Lieutenant Clement Graham Boothroyd became an ace during World War I. He flew as an observer/gunner in a Bristol F.2 Fighter, in conjunction with his pilots, was credited with 12 confirmed aerial victories. Boothroyd's initial aerial success with 20 Squadron came on 2 July 1918, when he destroyed a Fokker D. VII near Geluwe. On 11 August, he destroyed a kite balloon south of Heule. On 20 September, he began a streak of ten victories that took him through double wins on 23 and 30 October. Horace Percy Lale, his final tally was: one balloon busted, one Fokker D. VII set afire in mid-air, nine others destroyed in flight, one sent down out of control. Boothroyd remained in the service postwar. On 1 August 1920, Observer Officer Clement Graham Boothroyd was Mentioned in Dispatches by General C. C. Monro for exemplary service in Waziristan. On 12 December 1922, Boothroyd transferred to the Class A Reserve. Four years he surrendered his commission; the citation for his Distinguished Flying Cross reads as follows: 2nd Lieut.
Clement Graham Boothroyd. An officer of high courage. On 23 October, after attacking with bombs a railway station the formation with which this officer was flying was engaged with about fifteen enemy scouts. In all he has to his credit eight enemy aircraft and one kite balloon
Novellus Systems Inc. was a company founded by Brad Mattson that developed, manufactured and serviced semiconductor equipment used in the fabrication of integrated circuits. It was a supplier of chemical vapor deposition, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, electrochemical deposition, ultraviolet thermal processing, surface preparation equipment used in the manufacturing of semiconductors. Novellus Systems is headquartered in San Jose, California; the company maintains engineering & manufacturing facilities in Tualatin and San Jose, California. Novellus has a component design and software development facility in Bangalore, India. In December 2011, Novellus agreed to be acquired by Lam Research for $3.3 billion. The acquisition was completed in June 2012. Novellus' product lines were called ALTUS, ATHENA, GAMMA, INOVA, SABRE, SOLA, SPEED, VECTOR, SEQUEL and assisted semiconductor companies with manufacturing. Official website
The 1st Sussex Engineers was a Volunteer unit of Britain's Royal Engineers raised in Eastbourne in 1890. It became the engineer component of the 44th Division of the Territorial Force, but its units saw action with Regular Army formations on the Western Front, at Salonika and in Italy during World War I, in North Russia and Turkey after the war ended. During World War II its units were in the Battle of France and at Alamein, in Sicily, on D Day and the subsequent campaign in North West Europe, including the Rhine crossing. Detached companies fought in Tunisia and Burma, where one was involved in the decisive Battle of Kohima and the assault crossing of the Irrawaddy; the unit continued in the postwar Territorial Army until 1967. The enthusiasm for the Volunteer movement following an invasion scare in 1859 saw the creation of many Rifle and Engineer Volunteer units composed of part-time soldiers eager to supplement the Regular British Army in time of need. However, it was not until 1890, its instigator was George Frederick Chambers, a barrister from Eastbourne, with the support of the Commanding Royal Engineer for the South-East District and against opposition from local dignitaries and the 2nd Sussex Artillery Volunteers, who feared competition for recruits in the town.
Towards the end of 1889 Chambers called a meeting to get the minimum 60 volunteers required, obtaining 105 names including a complete fife and drum band. The requisition was sent to the War Office, the 1st Sussex Engineer Volunteer Corps came into existence in Eastbourne on 24 May 1890; the company headquarters was at Eastbourne Redoubt from April 1891 at 38 Commercial Road, Eastbourne. It was attached for administrative purposes to the 1st Middlesex EVC, it formed two additional companies in B at Newhaven and C at Seaford. From 1892 it was attached to the 1st Hampshire Engineers EVC and became an independent unit from May 1895. Frederick Savage, headmaster of Seaford College, was commissioned as a Captain in the 1st Sussex EVC in 1891 and formed a Cadet Corps at the school that year. In July 1895 he was promoted to Major in command of the 1st Sussex EVC. Further cadet companies were formed at University and St Leonards Collegiate Schools, Hastings, in 1906 and 1907 respectively. D Company of the 1st Sussex EVC was formed at Chalvington in 1896, but attempts the following year to raise three or four more companies were unsuccessful.
After Black Week in December 1899, the Volunteers were invited to send active service units to assist the Regulars in the Second Boer War. From 70 volunteers, the 1st Sussex Engineers selected its detachment of one officer, one sergeant and 25 other ranks to work with the Royal Engineers, they were sworn in on 18 January 1900, underwent training at the RE depot at Chatham and embarked at Southampton aboard the Tintagel Castle with similar sections from 11 other EVCs on 10 March. The ship arrived at Cape Town on 31 March where the first duty for the sappers was to unload balloons and gas cylinders for the RE Balloon Section; the Sussex Section was given its assignment, to 23rd Field Company, RE, at Ladysmith. This entailed re-embarking and sailing to Durban proceeding by rail via Pietermaritzberg; the section spent three weeks repairing siege damage at Ladysmith with 23rd Fd Co it joined 4th Division's advance towards Newcastle. The main job for the sappers was to repair drifts so that the transport and artillery could cross the numerous rivers, but providing water supplies for the horses was important.
During the four-day Battle of Belfast the sappers were involved in digging trenches and gun positions. The force drove the Boers out of Lydenburg into the Mauchsberg Mountains, where the sappers were employed to get the guns forward from ridge to ridge. After reaching Kruger Post, the column returned to Lydenburg, where the sappers built a six-span square timber bridge over the Crocodile River and water supplies; the Sussex Section was now ordered to return to England, so it was marched back to Machadorp and went by train to Pretoria. There it carried out guards and patrols. After three weeks at Pretoria it was obvious that the Boers were not defeated, the orders to return home were cancelled; the Sussex Section rejoined 23rd Fd Co at Middelburg, where it was chiefly engaged in manufacturing and erecting corrugated iron blockhouses, but putting Middelburg Town Hall into a state of defence. Three Sussex sappers died of Enteric fever while at Middelburg, another four were evacuated home with sickness before the end of the section's term of service.
At the end of March 1901 the first sections of Volunteer sappers were ordered to return home at the completion of their year's service. The Sussex section travelled by train to Durban by ship to Cape Town, where the survivors embarked on the St Andrew for Southampton. Before they left Cape Town, the second Sussex Section arrived on the Saxon from England, having been raised in March; the Boers having adopted prolonged Guerrilla warfare, the second section saw less movement than the first, being chiefly engaged with 9th Fd Co at Naampoort on the blockhouse system. After the end of its year's service the second section embarked on the Roslin Castle at Cape Town on 29 May 1902 and reached Southampton on 18 June; the wave of patriotism at the time of the Boer War led to the formation of eight more companies for the 1st Sussex Engineers in 1901: E, F and G at Brighton, H and J at Eastbourne, K at Tonbridge in Kent, L and M at Hastings. Shortly afterwards the HQ moved to 40 Junction Road, Eastbourn
Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest and best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613–2589 BC; the Dahshur pyramids were an important learning experience for the Egyptians. It provided them with the knowledge and know-how to transition from step-sided pyramids to smooth-sided pyramids, their breadth of experience would allow them to build the Great Pyramid of Giza. The first of the Dahshur pyramids was the Bent Pyramid, built under the rule of King Sneferu, the Bent Pyramid was the first attempt at building a smooth sided pyramid, but proved to be an unsuccessful build due to the miscalculations made on the structural weight, being placed onto the soft ground which had a tendency to subside. Other calculations that were proven to be erroneous were that the blocks being used were cut in such a manner that when placed onto the pyramid their weight was not distributed appropriately, causing the angle of the pyramid to be off and achieving the name “the Bent Pyramid”.
Realizing his shortcomings and learning from his mistakes, King Sneferu ordered the building of the second pyramid of Dahshur, the Red Pyramid. Once completed, the pyramid was considered to be a success, as it was a constructed, smooth sided, a free standing pyramid rising to a height of 341 feet, with an angle of 43 degrees; the Red Pyramid’s name reigns from the material, used to construct the pyramid, red limestone. And this pyramid is believed to be the resting place of King Sneferu. Shortly after King Sneferu’s death a third pyramid was erected by his son Khufu. Khufu wanting to build a legacy of his own, utilized his father’s research to design and guide the building process of the third pyramid to completion. Once completed the pyramid was named The Great Pyramid of Giza, it stands an astonishing 481 feet tall with an angle of 52 degrees. Another pyramid located within Dahshur is that of the 12th Dynasty King Amenemhat II; this pyramid has not been preserved as well as the others within the area due to the materials that were used to fill it.
The weather caused the sand to erode from it, but the limestone was taken intentionally for use on other pyramids allowing the pyramid to collapse and desecrating the tomb of King Amenemhat II. King Senusret III had his pyramid built within Dahshur; the difference between his pyramid in comparison to those surrounding it was that King Senusret III had tombs and galleries built underneath it for two princesses. The Black Pyramid dates from the reign of Amenemhat III and, although badly eroded, it remains the most imposing monument at the site after the two Sneferu pyramids; the polished granite pyramidion or capstone of the Black Pyramid is on display in the main hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Several other pyramids of the 13th Dynasty were built at Dahshur. Only the pyramid of Ameny Qemau has been excavated so far by Ahmad Fakhri, the archaeologist whom excavated this site. Located to the pyramid of the 12th Dynasty several undisturbed tombs of royal women were found, containing a large amount of lapidary and jewelry that have been determined to be of the highest stage of metalworking in Egypt during this time period.
The pyramid of Senusret III was part of a huge complex, with several smaller pyramids of royal women, along with another pyramid to the south. In a gallery tomb next to this pyramid were found two treasures of the king's daughters. Extensive cemeteries of officials of the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom have been found around Dahshur's pyramids. Dahshur was Egypt's royal necropolis during the reign of the 12th Dynasty king Amenemhat II. In July 2012, Dahshur's entire Christian community, which some estimate to be as many as 120 families, fled to nearby towns due to sectarian violence; the violence began in a dispute over a badly ironed shirt, which in turn escalated into a fight in which a Christian burned a Muslim Arab clan member to death. Furthermore, during clashes another Muslim suffered head injuries and died due to a gasoline bomb being thrown from a roof top of a building. At least 16 homes and properties of Christians were pillaged, some were torched, a church was damaged during the violence.
This incident was reported internationally. As of January 2013, due to the security vacuum that still prevails in Egypt following the 2011 uprising, the site is under threat of desecration and damage due to encroachment by locals of surrounding urban settlements. Dahshur has a hot desert climate according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. List of Egyptian pyramids List of megalithic sites Acanthus, an old village in Dahsur mentioned in Ancient Greek literature. Information about Dahshur on the website of the German Archaeological Institute Photos from inside the Bent Pyramid of Dahshur Dahshur - Pyramid Breeding Ground Dahshur National Geographic Video on the Dahshur Pyramids
The 1981 edition to the Sugar Bowl was played on January 1, 1981, at the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana. It featured the top-ranked and undefeated Georgia Bulldogs of the Southeastern Conference, the seventh-ranked Notre Dame Fighting Irish. In the first quarter, Notre Dame scored first on a 50-yard Oliver field goal. Another Notre Dame scoring opportunity in the first quarter was foiled when Bulldog freshman Terry Hoage blocked a field goal. Hoage had been a last minute addition to the roster by coach Vince Dooley for his kick blocking ability. Due to good field position Georgia's Rex Robinson would boot a 46-yard field goal of his own to tie the game at 3. On the ensuing kickoff, a communication gaffe between the Irish's deep return players resulted in neither one fielding the kick which bounced at the one-yard line and was recovered by Georgia's Bob Kelly. Two plays Bulldog running back Herschel Walker scored on a 1-yard touchdown run as Georgia led 10–3. In the second quarter, Walker scored on a 3-yard run making the score 17–3 at halftime.
The only score in the second half came in the third quarter. Georgia's defense held on to that lead, giving Georgia the victory and the 1980 national championship. True freshman Walker rushed for 150 yards and was named Sugar Bowl MVP. Bulldog defensive back Scott Woerner made several key plays throughout the day including a late game interception that sealed the win. Georgia was first in both final polls; this Sugar Bowl marked the debut of Georgia's costumed mascot Hairy Dawg. President Jimmy Carter was in attendance, three weeks before leaving office