Hot hatch is a high-performance version of a mass-produced hatchback car. The term originated in the mid-1980s, however factory high-performance versions of hatchbacks have been produced since the 1970s. Front-mounted petrol engines, together with front-wheel drive, is the most common powertrain layout, however all-wheel drive has become more used since around 2010. Most hot hatches are manufactured in Asia. Usage of the term "hot hatchback" began in the United Kingdom in 1983, shortened to "hot hatch" in 1984; the term first appeared in The Times in 1985, is now and accepted as a mainstream, albeit informal, term. It was not a phrase used at the time; some sports cars have a rear hatch, however these body styles are not classified as hatchbacks, therefore they are not referred to as hot hatches. Due to the historical scarcity of hatchback cars in the United States, the term hot hatch is not used in the US. Since the 1990s and 2000s, the term warm hatch has been used to describe sporting hatchback models of lesser performance than a hot hatch.
Examples include the Mini Cooper, Peugeot 207 GT Suzuki Swift Sport, Toyota Yaris SR. The 1961 Mini Cooper was one of the first performance cars to use a small body and an FF layout, both key characteristics of a hot hatchback. However, the Mini was not produced in a hatchback body style and is therefore not considered a hot hatch; the car retrospectively considered to be the first hot hatch is the 1973 Simca 1100 Ti. Power was increased by 40% to 82 hp, which resulted in a 0 to 60 mph time of under 12 seconds and a top speed of 105 mph. Other upgrades included a front disk brakes and rear spoilers and alloy wheels; the second hot hatch to be introduced was the Renault 5 Alpine, which went on sale in May 1976. It could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph time of under 10 seconds; the car credited with establishing the popularity of hot hatches is the Volkswagen Golf GTI, announced at the 1975 Frankfurt Motor Show. and released in July 1976. The Golf GTI was designated to be sold only in West Germany, but from 1977 Volkswagen began exports of the GTI.
Production of right-hand drive GTI's began in 1979. The Renault 5 Alpine and Volkswagen Golf GTI, with the addition of a higher performance engine, sharper handling, distinctive body styling with additional spoilers and alloy wheels, helped create the birth of a huge market for small, practical hatchback cars with performance to match contemporary coupes such as the Ford Capri 2.0, Lancia Beta Coupe 2000 and Renault 17TS. With top speeds above 110 mph, the Alpine and GTI enjoyed a short run of unparalleled sales success until the early 1980s; the 1979 Lotus Sunbeam set a new performance benchmark of hot hatches, with a power output of 150 bhp and a 0-60 mph time of 6.6 seconds. Despite being rear-wheel drive, the Sunbeam is considered a hot hatch; until the early 1980s, the Volkswagen Golf Mk1 GTI and the Renault 5 Alpine/Gordini dominated the retrospectively named hot hatch market segment in many European markets. From around 1984, the market for hatchbacks with sportier performance grew, many manufacturers added a hot hatch variant to their range.
Power increases were achieved through upgraded carburettors, fuel injection, supercharging or fitting larger engines. Other significant hot hatches of the 1980s include the Ford Escort RS Turbo, Opel Kadett GTE, Renault 11 Turbo, Lancia Delta HF Integrale, Citroën AX GT and Suzuki Swift GTi. By the end of the 1980s, the hot hatch was hugely popular in Europe, was pushing into other worldwide markets; the brief heyday of Group B rallying pushed the hot hatch genre to its limits, small numbers of ultra-high performance variants were manufactured to comply with the rally rules. These vehicles represented a brief, extreme branch of the hot hatch, included such notable vehicles as the Lancia Delta S4, MG Metro 6R4 and Peugeot 205 T16. European manufacturers continued to produce hot hatches through the 1990s, including the Ford Fiesta RS Turbo, Ford Escort RS Cosworth, Peugeot 106 Rallye / GTi, Peugeot 306 GTi-6 / Rallye, Renault Clio Williams, SEAT Ibiza GTi / GT 16v / Cupra, Volkswagen Golf GTI / VR6 and Ford Focus ST170.
Japanese manufacturers began to produce hot hatches, including the Honda Civic Type R, Nissan Pulsar GTI-R, Toyota Corolla GTi and Suzuki Swift GTi. Performance of hot hatches continued to increase through the 2000s, with an increasing number of models using turbocharged engines. During the 2000s manufacturers started to emphasise the sub-brand of their hot hatch derivatives such as Renault's Renault Sport, Opel's OPC, Vauxhall's VXR and Fiat's Abarth. European-built hot hatches from the 2000s include the Abarth Grande Punto, Alfa Romeo 147/156 GTA, Audi S3,Ford Fiesta ST/RS,Ford Focus ST/RS,Mazdaspeed 3,MG ZR, Mini Cooper S/JCW,Opel/Vauxhall Astra SRi Turbo/OPC/VXR, Peugeot 206/207 GTi, Renault Clio RS/Mégane RS,SEAT León Cupra/FR+SEAT Ibiza Cupra/FR and Volkswagen Golf GTI/Golf R. Asian-built hot hatches included the Honda Civic Type R and Proton Satria GTi. Further increases to power outputs saw the adoption of all-wheel drive on
The Fiat Multipla is a compact MPV produced by Italian automaker Fiat from 1998 to 2010. Based on the Brava, the Multipla was wider than its rivals, it had two rows of three seats. The Honda FR-V, which shares the seating layout, was released in 2005. Sales commenced in Italy in November 1998; the Multipla was shorter than the three door Fiat Bravo on which it was based, while offering increased seating and cargo volume. In common with a number of other modern Fiats, the Multipla reused the name of an earlier vehicle, in this case the "Multipla" variant of the Fiat 600 produced during the 1950s and 1960s; the Multipla was marketed 2008-2013 under license in China as the Zotye M300 Langyue, using CKD kits from Italy. Zotye marketed a total of 220 all-electric versions of the M300; the exterior and interior design of the Multipla were displayed at the Museum of Modern Art in New York during its "Different Roads - Automobiles for the Next Century" exhibition in 1999. It won the Top Gear Car of the Year, as well as the "Ugliest Car" in the same programme's awards.
It was voted Top Gear Magazine's Family Car of the Year for four years in a row, from 2001 to 2004. In July 2000, in the series finale of Clarkson's Car Years, it was awarded "Family Car of the Moment". In March 2004, upon its subsequent restyling, The Telegraph reported designers were "desperately sad that the new Multipla no longer resembles a psychotic cartoon duck," and "while passengers loved the adaptability of the clever interior, they were less keen on the sarcastic sneers and derisive laughter of their neighbours and schoolmates; the Multipla sold well with Italian buyers. In June 2004, the Multipla underwent a major facelift, to shed its original styling for a more restrained look; this was under the intention of attracting more buyers. A 1.6 engine, that could be powered on either methane or standard petrol, was offered in certain markets. Multipla SX: basic model available with petrol or diesel engines. Multipla ELX: added Air Conditioning, Twin Electric Sunroofs, alloy wheels and electric rear windows, as well as special wipe clean, brightly coloured seats.
In June 2004, when the Multipla received its facelift, these trim levels were replaced with Dynamic, Dynamic Family, Dynamic Plus. The new generation Multipla was praised by journalists at its launch for its flexibility; the Multipla’s three abreast seating configuration allows for adjustment of the front seats, the removal and relocation of the rear seats into many formats. It affords a big 430 litres of luggage space, which can increase to 1,900 litres of flat floor load space, with the rear three seats removed from the vehicle. From December 2008 to September 2010, Zotye Auto had assembled Multipla 2 from KD kits, in its Changshan factory, marketed it in China as Multiplan. In October 2010, Zotye started to build a version of Multipla 2, employing more locally made parts in order to reduce costs. Fiat Multipla Official United Kingdom Site Some History Of The Multipla Fiat Multipla Owner's Manual
A mid-size car— known as intermediate— is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars that are larger than compact cars, but smaller than full-size cars. The equivalent European category is D-segment, called "large family car". Mid-size cars are manufactured in a variety of body styles, including sedans, station wagons and convertibles; the automobile that defined this size in the United States was the Rambler Six, introduced in 1956, although it was called a "compact" car at that time. Much smaller than any standard contemporary full-size cars, it was called a compact to distinguish it from the small imported cars that were being introduced into the marketplace. By the 1960s, the car was renamed the Rambler Classic and while it retained its basic dimensions, it was now competing with an array of new "intermediate" models from General Motors and Chrysler. During the 1970s, the intermediate class in the U. S. was defined as vehicles with wheelbases between 112 inches and 118 inches.
The domestic manufacturers began changing the definition of "medium" as they developed new models for an evolving market place. A turning point occurred in the late 1970s, when rising fuel costs and government fuel economy regulations caused all car classes to shrink, in many cases to blur. Automakers moved "full-size" nameplates to smaller platforms such as the Ford LTD II and the Plymouth Fury. A comparison test by Popular Science of four intermediate sedans predicted that these will be the "big cars of the future." By 1978, General Motors made its intermediate models smaller. New "official" size designations in the U. S. were introduced by the EPA, which defined market segments by cargo space. Mid-sized cars that were built on the same platform, like the AMC Matador sedan, had a combined passenger and cargo volume of 130 cubic feet, were now considered "full-size" automobiles. Cars that defined the mid-size market in the 1980s and 1990s included the Chrysler K-Cars, the Ford Taurus, the Toyota Camry, upsized into the midsize class in 1991.
The Taurus and Camry came to define the mid-size market for decades. Mid-size cars were the most popular category of cars sold in the United States, with 27.4 percent during the first half of 2012, ahead of crossovers at 19 percent. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, mid-size cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 110–119 cu ft. Car classification Vehicle size class Vehicles listed by EPA class
The Mitsubishi RVR is a range of cars produced by Japanese manufacturer Mitsubishi from 1991 to 2002 and from 2010 to present. The first two generations were classified as compact multi-purpose vehicles, whereas the model introduced in 2010 is a subcompact crossover SUV; the RVR was Mitsubishi's Recreational Vehicle debut during the Japanese economic boom. The cars were sold at the Mitsubishi Japan dealership chain called Car Plaza. RVR is an acronym for "Recreation Vehicle Runner". In addition, the original logo had a Cyrillic Я on the first letter, it had a convenient size passenger cabin and spacious 4–5 person capacity with a youth-oriented approach, therefore making it more appealing to young people. Television commercials in Japan used Bugs Daffy Duck as spokespeople, it was developed and released during Japan's "bubble economy", had gained popularity due to its ease of use sliding door on the passenger side. It was a tall wagon, off-road model that sought awareness towards "sports gear" or outdoor lifestyles to other companies, similar to an approach used for the introduction of the Honda CR-V, allowing drivers to setting their own routes, it had an good sales record in the beginning with the decline of the RV sales boom.
Due to declining sales, it was discontinued in August 2002. The reintroduction of the "Sports Gear" RVR nameplate is an attempt to inherit the popularity of the first generation vehicle, it was released in Japan on February 17, 2010. It does not feature a rear sliding door, due to the current perception that SUVs have conventional doors, sliding doors are installed on family vehicles; the RVR logo no longer uses the inverted Cyrillic "Я" on the first letter. The trim level, used is the grade name "Sports Gear", a feature Mitsubishi is reintroducing, such as Airtrek and Grandis; the first generation RVR, introduced February 1991, is a compact MPV, manufactured for 1991-2002 and marketed as the Mitsubishi Space Runner in Europe and Mitsubishi Expo LRV in the United States. Export markets in Asia and Oceania used the Japanese market name; the RVR was marketed by Chrysler as the Dodge/Plymouth Colt Wagon and Eagle Summit Wagon captive imports in North America. Its "tall wagon" configuration traces to Italdesign's 1978 Lancia Megagamma concept.
The Hyper Sports Gear R trim package in Japan used the drivetrain of the first Mitsubishi Galant VR-4. Open front and rear differentials were used on vehicles equipped with 4WD. Power output was rated at 170–184 kW. In Japan, the RVR saw competition from the Nissan Rasheen, the Toyota RAV4, the Honda CR-V, the Subaru Forester, the Suzuki Escudo; the RVR was a second generation Mitsubishi Chariot with a shortened chassis but sharing the components of the longer variant. It's tall wagon body style featured two rows of seats, equipped with a single rear door and, in all markets, a single sliding door on the passenger side; the Mitsubishi sliding door latched to a "B" pillar, whereas those of the Toyota and Nissan vehicles did not. The rear windows were forward hinged; the rear windows on the longer Chariot did retract into the doors. The fuel tank access door was on the right side for all versions sold internationally. In the LHD models, which had the sliding door on the right side, an interlock prevented the door from opening too far when the fuel filler door was open.
The standard installed fixed position rear bench seat arrangement could accommodate three persons and the seatbacks had a 50:50 split: the reclining seat backs could be folded forward, flat upon the seats, the seat cushion could be detached at the rear and folded up and forward towards the front seats, leaving a flat floor for large cargo items. When the entire bench was removed, the flat floor extended all the way from the back of the front seats to the rear hatchback door; the optional sliding bench rear seats could accommodate three people, with the setup allowing rear seat passengers additional leg room by sliding the entire rear seat assembly back. Depending on seating arrangements, the rear seats can produce a large enough interior space by sliding the seats forward extending the seatbacks flat. Installed with a aspirated 2.0L/1.8L gasoline engine, it was introduced with a diesel turbo engine model thereafter. The mid-model sports model with a detuned type of turbo engine 4G63 is carried on the Lancer Evolution its "X3" and "Super Sport Gear" and offered an optional sliding metal sunroof.
In North America, a 2.4L 101 kW engine was available on FWD versions, standard on AWD versions at least as early as MY 1993. The final and most powerful model, the "Hyper Sports Gear", was added in January 1997. Due to platform sharing with the longer Chariot, the benefit of development time, many of the mechanical components from past Galant contributions with new mechanism improvements, the RVR is reliable and robust. However, the individual is about 60,000 km Automatic Transmission capable, greet life with a plug cord about three years, would upset the sensors and around the throttle servo mechanism, etc. Automatic Transmission shift lock was mechanism instead of an electrical control, a unique method that deregulation was mechanically wire extending from the brake pedal; this was the advantage of being unaffected by the battery. History February 1991 – released. Three grades are available, 2WD models is "S", 4WD vehicles, "R" and "X" is set, set the car 4AT or 5MT to grad
The Ford C-Max is a compact multi-purpose vehicle produced by the Ford Motor Company since 2003. The Ford Grand C-Max has a longer wheelbase. Ford introduced the C-Max in the United States as its first hybrid-only line of vehicles, which includes the C-Max Hybrid, released in September 2012, the C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid, launched in October 2012. Although the C-Max was available only in Europe, the first generation was available in New Zealand. With the introduction of the new large MPVs S-Max and Galaxy, the C-Max is now the mid-sized multi-purpose vehicle in Ford's lineup, above the now discontinued B-Max. C-Max Mk I was the first product to use the Ford C1 platform used by the Ford Focus Mk II and the compact MPV Premacy/Mazda5, its internal code name is C214. It seats five passengers and has a large amount of cargo space, which can be increased by folding the rear seats flat; some models feature diagonally sliding outer rear seats. It shares the control blade independent rear suspension from the Focus.
The available four-cylinder engines are the same as the Focus.1.6 L Duratec was the basic engine for C-Max, 1.6 L Ti-VCT Duratec was available.1.8/2.0 L Duratec HE are the rest of available petrol engines1.6/2.0 L Duratorq Ford/PSA made diesels were available along with Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine, upgraded and named Duratorq *Overboost Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5, Ford Durashift, MTX-75 manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with 2.0 Duratorq. The 4F27E mated with the 2.0 Duratec engine. A CVT automatic was available In December 2006, the facelifted version of the C-Max was revealed at the 2006 Bologna Motor Show and went on sale in late spring 2007; the pre-facelift version of the car was called the Ford Focus C-Max. The name change to C-Max is attributable to Ford's MPV strategy of creating a'Max' branded line of MPVs, starting with the Ford S-Max, launched in 2006; the facelift brought the car in line with Ford's'Kinetic Design' design language, evidenced through its twin trapezoidal grilles, large wheel arches and angular headlights.
However, as the car does not have a bodyshell designed for'Kinetic Design,' Ford states that the car contains only'elements' of the design language. Alongside the third generation Ford Focus Mk III, the second generation C-Max is built on Ford's new Global C platform; the appearance is inspired by the Iosis Max concept, shown at the 2009 Geneva Motor Show. In addition, Ford added a long wheelbase, seven-seat minivan variant of the C-Max, the Ford Grand C-MaxThe vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show. Early European models include 5 seats, 7-seat models entered the market at the end of 2010. At the 2011 North American International Auto Show, Ford announced a 7-seat C-MAX for the North American market. However, this model was cancelled prior to launch. Ford unveiled the Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid and the C-Max Hybrid at the 2011 North American International Auto Show. Like the conventional C-Max, the C-Max Energi and Hybrid are five-seat only, they replace the Ford Escape Hybrid and Mercury Mariner Hybrid since Ford discontinued the Mercury brand after the 2011 model year and the Escape Hybrid after the 2012 year model.
The C-Max is Ford's first hybrid-only line of vehicles. Both the plug-in and hybrid version designs are based on the European gasoline- and diesel-powered versions; the C-Max Hybrid was released in the United States in September 2012 as a 2013 model year, followed by the release of the plug-in Energi version by mid October 2012. Production of the C-Max Energi in the United States ended in September 2017, while Hybrid production ended in 2018; the new Mk III platform is the first in its class to support Torque Vectoring Control. The redesigned C-Max features flat folding third row seats, a hands free power lift gate, rear view camera, park assist, panoramic sunroof. HD Radio, Sirius XM, dual-zone climate control system, navigation system come as standard or as available options on the different trim lines; the aerodynamics of the car has been improved, being 0,30 for the 5 seater and 0,32 for the Grand C-Max. Like the previous C-Max, the new C-Max comes with a range of petrol and diesel four-cylinder engines which are shared with the Focus: 1.0 L Ecoboost comes available in two states of tune, alongside the 1.6 - 100 hp and 125 hp guises.
1.6 L Duratec Ti-VCT is available in three spec, 85PS, 105 hp and 125PS 1.6 L EcoBoost comes with 150 hp or 182 hp variant, same as in Focus 1.6/2.0 L Duratorq TDCi Ford/PSA made diesels are upgraded, Ford's 1.8 L Endura engine is not available any more. They come in 110 hp and 140 hp for the 1.6 and 2.0 respectively.*Overboost Transmissions mated with engines are Ford IB5, B6, Durashift MMT6 manual and Ford Powershift double-clutch transmission available with the 2.0 Duratorq engine. The Ford C-MAX was facelifted in 2015 and the 1.6 ecoboost changed from 1.6 ECOBOOST 125 PS to the 1.0 ECOBOOST 125PS along with the 1.6 TDCI 115PS DUROTORQ changing to the 1.5 TDCI 120 PS DUROTORQ Single Over head cam unit. Ford developed the C-Max Hybrid with the aim to become "America’s most affordable hybrid utility vehicle." The gasoline-electric hybrid model base pricing starts at US$24,995, including destination and delivery. The front-wheel drive hybrid has a 2-liter four-cylinder Atkinson cycle engine mated to an electric motor and a 1.4 kWh lithium-ion battery for total power output of 188 hp.
The top speed in all-e
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated
Compact car is a vehicle size class— predominantly used in North America— that sits between subcompact cars and mid-size cars. The present-day definition is equivalent to the European C-segment or the British term "small family car". However, prior to the downsizing of the United States car industry in the 1970s and 1980s, larger vehicles with wheelbases up to 110 in were considered "compact cars" in the United States. In Japan, small size passenger vehicle is a registration category that sits between kei cars and regular cars, based on overall size and engine displacement limits; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, compact cars are defined as having an interior volume index of 100–109 cu ft; the beginnings of U. S. production of compact cars were the late 1940s prototypes of economy cars, including the Chevrolet Cadet and the Ford Vedette.
Neither car reached production in the U. S. however the Vedette was produced by Ford SAF in France. The first U. S produced, it was built on a 100-inch wheelbase, nonetheless still a large car by contemporary European standards. The term "compact" was coined by a Nash executive as a euphemism for small cars with a wheelbase of 110 inches or less, it established a new market segment and the U. S. automobile industry soon adopted the "compact" term. Several competitors to the Nash Rambler arose from the ranks of America's other independent automakers, although none enjoyed the long-term success of the Rambler. Other early compact cars included the Willys Aero and the Hudson Jet. In 1954, 64,500 cars sold in the U. S. were small American cars, out of a total market of five million car. Market research indicated that five percent of those surveyed said they would consider a small car, suggesting a potential market size of 275,000 cars. By 1955, the Nash Rambler that began as a sideline convertible model became a success and was now available in station wagon and sedan body styles.
During the Recession of 1958, the only exception to the sales decline was American Motors with its compact, economy-oriented Ramblers that saw high demand among cautious consumers. By 1959, sales of small imported cars increased to 14% of the U. S. passenger car market, as consumers turned to compact cars. By this time, smaller cars appealed to people with a college education and a higher income whose families were buying more than one car. Customers expected compact cars to provide improved fuel economy compared to full-sized cars, while maintaining headroom and plenty of trunk space. Between 1958 and 1960, the major U. S. car manufacturers made a push towards compact cars, resulting in the introduction of the Studebaker Lark, Chevrolet Corvair, Ford Falcon, Plymouth Valiant. These models gave rise to compact vans built on the compact car platforms, such as the Studebaker Zip Van, Chevrolet Covair Greenbrier, Ford Econoline and Dodge A100. During the 1960s, compacts were the smallest class of North American cars, but they had evolved into only smaller versions of the 6-cylinder or V8-powered six-passenger sedan.
They were much larger than compacts by European manufacturers, which were five-passenger 4-cylinder engine cars. Adverising and road tests for the Ford Maverick and the Rambler American made comparisons with the popular Volkswagen Beetle. Compact cars were the basis for a new small car segment that became known as the pony car, named after the Ford Mustang, built on the Falcon chassis. At that time, there was a distinct difference in size between compact and full-size models, an early definition of the compact was a vehicle with an overall length of less than 200 in, much larger than European equivalents. In the early 1970s, the domestic automakers introduced smaller subcompact cars that included the AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. In 1973, the Energy Crisis started, which made small fuel efficient cars more desirable, the North American driver began exchanging their large cars for the smaller, imported compacts that cost less to fill up and were inexpensive to maintain; the 1977 model year marked the beginning of a downsizing of all vehicles, so that cars such as the AMC Concord and the Ford Fairmont that replaced the compacts were re-classified as mid-size, while cars inheriting the size of the Ford Pinto and Chevrolet Vega became classified as compact cars.
After the reclassification, mid-size American cars were still far larger than mid-size cars from other countries and were more similar in size to cars classified as "large cars" in Europe. It would not be until the 1980s that American cars were being downsized to international dimensions. In the 1985 model year, compact cars classified by the EPA included Ford's Escort and Tempo, the Chevrolet Cavalier, Toyota Corolla, Acura Legend, Mercedes-Benz 300, Nissan Maxima, Volvo DL, many others. Since the 1990s, most compact cars sold in the United States are imported models. In Japan, vehicles that are larger than kei cars, but with dimensions smaller than 4,700 mm long, 1,700 mm wide, 2,000 mm high and with engines at or under 2,000 cc are classified as "small size" cars. Small size cars are identified by a licence plate number beginning with "5". In the past, the small size category has received tax benefits stipulated by the Japanese government regulations, such as those in the 1951 Road Vehicle Act.
In 1955, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade