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Computer data storage

Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers; the central processing unit of a computer is. In practice all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away; the fast volatile technologies are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". The first computer designs, Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine and Percy Ludgate's Analytical Machine distinguished between processing and memory; this distinction was extended in the Von Neumann architecture, where the CPU consists of two main parts: The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit. The former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory, while the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data. Without a significant amount of memory, a computer would be able to perform fixed operations and output the result.

It would have to be reconfigured to change its behavior. This is acceptable for devices such as desk calculators, digital signal processors, other specialized devices. Von Neumann machines differ in having a memory in which they store their operating instructions and data; such computers are more versatile in that they do not need to have their hardware reconfigured for each new program, but can be reprogrammed with new in-memory instructions. Most modern computers are von Neumann machines. A modern digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. Text, pictures and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0; the most common unit of storage is the byte, equal to 8 bits. A piece of information can be handled by any computer or device whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or data. For example, the complete works of Shakespeare, about 1250 pages in print, can be stored in about five megabytes with one byte per character.

Data are encoded by assigning a bit pattern to digit, or multimedia object. Many standards exist for encoding. By adding bits to each encoded unit, redundancy allows the computer to both detect errors in coded data and correct them based on mathematical algorithms. Errors occur in low probabilities due to random bit value flipping, or "physical bit fatigue", loss of the physical bit in storage of its ability to maintain a distinguishable value, or due to errors in inter or intra-computer communication. A random bit flip is corrected upon detection. A bit, or a group of malfunctioning physical bits is automatically fenced-out, taken out of use by the device, replaced with another functioning equivalent group in the device, where the corrected bit values are restored; the cyclic redundancy check method is used in communications and storage for error detection. A detected error is retried. Data compression methods allow in many cases to represent a string of bits by a shorter bit string and reconstruct the original string when needed.

This utilizes less storage for many types of data at the cost of more computation. Analysis of trade-off between storage cost saving and costs of related computations and possible delays in data availability is done before deciding whether to keep certain data compressed or not. For security reasons certain types of data may be kept encrypted in storage to prevent the possibility of unauthorized information reconstruction from chunks of storage snapshots; the lower a storage is in the hierarchy, the lesser its bandwidth and the greater its access latency is from the CPU. This traditional division of storage to primary, secondary and off-line storage is guided by cost per bit. In contemporary usage, "memory" is semiconductor storage read-write random-access memory DRAM or other forms of fast but temporary storage. "Storage" consists of storage devices and their media not directly accessible by the CPU hard disk drives, optical disc drives, other devices slower than RAM but non-volatile. Memory has been called core memory, main memory, real storage or internal memory.

Meanwhile, non-volatile storage devices have been referred to as secondary storage, external memory or auxiliary/peripheral storage. Primary storage referred to as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU; the CPU continuously reads instructions executes them as required. Any data operated on is stored there in uniform manner. Early computers used delay lines, Williams tubes, or rotating magnetic drums as primary s

Bryce (software)

Bryce is a 3D modeling and animation program specializing in fractal landscapes. The name is taken from Bryce Canyon—a rugged region with many of the same landscapes that were first simulated with the software; the original Bryce software arose from work with fractal geometry to create realistic computer images of mountain ranges and coastlines. An initial set of fractal based programs were developed by Ken Musgrave a student of Benoît Mandelbrot, extended by Eric Wenger. Wenger met and worked with software artist Kai Krause to design a basic user interface; the first commercial version, Bryce 1.0, appeared in 1994 for the Macintosh. Bryce 2.0, shipped in 1996, included much beyond the original notion of creating a realistic mountain range. These included independent light sources, complex atmospheric effects, the addition of primitive forms with Boolean methods to combine them, a revamped Texture Editor. Bryce 2.0 was ported to the Windows platform, although the first stable version, 2.1, was not released until 1997.

The ability to animate a scene was added with the cross-platform Bryce 3D in 1997 by the newly formed MetaCreations Corporation. A "camera object" unseen in the final image acted as the observer; the camera can be held in one place for a single image, or sent on a trajectory with images being rendered at many locations. The collection of images created along the camera's trajectory are combined to create a realistic animation simulating a journey through a dynamic world. In 1999 Bryce 4.0 was released with major improvements in the handling of atmospheres and skies, textures and in the import/export of objects. In 2000 Bryce was purchased by Corel Corporation. Corel released version 5 of Bryce in 2001, which included several new features, like Tree Lab and metaballs. Soon followed a patch to version 5.01, which fixed some bugs and added a few undocumented features. In 2004, the software was sold again, to DAZ 3D. In 2005, DAZ 3D released Bryce 5.5. This integration between DAZ's application for the manipulation of 3D models, DAZ Studio, Bryce allowed users to import content from DAZ Studio and Poser, complete with all materials including transparencies, directly into Bryce thus making it easier to have human figures in Bryce scenes.

In October 2006, DAZ 3D released Bryce 6.0 and has released an update, this includes a Mac Intel compatible update. New features include animation import, support for dual-processor systems as well as hyper-threading, random replicate tool, advanced terrain editing, HDRI support and other tweaks; the interface remained the same, but with a green tint to it, different buttons in the create palette. In June 2007, DAZ 3D re-released Bryce 5.5 as a freeware. In Summer 2009, DAZ 3D released version 3 of DAZ Studio; this version seemed to break Bryce 6.1. In December 2009, DAZ 3D released Bryce 6.3 which improved stability, added support for Mac OS X v10.6. Bryce 7 was released in July 2010. New features include advanced lighting. Updated features include the DAZ Studio Bridge, the Sky Lab, clouds and HDRI. Bryce 7 is available in three versions, a limited free version, a standard version lacking the new features and a pro version with the new features. Bryce 7 is not compatible with OS X Lion, Mountain Lion, or Mavericks, thus the newest version of OS X it is compatible with is Snow Leopard.

Bryce 7 features: Instancing Lab Improved Light Lab Sky Lab Improvements Particle Emitter DAZ Studio Bridge Improved Import/Export file formats Autodesk Maya Autodesk 3ds Max Aladdin4D Lightwave 3D Electric Image Animation System Cinema 4D Modo Blender E-on Vue *Landscape render illustration above, the "Baal Baby" in flight over Echo in the Hercules Cluster, Illustration by Neil Thacker, from the Pandoran Age Chronicles by Dante D'Anthony Official website Bryce at Curlie Bryce Tutorials and Resources

List of state leaders in 1204

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1204. China - Emperor Zhangzong China - Emperor Ningzong Japan Monarch – Emperor Tsuchimikado Kamakura shogunate - Minamoto no Sanetomo Shikken - Hōjō Tokimasa, Regent Kara-Khitan Khanate - Yeluu Zhilugu Khmer EmpireJayavarman VII Korea Monarch - Sinjong Huijong de facto - Choe Chung-heon Western XiaEmperor Huanzong Kingdom of AragonPeter II Bulgarian EmpireKaloyan, Tsar of Bulgaria Kingdom of CastileAlfonso VIII Kingdom of DenmarkValdemar II Kingdom of England – John Kingdom of FrancePhilip II Holy Roman EmpirePhilip of Swabia, King of Germany Prince-Archbishopric of BremenHartwig of Uthlede County of HollandWilliam I Kingdom of HungaryEmeric Ladislaus III Kingdom of the IslesRǫgnvaldr Guðrøðarson Kingdom of Norway – Håkon Sverreson Guttorm Sigurdsson Inge II Kingdom of PortugalSancho I Kingdom of ScotlandWilliam the Lion Kingdom of SwedenSverker II Kingdom of Thessalonica – Boniface Abbasid Caliphate – An-Nasir, Caliph of Baghdad Almohad CaliphateMuhammad al-Nasir Ayyubid SultanateAl-Adil I, Sultan of Egypt Kingdom of CyprusAmalric I Sultanate of RûmSüleyman II Kılıç Arslan III Empire of TrebizondAlexios I

Fannie Jackson Coppin Club

The Fannie Jackson Coppin Club known as the Fanny Jackson Coppin Club, was a club for politically active African American women located in Alameda County, California. The club played an important role in community outreach to voters before and after the passage of Proposition 4 in 1911 which granted women in California the right to vote. Many of the women involved in the club were active in the California suffrage movement; the Fannie Jackson Coppin Club was formed in Oakland in June of 1899 by women of Beth Eden Baptist Church. This club was the first club for African American women in Oakland, it was named after Fanny Jackson Coppin, the first African American woman to become a school principal. Coppin State University is named after Fannie Jackson; the stated goal of the club was to study community improvement. The state motto of the club was "Deeds Not Words." It used the motto "Lifting as We Climb". During its heyday, the club served as a "mother club" for black club women in California. Journalist and historian Delilah Beasley reported on the activities of the club in her popular column, "Activities Among the Negroes."

One of the notable 19th century projects organized by the club was the club's involvement in the creation of the Home for the Aged and Infirm Colored People in Oakland, California. This was the first organization to provide care for elderly African Americans in the state of California. Members included many notable Oakland area suffragists and club women including Melba Stafford, Willa Henry, Emma Scott and Hettie B. Tilghman. Club members created a wide variety of organizations aimed to improve the lives of African Americans in the east bay. Hettie B. Tilghman, Willa Henry, Melba Stafford and Delilah Beasley were community oriented and in 1920 they created the Linden Center Young Women's Christian Association; the Linden Center YWCA offered vocational training as well as cultural programs. Despite the creation of independent organizations that grew out of the Fannie Jackson Coppin club, it remained intact and lasted well into the 1960s. Fanny Jackson Coppin List of California suffragists Timeline of the women's suffrage movement in California Women's suffrage in California

Christian Brothers Academy (Albany, New York)

Christian Brothers Academy is a private Catholic college preparatory junior and senior high school for boys founded in 1859 by the De La Salle Christian Brothers. Christian Brothers Academy is located in the town of Colonie, New York near the Albany International Airport on a 126-acre campus built in 1998. Christian Brothers Academy is independently run by a board of trustees; the school is known for its academic and athletic programs, has had a 100% college acceptance rate since 1980. The school's athletic program boasts numerous athletic titles. Christian Brothers Academy educates 541 students in grades 5-12 from 44 different school districts throughout the Capital Region. In 1854, the Christian Brothers were invited to Albany by Bishop McCloskey, to open an orphan asylum for boys. To help support the asylum, the Brothers began a pay school in 1859. Stagecoaches carried the boys from downtown to the school's rural location. After a few years, a separate building on Madison Avenue was secured.

In 1869, the school was chartered by the University of the State of New York and a brass band was incorporated at the school. Over the next twenty years, the school outgrew its facilities several times; each time, it relocated to a larger site. In 1882, the school moved to Lydius Street and in 1886, the Brothers purchased the former Normal College at 43 Lodge Street from the State Education Department. Classes were conducted in this building for the next fifty-one years. During 1892, military training was introduced and the Civil War Zouave uniform was adopted for the cadets. Enrollment at Lodge Street followed a pattern of downs. Since the lack of a suitable campus did not help attract students, the building itself became a liability. In 1935, the Brothers realized that the dilapidated structure, nearly a century old, could no longer support the school's necessary new programs, they began a movement to secure property and funds to erect a modern building. Through the interest of influential friends and alumni and county officials in 1937 made available to the Brothers a plot of land.

Popular response to the fund drive was generous. Bishop Gibbons and Mayor John Boyd Thatcher II urged all citizens of Albany to contribute. In 1937, CBA was accredited as a military academy was granted by the United States government. In 2012, Administration and the Board of Trustees made the decision to become a JROTC optional institution; the De La Salle campus, featuring the Georgian Colonial school building, was opened in September 1939 in time for the school's eightieth year. The gymnasium building was added in 1942, the Brothers' Residence in 1951; the old "alm's house" building on the new University Heights campus, popularly called "the Armory" housed the Rifle Range in its basement and the upper floors served as an arms room and military classroom. In years, a Biology laboratory was added to the lower floor. One unique feature of the lab was the inclusion of live animals, which were cared for by the students. In this building was "the cage", which served as the locker room for the football and track programs.

In 1991, the school added a sixth grade. The De La Salle site was in need of updating and refurbishing; the University Heights Consortium made an $8.4 million offer for the property and plans were made to move the school to the Town of Colonie. The new campus was erected with a price of $13.5 million. The new campus would feature a 75,000 square foot academic building along with a 9,000 square foot Christian Brothers Residence; the new campus on Airline Drive incorporated current technological advancements into its design and structure. Multiple science labs, a technology center, as-well-as a Lecture Hall equipped with all the latest media tools, became available to faculty and students. Since the new campus opened in 1998, the school's buildings and grounds have undergone extensive refurbishments to keep the campus updated and secure; these renovations included an expanded cafeteria, a second baseball field, a new wing. This wing was part of the schools $5.2 million Capital Campaign that launched in 2015.

The wing added a new professionally designed music room, a new STEM lab, 4 additional classrooms to accommodate the school's growing enrollment. The school now offers over 80,000 square feet of instructional space and over 30 acres of dedicated athletic facilities. CBA offers a college preparatory program for young men in grades 5 through 12. In 2016, the Administration approved the addition of Fifth Grade to the school. CBA educates 541 students in Grades 5-12 from 44 school districts throughout the capital region. In the junior high school, students complete a curriculum centered on the core courses in English, social studies and science, as well as religion, foreign language, Fine Arts and physical education; the focus of the program is to provide students with the skills and inspiration necessary to pursue the college preparatory program of the high school. In both the high school and junior high school, there is an honors course of study available to qualified students. In the junior high, honors students in the eighth grade will be permitted to study Algebra 1 and Biology, which are course offerings at the ninth grade level.

The high school program allows students to take honors level courses in all of the core disciplines through a combination of Advanced Placement offerings and scheduled courses. The College Board offers the AP program to high schools as an opportunity for students to pursue advanced credit in specific disciplines; the school offers AP courses in Spanish V, Calcu

Canadian Communication Association

The Canadian Communication Association is a national, bilingual association of communications researchers and private and public sector professionals in Canada. Established in 1979, the CCA/ACC "seeks to advance communication research and studies in the belief that a better understanding of communication is crucial to building a vibrant society." The creation of the CCA has been considered to be due in part to research that emerged out of the Ontario Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry of 1976. This commission drew together a number of scholars who met at a conference in the University of Windsor in 1978 and again in 1979 in Philadelphia where the presentations tended to focus on research that came out of the commission. In this same year, the CCA was established on June 1, 1979 during the Learned Societies Conference in Saskatoon, Canada; the pre-existing Canadian Journal of Communication was voted to be the official journal of the association. However, discussions over this arrangement led to the absence of any binding relationship between the two.

The journal is owned by its subscribers. Part of the activities of the CCA in its early years was to address the combination of unique Canadian perspectives and the burgeoning theories on the nature and definition of communication. Advancing the debate at early CCA meetings and conferences were "pioneers of Canadian communication studies" including: Earle Beattie, William Gilsdorf, Garth Jowett, Annie Mear, William Melody, Walter Romanow, Paul Rutherford, Liora Salter, Eugene Tate, James R. Taylor, Gaëtan Tremblay, Gertrude Robinson and others. Indeed, "he politics of the Canadian Communication Association was grounded in the search for an answer to the definition of communication." The creation of the CCA and has been described as a part of the larger trend to establish the interdisciplinary field of communication as part of emergent scholarly and corporate activities in the twentieth century. In the early 1990s, news and discussion about the association was communicated by an electronic mailing list called CCANet.

In the half of the 1990s, the Association for the Study of Canadian Radio and Television / Association des études sur la radio-télévision canadienne ended its term as an association and merged with the CCA due to a lack of interest from young scholars. The governance structure for 2016-2018 is as follows: Daniel J. Paré - President Mary Francoli - Vice-President Daniel J. Paré - Interim Treasurer Mél Hogan - Secretary Mary Grace Lao - Student Representative Nina Duque - Student Representative The conference is held during the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences Congress, a gathering of scholarly associations from across the country; this takes place between late-May to early-June at a Canadian university. The Gertrude J. Robinson Book Prize was initiated by David Taras, president of the CCA in 1998-1999 and is named in honour of Gertrude J. Robinson; the 2016 honouree was Nick Dyer-Witheford for Cyberproletariat: Global Labour in the Digital Vortex. Toronto, ON: Pluto Press/Between the Lines.

CRTC Prize for Excellence in Policy Research, a co-sponsored prize between the CCA and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Beaverbrook Media@McGill Student/CCA Paper Prize known as the Van Horne Prize, is awarded to the best student paper submitted to the annual CCA annual conference