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Compact disc

Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, Compact Disc-Interactive, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level.

In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs. By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s, CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50 percent from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s.

Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled. In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged.

In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record. However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976.

A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980. Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc.

Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard

Augustin Thompson

Augustin Thompson was a physician and philanthropist who created the Moxie soft drink and the company that manufactures it. Thompson was born in Union, Maine on November 25, 1835. On October 1, 1862 he enlisted in the Union Army and, nine days was commissioned as captain of Company G, 28th Maine Volunteer Infantry, he saw action in the Siege of Port Hudson in Donaldsonville, Louisiana as well as minor action at Fort Pickens in Pensacola, Florida. He was wounded in action and developed tuberculosis which led to his discharge in August 31, 1863. On October 27, 1864, Thompson rejoined the Union Army as commander of the 7th Company Unassigned Maine Infantry Volunteers; the company was organized at Augusta and served from November 2, 1864 at Fort Popham in Phippsburg, Maine guarding the approaches to the key shipbuilding city of Bath. After the defeat of the Confederacy, Thompson was, along with his company, mustered out of service on July 6, 1865, he was granted, through an act of Congress, brevet promotions to major and lieutenant colonel in recognition of his distinguished service during the Civil War.

After the war ended, he went on to attend Hahnemann Homeopathia College and graduated with honors at the head of his class. Upon graduation he settled in Lowell, Massachusetts where he set up his medical practice in 1867. By 1885, Dr. Thompson's practice had become successful and he was said to have one of the largest patient lists in New England; that same year, Thompson invested his $15,000 to begin the marketing and sale of his Moxie nerve tonic. The tonic, based upon his original patent medicine "Nerve Food" created in 1876, was first released as a syrup in 1884. Aside from profit motive, it was Thomspon's intent to produce a medicine which did not contain harmful substances such as cocaine or alcohol. In 1885, he released it as a carbonated beverage. Moxie proved to be a commercial success but, about 1889, Thompson decided to resume his medical practice, he entered into an agreement with William Taylor, a Moxie agent in upstate New York, whereby Taylor became the Moxie lessee in Massachusetts and established The Moxie Nerve Food Company with Thompson as general manager with a salary of $5,000 per year.

This annual income was sufficient to provide Thompson with the financial independence needed to pursue his other interests. Thompson spent the rest of his life as a playwright, developing marketing campaigns for Moxie, as well as writing letters to newspaper editors reflecting his diverse interests including geography, legal issues, politics, he was an advocate for the Free Silver movement, the major issue in the presidential campaign of 1896. Thompson supported the Spanish–American War saw the importance of the United States expanding its sphere of influence to include the annexation of the Philippines and other territories. In 1902, Thompson sought a copyright for his book, The Origin and Continuance of Life: Together with the Development of a System of Medical Administration on the Law of the Similars, from a Discovery of its Principles in the Law of Natural Affinities; the book contained an illustration of his latest invention, the Thompson Vitalizer, a device consisting of tanks of compressed gases and other components.

Thompson desired to establish a number of parlors, along the east coast to allow the public to benefit from his invention. Thompson died in 1903, he is buried at the Lowell Cemetery in Massachusetts. Thompson biography Moxie Facts

Charles Darbishire

Charles William Darbishire was a British Liberal politician and East India merchant. Darbishire was born in London, the son of Colonel C. H. Darbishire of Plas Mawr, Penmaenmawr in North Wales, he was educated at Giggleswick School in Yorkshire. In 1905 he married Frances Middleton whose father had been Sheriff, or local judge, in Fort William, Scotland. Darbishire served as a volunteer member of the armed forces, he was a member of the Artists Rifles between 1897 and 1899 and the Royal Welch Fusiliers, Territorial Force from 1905–08, attaining the rank of Lieutenant. Darbishire went into the trading business, he was associated with the East India merchant trade and had particular connections with Malaya and Singapore. He became one of the managing directors of Paterson Simons & Co, which traded between London, the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States, he became an acknowledged expert on trade with area and contributed the chapter on Commerce and Currency to the book One Hundred Years of Singapore: being some account of the capital of the Straits Settlements from its foundation by Sir Stamford Raffles on 6 February 1819 to the 6 February 1919, published in 1921.

Darbishire lived in Singapore for some years and became involved in public and military service there as well as commercial life. He served as a member of the Municipal Commission of Singapore from 1908–10, was an unofficial Member of the Legislative Council of the Straits Settlements from 1910–19 and a member of the Singapore Harbour Board between 1910 and 1919, he was Chairman of the Singapore Chamber of Commerce from 1914–19. He carried on his volunteer soldiering in Singapore and was Officer Commanding the Singapore Volunteer Rifles from 1914–1919, with the rank of temporary Major. In February and March 1915 he was involved in the operations to suppress the Singapore Mutiny. In 1921-22 he was President of the Association of British Malaya, a pressure group formed to represent planting and commercial interests in the Malay states. In 1922, Darbishire was adopted as the Liberal candidate for the Wiltshire constituency of Westbury. Although the seat had been represented by both Conservatives and Liberals over the years, since it became a county seat in 1885 it had been Liberal for most of the time.

At the 1918 general election a Coalition Conservative, Brigadier-General George Palmer had received the government ‘coupon’, the official letter of endorsement from Prime Minister David Lloyd George and the Conservative leader Bonar Law. Darbishire won the election of 1922 standing as a Liberal, defeating Palmer in a three-cornered contest. At the next election however, Darbishire was in more difficulty. Although Westbury could be termed a traditional Liberal seat resting on foundations of Nonconformism and the Liberal tradition, the character of the seat was changing with industrialisation; the new Unionist candidate, Captain Shaw, seemed more in tune with the times than the old one and Darbishire suffered by his refusal to support the call for protectionism in motor tyre production made to him by workers in the industry locally. There was high unemployment amongst workers in the rubber industry in Bradford on Avon. Elsewhere in the country the traditional Liberal policy of Free Trade was helping to re-unite the party and was proving a popular policy.

In Westbury however it seemed less convincing to commentators on Liberal election prospects against the poor economic and industrial background in the area. Labour tried to capitalise upon this situation and took the decision to abandon campaigning in Chippenham to concentrate on Westbury, they took votes from Darbishire but not enough to deprive him of the seat. At the 1924 general election however Unionist prospects were altogether brighter and in another three-cornered contest, Darbishire lost out to Captain Shaw. Darbishire did not get the chance to contest any more Parliamentary elections, he died aged 49 in Singapore general hospital in June 1925, having been taken ill a few days earlier. He had been taking a tour of the Far East travelling with his wife and had arrived in Singapore from Siam. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr Charles Darbishire