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Complementary DNA

In genetics, complementary DNA is DNA synthesized from a single-stranded RNA template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. CDNA is used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes; when scientists want to express a specific protein in a cell that does not express that protein, they will transfer the cDNA that codes for the protein to the recipient cell. CDNA is produced by retroviruses and integrated into the host's genome, where it creates a provirus; the term cDNA is used in a bioinformatics context, to refer to an mRNA transcript's sequence, expressed as DNA bases rather than RNA bases. CDNA is derived from mRNA, so it contains only exons but no introns. Although there are several methods for doing so, cDNA is most synthesized from mature mRNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase; this enzyme, which occurs in retroviruses, operates on a single strand of mRNA, generating its complementary DNA based on the pairing of RNA base pairs to their DNA complements. To obtain eukaryotic cDNA whose introns have been removed: An eukaryotic cell transcribes the DNA into RNA.

The same cell processes the pre-mRNA strands by removing introns, adding a poly-A tail and 5’ methyl-guanine cap. This mixture of mature mRNA strands is extracted from the cell; the poly-A tail of the post-transcriptional mRNA can be taken advantage of with oligo beads in an affinity chromatography assay. A poly-T oligonucleotide primer is hybridized onto the poly-A tail of the mature mRNA template, or random hexamer primers can be added which contain every possible 6 base single strand of DNA and can therefore hybridize anywhere on the RNA. Reverse transcriptase is added, along with deoxynucleotide triphosphates; this synthesizes one complementary strand of DNA hybridized to the original mRNA strand. To synthesize an additional, complementary DNA strand, traditionally one would digest the RNA of the hybrid strand, using an enzyme like RNase H, or through alkali digestion method. After digestion of the RNA, a single stranded DNA is left and because single stranded nucleic acids are hydrophobic, it tends to loop around itself.

It is that the ssDNA forms a hairpin loop at the 3' end. From the hairpin loop, a DNA polymerase can use it as a primer to transcribe a complementary sequence for the ss cDNA. Now, what should be left is a double stranded cDNA with one strand displaying a sequence identical as the mRNA of interest. Complementary DNA is used in gene cloning or as gene probes or in the creation of a cDNA library; when scientists transfer a gene from one cell into another cell in order to express the new genetic material as a protein in the recipient cell, the cDNA will be added to the recipient, because the DNA for an entire gene may include DNA that does not code for the protein or that interrupts the coding sequence of the protein. Partial sequences of cDNAs are obtained as expressed sequence tags. With amplification of DNA sequences via polymerase chain reaction now commonplace, one will conduct reverse transcription as an initial step, followed by PCR to obtain an exact sequence of cDNA for intra-cellular expression.

This is achieved by designing sequence-specific DNA primers that hybridize to the 5' and 3' ends of a cDNA region coding for a protein. Once amplified, the sequence can be cut at each end with nucleases and inserted into one of many small circular DNA sequences known as expression vectors; such vectors allow for self-replication, inside the cells, integration in the host DNA. They also contain a strong promoter to drive transcription of the target cDNA into mRNA, translated into protein. On June 13, 2013, the United States Supreme Court ruled in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics that while occurring human genes cannot be patented, cDNA is patent eligible because it does not occur naturally; some viruses use cDNA to turn their viral RNA into mRNA. The mRNA is used to make viral proteins to take over the host cell. An example of this first step from viral DNA to cDNA can be seen in the HIV cycle of infection. Here, the host cell membrane becomes attached to the virus’ lipid envelope which allows the viral capsid with two copies of viral genome RNA to enter the host.

The cDNA copy is made though reverse transcription of the viral RNA, a process facilitated by the chaperone CypA and a viral capsid associated reverse transcriptase. CDNA library cDNA microarray RNA-Seq H-Invitational Database Functional Annotation of the Mouse database Complementary DNA tool

1987 Kansas City Royals season

The 1987 Kansas City Royals season was a season in American baseball. It involved the Royals finishing 2nd in the American League West with a record of 83 wins and 79 losses. December 10, 1986: Scott Bankhead, Steve Shields, Mike Kingery were traded by the Royals to the Seattle Mariners for Danny Tartabull and Rick Luecken. December 22, 1986: Alan Hargesheimer was released by the Royals. March 20, 1987: Derek Botelho was traded by the Cincinnati Reds to the Kansas City Royals for Eddie Tanner and Pete Carey. March 27, 1987: David Cone and Chris Jelic were traded by the Royals to the New York Mets for Ed Hearn, Rick Anderson, Mauro Gozzo. March 30, 1987: Jim Sundberg was traded by the Royals to the Chicago Cubs for Thad Bosley and Dave Gumpert. March 31, 1987: Larry Owen was signed as a free agent by the Royals. June 2, 1987: Bret Barberie was drafted by the Royals in the 65th round of the 1987 Major League Baseball draft, but did not sign. Note: Pos = position. = Batting average.

Rutford Ice Stream

Rutford Ice Stream is a major Antarctic ice stream, about 290 kilometres long and over 24 kilometres wide, which drains southeastward between the Sentinel Range, Ellsworth Mountains and Fletcher Ice Rise into the southwest part of Ronne Ice Shelf. Named by US-ACAN for geologist Robert Hoxie Rutford, a member of several USARP expeditions to Antarctica. Rutford served as Director of the Division of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation, 1975-1977; the ice stream is situated in a deep trough, a tectonic feature between the Ellsworth Mountains and the Fletcher Promontory. Because of this the ice stream position may have been stable for millions of years; the bed of the ice stream reaches 2,000 metres below sea level. Therefore, between the bed of the ice stream and the height of the Ellsworth Mountains there is a vertical relief of 7 kilometres over a distance of only 40 kilometres. At the upper end of the ice stream the ice thickness reaches 3,100 metres falling to around 2,300 metres in the trough.

Flow speed reaches a maximum of around 400 metres per year about 40 kilometres inland from where the ice stream meets the Ronne Ice Shelf and starts to float on the sea. The speed of the Rutford ice stream varies by as much as 20% every two weeks, in response to variations in the tides. Yamen Glacier Vicha Glacier Newcomer Glacier Vit Ice Piedmont Embree Glacier Young Glacier Ranuli Ice Piedmont Ellen Glacier Lardeya Ice Piedmont Guerrero Glacier Hough Glacier Remington Glacier Thomas Glacier Razboyna Glacier Drama Glacier Gabare Glacier Divdyadovo Glacier Minnesota Glacier Union Glacier List of glaciers in the Antarctic List of Antarctic ice streams This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Rutford Ice Stream"

2011 MSBL season

The 2011 MSBL season was the 23rd season of the Men's State Basketball League. The regular season ended on Saturday 23 July; the finals began on Friday 29 July and ended on Saturday 27 August, when the Wanneroo Wolves defeated the Perry Lakes Hawks in the MSBL Grand Final. The regular season began on Friday 18 March and ended on Saturday 23 July after 19 weeks of competition; the finals ended on Saturday 27 August with the MSBL Grand Final. Most Valuable Player: Anthony Lee Coach of the Year: Andy Stewart Most Improved Player: Damien Scott All-Star Five: PG: Ty Harrelson SG: Luke Payne SF: Anthony Lee PF: Greg Hire C: Tom Jervis Grand Final MVP: Greg Hire 2011 fixtures 2011 quarter-finals preview MSBL Power Rankings

Peter Kingsley (scholar)

Peter Kingsley is the author of five books and numerous articles on ancient philosophy, including Ancient Philosophy and Magic, In the Dark Places of Wisdom, Reality, A Story Waiting to Pierce You: Mongolia and the Destiny of the Western World, Catafalque: Carl Jung and the End of Humanity. He has written extensively on the pre-Socratic philosophers Parmenides and Empedocles and the world they lived in. Peter Kingsley attended Highgate School, in north London, until 1971, he graduated with honours from the University of Lancaster in 1975, went on to receive the degree of Master of Letters from the University of Cambridge after study at King's College. A former Fellow of the Warburg Institute in London, Kingsley has been made an honorary professor both at Simon Fraser University in Canada and at the University of New Mexico, he has lectured in North America. Kingsley has noted in public interviews that he is sometimes misunderstood as a scholar who moved away from academic objectivity to a personal involvement with his subject matter.

However, Kingsley himself has stated that he is, always has been, a mystic, that his spiritual experience stands in the background of his entire career, not just his most recent work. Kingsley's work argues that the writings of the presocratic philosophers Parmenides and Empedocles seen as rational or scientific enterprises, were in fact expressions of a wider Greek mystical tradition that helped give rise to western philosophy and civilisation; this tradition, according to Kingsley, was a way of life leading to the direct experience of reality and the recognition of one's divinity. Yet, as Kingsley stresses, this was no "otherworldly" mysticism: its chief figures were lawgivers, diplomats and military men; the texts produced by this tradition are seamless fabrics of what thought would distinguish as the separate areas of mysticism, science and art. Parmenides, most famous as the “father of western logic” and traditionally viewed as a rationalist, was a priest of Apollo and iatromantis. Empedocles, who outlined an elaborate cosmology that introduced the enormously influential idea of the four elements into western philosophy and science, was a mystic and a magician.

Kingsley reads the poems of Parmenides and Empedocles as esoteric, initiatory texts designed to lead the reader to a direct experience of the oneness of reality and the realisation of his or her own divinity. A significant implication of this reading is that western logic and science had a spiritual purpose. Kingsley's reading of early Greek philosophy and, in particular, of Parmenides and Empedocles, is at odds with most of the established interpretations. However, Kingsley contends that ancient philosophers such as Plato and Theophrastus, among others and distorted their predecessors. Kingsley's procedure is to read presocratic texts in historical and geographical context, giving particular attention to the Southern Italian and Sicilian backgrounds of Parmenides and Empedocles. Additionally, he reads the poems of Parmenides and Empedocles as esoteric and mystical texts, a hermeneutical perspective that, according to Kingsley, is both indicated by the textual and historical evidence and provides the only way to solve many problems of interpretation and text criticism.

In his more recent work, Kingsley argues that esoteric texts designed to record or induce mystical experiences can never be understood from an "outsider's perspective". Kingsley presents Parmenides and Empedocles as representatives of a mystical tradition that helped give rise to western philosophy and civilisation and, still available to people today. Kingsley argues that this tradition is of profound importance and has something essential to offer, both inside the world of academic philosophy and beyond in the wider, contemporary West. Though Parmenides and Empedocles are viewed as philosophical antagonists, Kingsley argues that beneath the superficial or apparent differences, the two men are profoundly united by the common essence of this one tradition, a connection that finds expression in their intimately connected understandings of reality, the body and the senses, language and divine consciousness. Parmenides and Empedocles are united by, among other things, a somewhat unorthodox mysticism with respect to the body and the senses.

Empedocles' cosmology, both born out of and directed towards mystical experience influences the peculiarities of the spiritual path as he offered it. Empedocles described a cosmic cycle consisting of the uniting and separation of the four divine "roots," or elements, of earth, aithêr or air and water; the divine power of Love, in Empedocles' cosmology, brought the elements together into one, while the divine power of Strife separated them out from each other. For Empedocles there is nothing in the cosmos, not divine. Thus, there is nothing to "leave behind" as one travels the spiritual path, his mysticism is not what one might anticipate—the ascetic strain of shutting out the senses or dissociation from the body. While many forms of mysticism reject and renounce the supposed crudity of matter and the senses for something higher or loftier, Empedocles does not, teaching instead the conscious use of the senses themselves as a path to recognising the divine in everything—including oneself. Kingsley argues that the imagery and wording of the proem, or introductory pa

Chibcha language

Chibcha is an extinct language of Colombia, spoken by the Muisca, one of the many advanced indigenous civilizations of the Americas. The Muisca inhabited the central highlands of; the name of the language Muysc Cubun in its own language means "language of the people" or "language of the men", from muysca and cubun. Important scholars who have contributed to the knowledge of the Chibcha language were Juan de Castellanos, Bernardo de Lugo, José Domingo Duquesne and Ezequiel Uricoechea. In prehistorical times, in the Andean civilizations called preceramic, the population of northwestern South America happened through the Darien Gap between the isthmus of Panama and Colombia. Other Chibchan languages are spoken in southern Central America and the Muisca and related indigenous groups took their language with them into the heart of Colombia where they settled in their Muisca Confederation; as early as 1580 the authorities in Charcas and Santa Fe de Bogotá mandated the establishment of schools in native languages and required that priests study these languages before ordination.

In 1606 the entire clergy was ordered to provide religious instruction in Chibcha. The Chibcha language declined in the 18th century. In 1770, King Charles III of Spain banned use of the language in the region as part of a de-indigenization project; the ban remained in law until Colombia passed its constitution of 1991. Modern Muisca scholars have investigated Muysccubun and concluded that the variety of languages was much larger than thought; the quick colonization of the Spanish and the improvised use of traveling translators has reduced the differences between the versions of Chibcha over time. Since 2009 an online Spanish-Muysccubun dictionary containing more than 2000 words is online; the project was financed by the University of Bergen, Norway. Chibú - hello yswa - hello to more people chowá? - Are you good? chowé - I am / we are good haspkwa sihipkwá - goodbye! The muysccubun alphabet consists of around 20 letters; the Muisca didn't have an "L" in their language. The letters are pronounded more or less as follows:a - as in Spanish "casa".

- we - "house"zh - as in "chorizo", but with the tongue to the back - zhysky - "head" The accentuation of the words is like in Spanish on the second-last syllable except when an accent is shown: Bacata is Ba-CA-ta and Bacatá is Ba-ca-TA. In case of repetition of the same vowel, the word can be shortened: fuhuchá ~ fuchá - "woman". In Chibcha, words are made of combinations; when this happens in front of another vowel, the vowel changes as follows:a-uba becomes oba - "his face"a-ita becomes eta - "his base"a-yta becomes ata - "his hand" Sometimes this combination is not performed and the words are written with the prefix plus the new vowel: a-ita would become eta but can be written as aeta, a-uba as aoba and a-yta as ayta Counting 1 to 10 in Chibcha is ata, mika, myhyká, hyzhká, ta, kuhupkwá, suhuzhá, hubchihiká. The Muisca only had numbers one to ten and the'perfect' number 20. For numbers higher than 10 they used additions. Higher numbers were multiplications of twenty; the subjects in Chibcha do not have genders nor plurals. to thus can mean "male dog", "male dogs", "female dog" or "female dogs".

To solve this, the Muisca used the numbers and the word for "man". I - is only used in combination with n, s, t or zh.