Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design is the use of computers to aid in the creation, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, to create a database for manufacturing. CAD output is in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations; the term CADD is used. Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation. In mechanical design it is known as mechanical design automation or computer-aided drafting, which includes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software. CAD software for mechanical design uses either vector-based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. However, it involves more than just shapes; as in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions.

CAD may be used to design figures in two-dimensional space. CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications, including automotive and aerospace industries and architectural design and many more. CAD is widely used to produce computer animation for special effects in movies and technical manuals called DCC digital content creation; the modern ubiquity and power of computers means that perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. Because of its enormous economic importance, CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry, computer graphics, discrete differential geometry; the design of geometric models for object shapes, in particular, is called computer-aided geometric design. Starting around the mid 1960s, with the IBM Drafting System, computer-aided design systems began to provide more capability than just an ability to reproduce manual drafting with electronic drafting, the cost-benefit for companies to switch to CAD became apparent.

The benefits of CAD systems over manual drafting are the capabilities one takes for granted from computer systems today. CAD provided the designer with the ability to perform engineering calculations. During this transition, calculations were still performed either by hand or by those individuals who could run computer programs. CAD was a revolutionary change in the engineering industry, where draftsmen and engineering roles begin to merge, it did not eliminate departments as much as it merged departments and empowered draftsman and engineers. CAD is an example of the pervasive effect. Current computer-aided design software packages range from 2D vector-based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modelers. Modern CAD packages can frequently allow rotations in three dimensions, allowing viewing of a designed object from any desired angle from the inside looking out; some CAD software is capable of dynamic mathematical modeling. CAD technology is used in the design of tools and machinery and in the drafting and design of all types of buildings, from small residential types to the largest commercial and industrial structures.

CAD is used for detailed engineering of 3D models or 2D drawings of physical components, but it is used throughout the engineering process from conceptual design and layout of products, through strength and dynamic analysis of assemblies to definition of manufacturing methods of components. It can be used to design objects such as jewelry, appliances, etc. Furthermore, many CAD applications now offer advanced rendering and animation capabilities so engineers can better visualize their product designs. 4D BIM is a type of virtual construction engineering simulation incorporating time or schedule related information for project management. CAD has become an important technology within the scope of computer-aided technologies, with benefits such as lower product development costs and a shortened design cycle. CAD enables designers to layout and develop work on screen, print it out and save it for future editing, saving time on their drawings. Computer-aided design is one of the many tools used by engineers and designers and is used in many ways depending on the profession of the user and the type of software in question.

CAD is one part of the whole digital product development activity within the product lifecycle management processes, as such is used together with other tools, which are either integrated modules or stand-alone products, such as: Computer-aided engineering and finite element analysis Computer-aided manufacturing including instructions to computer numerical control machines Photorealistic rendering and motion simulation. Document management and revision control using product data management. CAD is used for the accurate creation of photo simulations that are required in the preparation of environmental impact reports, in which computer-aided designs of intended buildings are superimposed into photographs of existing environments to represent what that locale will be like, where the proposed facilities are allowed to be buil

Emily Hartridge

Emily Hartridge known as Emily Hart, was an English YouTuber and television presenter. Emily Hartridge was born in Hambledon, England in 1984. Hartridge began publishing vlogs on her YouTube channel in 2012 with her "Ten Reasons Why..." videos. Her material covered topics such as sex, love and modern life, as well as pieces about her personal life such as her sexuality, mental health and her decision to freeze her eggs, she presented television shows such as Channel 4's series Oh Sh*t I'm 30 and appeared in Sketch My Life. At the time of her death, Hartridge was undergoing fertility treatment for egg harvesting as she hoped to have a baby with her boyfriend Jake Hazell as she had been diagnosed with low fertility in 2018. Hartridge met Jake whilst working as a personal trainer. After struggling with addiction and depression and as a mental health campaigner himself, Hazell appeared in Hartridge's YouTube videos on a regular basis. On 12 July 2019, Hartridge was riding her electric scooter on the Queen's Circus roundabout in Battersea, London when she was struck by a lorry on the roundabout, killing her at the scene.

She was 35 years old. Hartridge is believed to be the first person to die in the United Kingdom in an accident involving an e-scooter. Hartridge's final video, titled "10 Reasons to Get a Younger Boyfriend", showed her receiving two scooters, given to her by Hazell following her 35th birthday in May. One of the scooters was electric, believed to be the one she was riding at the time of her death

Centro Urku

Centro Urku is an animal rescue centre located in Tarapoto, San Martín, devoted to taking care of animals that have been rescued from illegal trafficking and private keeping. When the animals have recovered both physically and behaviourally they are released into their natural habitats. In 2005, Centro Urku opened its gate for visitors. Centro Urku was founded in 2004, by the non-profit research organisation Urku Estudios Amazónicos, with the original purpose of carrying out research, biodiversity reproduction, training activities. Since 2005, the centre provides exhibition services of Amazonian biodiversity and experiential tourism to its visitors in 7 hectares of forest, its self-appointed aim is to bring about a change of attitudes, by enhancing wildlife and Amazonian culture to promote fair societies that live in harmony with nature. In 2019, Centro Urku takes care of 80 animals and gives home to 18 different species, including specimens of the endangered South American tapir, the ocelot and the white-throated toucan.

Furthermore, it runs a program aiming to stabilise the population of domestic butterflies by supporting and monitoring the reproduction of these species in its butterfly enclosure. Centro Urku is located on the shores of the Shilcayo River, the gateway to the Regional Conservation Area “Cordillera Escalera ”, close to the city center of Tarapoto; as stated by the Peruvian Ministry of Agriculture, Tarapoto has a key position on many smuggling routes as the city is crossed by the Interoceánica Norte, the highway that connects the northern Peruvian rainforest area with the rest of the country. On this road animals are transported from the trafficking hotspots Iquitos and Yurimaguas to Lima wherefrom they get exported to Europe or the United States. Moreover, the city's airport serves as an aerial link between Lima. A mere fraction of the animals smuggled from the rainforest area can be accommodated by the Centro Urku. Thus, the significance of the centre is based on its educational work of informing the public about the gravity of the issue and its regional pertinence.

Urku aims to achieve an educational effect by providing a direct encounter with the victimized animals in its rescue centre. Apart from that, Urku runs a homepage and several social media channels that spread information about the impact of animal trafficking. Official website Official website of Urku Estudios Amazonicos Facebook page Instagram channel YouTube channel