John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll
Field Marshal John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, 1st Duke of Greenwich, styled Lord Lorne from 1680 to 1703, was a Scottish nobleman and senior commander in the British Army. He served on the continent in the Nine Years' War and fought at the Battle of Kaiserwerth during the War of the Spanish Succession, he went on to serve as a brigade commander during the battles of the War of the Spanish Succession. Next he was given command of all British forces in Spain at the instigation of the Harley Ministry. During the Jacobite Rebellion, he led the government army against the Jacobites led by the Earl of Mar at the Battle of Sheriffmuir, he went on to serve as Lord Steward and Master-General of the Ordnance under the Walpole–Townshend Ministry. Born at Ham House, he was the son of 1st Duke of Argyll and Elizabeth Campbell, his mother was a stepdaughter of John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale, a dominant figure in Scotland during Charles II's reign. Five years after his birth, Campbell's grandfather Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll led Argyll's Rising against the rule of James II of England and VII of Scotland.
Campbell was tutored first by Walter Campbell of Dunloskin by John Anderson of Dumbarton and by Alexander Cunningham. He was commissioned, after his father given William III some encouragement, as colonel of Lord Lorne's Regiment of Foot, a regiment raised by the Argyll family, on 7 April 1694. Campbell served on the continent in the Nine Years' War before the regiment was disbanded in 1698, he served under the Duke of Marlborough at the Battle of Kaiserwerth in April 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was appointed a Knight of the Order of the Thistle that year. Campbell succeeded his father as Duke of Argyll and Chief of Clan Campbell and became colonel of the 4th Troop of Horse Guards in 1703. For the help he gave the King persuading the Parliament of Scotland to support the Act of Union, he was created Earl of Greenwich and Baron Chatham in 1705, he returned to the continent and, having been promoted to major-general early in 1706, served as a brigade commander under Marlborough at the Battle of Ramillies in May 1706 and at the Siege of Ostend in June 1706.
After being appointed colonel of Prince George of Denmark's Regiment in 1707, he went on to command a brigade at the Battle of Oudenarde in July 1708 and at the Siege of Lille in Autumn 1708. Promoted to lieutenant general in April 1709, he took part in the Siege of Tournai in June 1709 and the Battle of Malplaquet in September 1709. Appointed a Knight of the Order of the Garter in December 1710, Campbell was promoted to full general and given command of all British forces in Spain at the instigation of the Harley Ministry in January 1711. After conducting a successful evacuation of the troops from Spain, he became Commander-in-Chief, Scotland in 1712. By 1713, Campbell had become critical of the ministry, he joined the Whig opposition in making speeches against the government's policy on the Malt Tax. In July 1714, during Queen Anne's last illness, Campbell gave his full support to the Hanoverian succession, he was rewarded with the colonelcy of the Royal Horse Guards in June 1715. During the Jacobite Rebellion, Campbell led the government army against the Jacobites led by the Earl of Mar at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in November 1715.
The battle favoured the government strategically. He led the advance against the Jacobite capital of Perth, capturing it in December, but was replaced as commander by William Cadogan, he was rewarded by being created Duke of Greenwich in 1719. He went on to become Lord Steward in 1721 and Master-General of the Ordnance in June 1725 under the Walpole–Townshend Ministry, he became colonel of the Queen's Regiment of Horse in August 1726 and, having been appointed Governor of Portsmouth in November 1730, he was restored to the colonelcy of the Royal Horse Guards in August 1733. Promoted to field marshal on 31 January 1735, Campbell was stripped of his post as Master-General of the Ordnance and the colonelcy of the Royal Horse Guards for opposing the Government in 1740; however he was restored to his post as Master-General of the Ordnance in February 1741 and restored to his colonelcy a few days later. Campbell was buried in Westminster Abbey. A large monument, designed by the French sculptor, Louis-François Roubiliac, was erected for him in the south transept and unveiled in 1749.
Campbell married first, Mary Brown, daughter of John Brown and Ursula Duncombe, in 1701: they separated soon after the marriage and she died in 1717 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He married secondly, Jane Warburton, daughter of Thomas Warburton and Anne Williams and maid of honour to Queen Anne, in 1717: Jane died in 1767 and was buried with him in Westminster Abbey, he had four daughters who reached maturity: Caroline Townshend, 1st Baroness Greenwich, Lady Elizabeth Campbell, Lady Anne Campbell and Lady Mary Coke. Campbell is played by the Highland Rogue, he is played by Andrew Keir in Michael Caton-Jones's Rob Roy. Heathcote, Tony; the British Field Marshals 1736-1997. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-696-5. Mosley, Charles. Burke's 107th edition, Volume I. Burke's Peerage. ISBN 978-0971196629. "Archival material relating to John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll". UK National Archives
Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex
Robert Radcliffe, 10th Baron Fitzwalter, 1st Earl of Sussex, KG, KB, PC spelled Radclyffe, Ratcliff, was a prominent courtier and soldier during the reigns of Henry VII and Henry VIII who served as Chamberlain of the Exchequer and Lord Great Chamberlain. Robert Radcliffe, born about 1483, was the only son of John Radcliffe, 9th Baron FitzWalter, Margaret Whetehill, widow of Thomas Walden and daughter of Robert Whetehill, esquire, by his wife, Joan. Radcliffe had five sisters, the wife of Sir Edward Darrell. In October 1495 Robert Radcliffe's father was attainted of high treason for confederacy with the pretender, Perkin Warbeck, by which all his honours were forfeited, his life was spared, he was imprisoned at Guisnes. After he unsuccessfully attempted to escape, he was beheaded at Calais about 24 November 1496. Radcliffe's mother was living on 6 July 1518; the date of her death is unknown. In his youth Radcliffe was in the service of King Henry VII and his elder son and heir, Prince of Wales, was present at Arthur's marriage to Catherine of Aragon on 14 November 1501.
Radcliffe's father's attainder was reversed by letters patent dated 3 November 1505, by Act of Parliament in 1509, by which Radcliffe became Baron FitzWalter. On 23 June 1509 he was made a Knight of the Bath, on the following day officiated as Lord Sewer at the coronation of King Henry VIII. In 1515 he was at Westminster Abbey. Radcliffe served in the vanguard under George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, in the invasion of France in 1513, was at the sieges of Therouanne and Tournai. In June 1520 he attended Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold and at his meetings with the Emperor Charles V in July 1520 and May 1522. In 1521 he served at sea as admiral of a squadron, was chief captain of the vanguard under the Earl of Surrey when the English forces landed at Morlaix on 1 July and campaigned in Picardy from 30 August to 14 October. On 7 May 1524 he was installed as a Knight of the Order of the Garter, on 18 July 1525, at the creation of Henry VIII's illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, as Duke of Richmond, Radcliffe was created Viscount Fitzwalter.
Further honours and appointments followed. Radcliffe was a member of the Privy Council before 2 February 1526, was created Earl of Sussex on 8 December 1529, appointed Lieutenant of the Order of the Garter on 7 May 1531, appointed as a Chamberlain of the Exchequer for life on 3 June 1532. Archbold states that Sussex was for a long period'in confidential relations' with Henry VIII, is of the view that it was with the King's knowledge that Sussex proposed to the Privy Council on 6 June 1536 that the King should advance his illegitimate son, Henry FitzRoy, to the crown ahead of Princess Mary, the King's daughter by Catherine of Aragon. Sussex took the King's part on the divorce issue, he served as Lord Sewer at the coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn on 1 June 1533, on 2 December 1533 was among the commissioners who took Henry VIII's demands concerning the divorce to Catherine of Aragon. After the Pilgrimage of Grace, Sussex was commissioned, together with Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, to restore order in Lancashire, as a reward for his services was granted the manor of Cleeve in Somerset.
On 23 June 1537 he was granted the reversion of the office of Lord Steward of the Royal Household, although when the current holder, George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, died in the following year he was succeeded, not by Sussex, but by the King's brother-in-law, Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk. In 1539 Sussex was one of the coast of Essex. On 3 January 1540 he attended Henry VIII at the reception of Anne of Cleves at Blackheath. On 9 March of the same year he was appointed to inquire into the situation in Calais, after the disgrace and recall to England of Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle, had charge of Calais from 17 April until July. On 3 August 1540 he was granted a lifetime appointment as Lord Great Chamberlain. Robert Radcliffe died 27 November 1542. Sussex married thrice: Firstly shortly after 23 July 1505, to Elizabeth Stafford, the elder daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, Katherine Woodville, by whom he had three sons:Henry Radcliffe, 2nd Earl of Sussex, father of Thomas Radcliffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex, a leading figure at the court of Queen Elizabeth.
Sir Humphrey Radcliffe of Elstow, who married Isabel Harvey and heir of Edmund Harvey of Elstow and Margaret Wentworth, by whom he had two sons, Thomas Radcliffe, Edward Radcliffe, 6th Earl of Sussex, four daughters, Mary Radcliffe, a lady-in-waiting to Queen Elizabeth, Frances Radcliffe, Elizabeth Radcliffe, Martha Radcliffe. George Radcliffe, who married Katherine Marney, the daughter of John Marney, 2nd Baron Marney. After Radcliffe's death, his widow married 1st Baron Poynings. Secondly, by 1 September 1532, Sussex married Margaret Stanley, the only daughter of Thomas Stanley, 2nd Earl of Derby, Anne Hastings, the daughter of Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings, by whom he had two daughters: Jane Radcliffe, who married Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montague. Anne Radcliffe, who married Thomas Wharton, 2nd Baron Wharton. Thirdly on 14 January 1537 Sussex married Mary Arundell, a daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne St. Mawgan-in-Pyder, Cornwall, by his second wife, Katherine Grenvile.
After Sussex's death on 27 November 1542, his widow Mary married, on 19 December 1545, as his second wife, Henry FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel. Ther
Sir Thomas Rempston KG,was Constable of the Tower and an MP. He was born the son of John Rempston at Rempstone, where the family had long been settled. In 1381 he was Knight of the Shire for Nottinghamshire, which he represented in the parliaments of 1382, 1393, 1395 and served as Sheriff of Nottinghamshire for 1393. In 1398 he adopted the cause of Henry, Earl of Derby, exiled by Richard II, in the following year made his way to France to join the earl, he was one of the fifteen lances who embarked with Henry at Boulogne and landed at Ravenspur in July 1399. In Shakespeare's Richard II his name is given as Sir John Ramston to suit the metre. On 7 Oct. he was appointed Constable of the Tower, in this capacity had custody of Richard II. In February 1400 he was on a commission to inquire into treasons in London and the neighbourhood, shortly after was appointed admiral of the fleet from the Thames eastwards. In 1401 he was made admiral of the fleet from the Thames westwards, was placed on a commission to deal with infractions of the truce with France, to settle the question of the still unpaid ransom of the late King John.
He was summoned to the great council held in that year. In December 1402 he was negotiating with the Duke of Orleans, after prolonged negotiations, concluded a treaty with the French at Lůllingen on 17 June 1403. In 1404-5 he was made a member of the privy council, was recommended by parliament to Henry IV as one of those whose services merited special recognition. Early in 1406 he was captured by French pirates while crossing the Thames from Queenborough to Essex, but was soon released, he was drowned in the Thames, close to the Tower, on 31 Oct. 1406. Rempston was the founder of his family's fortunes, he married Margaret, daughter of Sir Simon Leeke, widow of Sir Godfrey Foljambe. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Rempston, Thomas". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Cofferer of the Household
The Cofferer of the Household was an office in the English and British Royal Household. Next in rank to the Comptroller, the holder paid the wages of some of the servants above and below stairs, was a member of the Board of Green Cloth, sat with the Lord Steward in the Court of the Verge; the cofferer was of political rank and always a member of the Privy Council. The office dates from the Middle Ages, the position of Cofferer of the Wardrobe, it was abolished by the Civil List and Secret Service Money Act 1782
Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex
Henry Bourchier, 5th Baron Bourchier, 2nd Count of Eu, 1st Viscount Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex, KG, was the eldest son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu and Anne of Gloucester. On his mother's side, he was a great-grandson of Edward III of England, he inherited the title of 5th Baron Bourchier from his cousin Elizabeth Bourchier, 4th Baroness Bourchier on her death in 1433. He became the 1st Viscount Bourchier in 1446, a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1452, was created 1st Earl of Essex in 1461, he saw considerable military action in France and for his services was created Viscount Bourchier during the parliament of 1445–6 and elected Knight of the Garter on his third nomination in 1452. He saw action in 1461 as a Yorkist supporter at the Second Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Towton, soon after which Edward IV created him Earl of Essex, he held the post of Lord High Treasurer from 29 May 1455 - 5 October 1456, 28 July 1460 - 14 April 1462, 22 April 1471 - 4 April 1483. He became Justice in Eyre south of the Trent in 1461, holding that title until his death.
He died on 4 April 1483 and was buried at Beeleigh Abbey, although his tomb was subsequently moved to Little Easton church. Prior to 1426, he married Isabel of Cambridge, a great-granddaughter Edward III, she was the elder sister of Richard Plantagenet, which made her the aunt of Richard's two sons, the future Edward IV and Richard III. Henry and Isabel were parents to at least eleven children. William Bourchier, Viscount Bourchier. Married Anne Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Jacquetta of Luxembourg, they were parents of Henry Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Essex and Cicely Bourchier, wife of John Devereux, 8th Baron Ferrers of Chartley. Henry Bourchier. Married Elizabeth de Scales, Baroness Scales. No known children. Humphrey Bourchier, 1st and last Lord Bourchier of Cromwell. Killed in the Battle of Barnet. John Bourchier. Married first Elizabeth Ferrers and secondly Elizabeth Chichele. No known children. Edward Bourchier. Killed in the Battle of Wakefield. Thomas Bourchier. Married Isabella Barre.
No known children. Florence Bourchier. Fulk Bourchier. Considered to have died young. Hugh Bourchier. Considered to have died young. Isabella Bourchier. Considered to have died young. Laura Bourchier married John Courtenay On his death she did not remarry and died more than a year later. Clark, Linda. "Bourchier, first earl of Essex". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2987. Luminarium Dictionary: Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex
Traditionally an oath is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity. A common legal substitute for those who conscientiously object to making sacred oaths is to give an affirmation instead. Nowadays when there is no notion of sanctity involved, certain promises said out loud in ceremonial or juridical purpose are referred to as oaths. "To swear" is a verb used to describe the taking of an oath, to making a solemn vow. The word come from Anglo-Saxon āð judicial swearing, solemn appeal to deity in witness of truth or a promise," from Proto-Germanic *aithaz, from PIE *oi-to- "an oath". Common to Celtic and Germanic a loan-word from one to the other, but the history is obscure and it may be non-Indo-European. In reference to careless invocations of divinity, from late 12c. Oaths have referred to a deity significant in the cultural sphere in question; the reciter's personal views upon the divinity of the aspects considered sacred in a predictated text of an oath may or may not be taken in to account.
There might not be alternative personal proclamations with no mention of the sacred dogma in question, such as affirmations, to be made. This might mean an impasse to those with unwillingness to edify the dogma they see as untrue and those who decline to refer to sacred matters on the subject at hand; the essence of a divine oath is an invocation of divine agency to be a guarantor of the oath taker's own honesty and integrity in the matter under question. By implication, this invokes divine displeasure, it therefore implies greater care than usual in the act of the performance of one's duty, such as in testimony to the facts of the matter in a court of law. A person taking an oath indicates this in a number of ways; the most usual is the explicit "I swear", but any statement or promise that includes "with * as my witness" or "so help me *", with'*' being something or someone the oath-taker holds sacred, is an oath. Many people take an oath by holding in their hand or placing over their head a book of scripture or a sacred object, thus indicating the sacred witness through their action: such an oath is called corporal.
However, the chief purpose of such an act is for ceremony or solemnity, the act does not of itself make an oath. Making vows and taking oaths became a symbolic concept in law practice that developed over time in different cultures; the concept of oaths is rooted within Judaism. It is found in Genesis 8:21, when God swears that he will "never again curse the ground because of man and never again smite every living thing"; this repetition of the term never again is explained by Rashi, the pre-eminent biblical commentator, as serving as an oath, citing the Talmud Shavous 36a for this ruling. The first personage in the biblical tradition to take an oath is held to be Eliezer, the chief servant of Abraham, when the latter requested of the former that he not take a wife for his son Isaac from the daughters of Canaan, but rather from among Abraham's own family; the foundational text for oath making is in Numbers 30:2: "When a man voweth a vow unto the Lord, or sweareth an oath to bind his soul with a bond, he shall not break his word.
According to the Rabbis, a neder refers to a shâmar to the person. The passage distinguishes between a neder and a shvua, an important distinction between the two in Halakha: a neder changes the status of some external thing, while a shvua initiates an internal change in the one who swears the oath. In the Roman tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, Capitoline Hill. Iuppiter Lapis was held in the Roman tradition to be an Oath Stone, an aspect of Jupiter in his role as divine law-maker responsible for order and used principally for the investiture of the oathtaking of office. According to Cyril Bailey, in "The Religion of Ancient Rome": We have, for instance, the sacred stone, preserved in the temple of Iuppiter on the Capitol, was brought out to play a prominent part in the ceremony of treaty-making; the fetial, who on that occasion represented the Roman people, at the solemn moment of the oath-taking, struck the sacrificial pig with the silex, saying as he did so, "Do thou, strike the Roman people as I strike this pig here to-day, strike them the more, as thou art greater and stronger."
Here no doubt the underlying notion is not symbolical, but in origin the stone is itself the god, an idea which religion expressed in the cult-title specially used in this connection, Iuppiter Lapis. The punisher of broken oaths was the infernal deity Orcus. Walter Burkert has shown that since Lycurgus of Athens, who held that "it is the oath which holds democracy together", religion and political organization had been linked by the oath, the oath and its prerequisite altar had become the basis of both civil and criminal, as well as international law. Various religious groups have objected to the taking of oaths, most notably the Religious Society of Friends and Anabaptist groups, like Mennonites, Amish and Schwarzenau Brethren; this is principally based on Matthew 5:34 -- 37. Here, Christ is written to say "I say to you:'Swear not at all'". James the Just stated in James 5:12, "Above all, my brothers, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. Let your'Yes' be ye
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. A monarch either inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch reigns for life or until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy in different eras. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, emir or sultan.
Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title in older texts. A king can be a queen's husband and a queen can be a king's wife. If both of the couple reign, neither person is considered to be a consort. Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have ruled, the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king; some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death, the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals. In recent centuries, many states have become republics. Advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership, as illustrated in the classic phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!". In cases where the monarch serves as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch. A form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship. Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time. Hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the medieval era and sometimes into the 19th century. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters; the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed.
In most realms and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives, but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, most also received the title, jure uxoris. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, outcomes were idiosyncratic; as the average life span increased, an eldest son was more to reach majority age before the death of his father, primogeniture became favoured over proximity, tanistry and election. In 19