montgomery became a partner in 1998 to Warren G. Trepp, the former chief junk bond trader for Michael Milken at Drexel Burnham Lambert, another investor, Wayne Prim, to develop and sell audio and data compression software under the banner eTreppid Technologies; as Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of eTreppid, Montgomery led the company's efforts to develop the company's software and promote it to government agencies associated with tracking terrorist activities. In 2004 eTreppid was awarded a $30 million no-bid contract with United States Special Operations Command and was ranked the 16th-largest defense contractor that year, according to Aerospace Daily. After his separation from eTreppid, Montgomery joined with Edra and Tim Blixseth to bring his alleged terrorist tracking software to other U. S. and foreign government clients.
With the Blixseths and former presidential candidate Jack Kemp he helped formed OpSpring LLC renamed Blxware. Via Blxware, Montgomery pursued selling his terror tracking software to the U. S. and Israel governments, leveraging political connections of the Blixseth partnership. Blxware's owners Edra and Tim Blixseth divorced in 2008 and Blxware became part of Edra Blixseth's sole property, she filed for personal bankruptcy in 2009, which resulted in a Chapter 7 liquidation of her assets, including Blxware and its associated software and intellectual property. National Public Radio reported, "For several months starting in the fall of 2003, Montgomery's analysis led directly to national code orange security alerts and cancelled flights; the only problem: he was making it all up."Montgomery's software claims were responsible for a false terror alert which grounded international flights and caused Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge to raise the government's security level. In February 2006, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and U.
S. Air Force office of Special Investigations opened an economic espionage and theft of intellectual property investigation into Montgomery and Blxware. In 2015, through his counsel Larry Klayman, sued James Risen, the author of Pay Any Price: Greed and Endless War, for defamation, alleging the book falsely described Montgomery as "the maestro behind what many current and former U. S. officials and others familiar with the case now believe was one of the most elaborate and dangerous hoaxes in American history." In 2016, a federal court dismissed Montgomery's lawsuit. In November 2017, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit affirmed the dismissal. During the run-up to the 2006 gubernatorial election, Dennis Montgomery accused gubernatorial candidate Jim Gibbons of accepting bribes while serving as a member of Congress to help Montgomery's company eTreppid Technologies secure military contracts for his terrorist software. In court papers associated with a lawsuit between Montgomery and former business partner Warren Trepp, Montgomery accused Gibbons of accepting casino chips and $100,000 in cash from Trepp during a Caribbean cruise.
Montgomery provided copies of what he said were Trepp's personal e-mails that he accessed while working at eTreppid Technologies. Gibbons' lawyers claimed they had evidence Montgomery fabricated the emails and presented computer expert evidence in trial that challenged the authenticity of Montgomery's alleged evidence. An 18-month investigation by the FBI resulted in no charges and Gibbons being "cleared" of all charges by the Department of Justice. Similar reviews by the Nevada State Ethics Commission and U. S. House Ethics Committee cleared Gibbons. In June 2014, reporter Stephen Lemons of the Phoenix New Times wrote that Montgomery had been hired by Sheriff Joe Arpaio of the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office as a confidential informant. Lemons, citing an anonymous source in the MCSO, said that Montgomery had claimed that, using data he had obtained while working for the Central Intelligence Agency, he could prove there was a conspiracy against Arpaio between the U. S. Department of Justice and G. Murray Snow, the federal judge presiding over a racial-profiling lawsuit filed against Maricopa County.
In April 2015, Arpaio confirmed the confidential informant relationship in testimony before Judge Snow. At Arpaio's request, two National Security Agency computer specialists examined Montgomery's material and concluded, contrary to Montgomery's representations, that it did not contain data from the CIA. Arpaio characterized the result of Montgomery's invest
The Nordic Cup is a darts tournament, held since 1980. It is the Nordic Championships, the winners are Nordic Champions, it is an invitational, the participating countries are: Norway, Sweden and Iceland. Teams consist of 4 woman players. Matches are played as Men's Team Event, Men's Pairs & Men's Singles - Ladies Team event, Ladies Pairs & Ladies Singles. Points are awarded to each nation depending on individual and team performances, with overall gold going to the nation with most points. From 1981 till 1996 it was played every year. From 1996 and till today it is only played every second year Stream from the 2010 Nordic Invitational finals Norwegian Darts Organisation, results under "Landslaget" Swedish Wikipedia site with Swedish results
The Church of the Circumcision of Our Lord known as the Jesuits' church, is one of the oldest churches in Valletta and one of the largest in the diocese. It was built between 1593 and 1609 by the Jesuit order, it is located adjacent to the Old University Building, which housed a Jesuit college known as the Collegium Melitense; the church was rebuilt in the Baroque style by Francesco Buonamici after suffering extensive damage in an explosion in 1634. The church remained in use after the Jesuits were expelled from Malta in 1768, it is used for Masters and Doctoral graduation ceremonies of the University of Malta, the successor to the Collegium Melitense. Construction of the church began in November 1593, it formed part of a Jesuit complex occupying an entire city block, which included the Collegium Melitense, constructed between 1595 and 1602. Construction of the church was completed in 1609. On 12 September 1634, a gunpowder factory explosion caused serious damage to both the church and college.
Most of the church, including its façade, was subsequently rebuilt in the Baroque style by the Luccan architect and engineer Francesco Buonamici. Although works continued throughout the 17th century, the façade still seems to be incomplete; the buildings suffered some damage during the 1693 Sicily earthquake. The church's interior is decorated using the Doric order, its plan followed the Church of the Gesù with four-bay nave and seven side chaples. The Jesuits were expelled from Malta by Grand Master Manuel Pinto da Fonseca in 1768, the building became property of the Treasury of the Order of St. John. However, the church remained open and a conventual chaplain was chosen to take care of it. Studies at the college continued, the University of Malta was established in 1769 to take its place; the church was used for the University's degree conferment ceremonies until the 1960s, when the institution moved to a new campus at Tal-Qroqq in Msida. Masters and Doctoral graduation ceremonies are still held inside the church.
The church building is listed on the National Inventory of the Cultural Property of the Maltese Islands. The church's interior and exterior were restored between 1996 and 2002, its façade and dome were again restored between 2016 and 2018, along with the façade of the adjacent Old University Building; the church's altarpiece depicts the Circumcision of Jesus, it is the work of the Italian artist Filippo Paladini. The church contains other paintings ranging from the late 16th century to the late 18th century, including works by Baldass Peruzzi, Stefano Erardi, Nicolo de Simoni and Mattia Preti. Culture of Malta History of Malta List of churches in Malta Religion in Malta Media related to Church of the Jesuits at Wikimedia Commons