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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Concept

Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, in speech, or in thought. They are understood to be the fundamental building blocks of beliefs, they play an important role in all aspects of cognition. As such, concepts are studied by several disciplines, such as linguistics and philosophy, these disciplines are interested in the logical and psychological structure of concepts, how they are put together to form thoughts and sentences; the study of concepts has served as an important flagship of an emerging interdisciplinary approach called cognitive science. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the mind Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents Concepts as Fregean senses, where concepts are abstract objects, as opposed to mental objects and mental statesConcepts can be organized into a hierarchy, higher levels of which are termed "superordinate" and lower levels termed "subordinate".

Additionally, there is the "basic" or "middle" level at which people will most categorize a concept. For example, a basic-level concept would be "chair", with its superordinate, "furniture", its subordinate, "easy chair". A concept is instantiated by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguistics, psychology and, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts. Concepts are used as formal tools or models in mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence where they are sometimes called classes, schema or categories. In informal use the word concept just means any idea. A central question in the study of concepts is the question of. Philosophers construe this question as one about the ontology of concepts --; the ontology of concepts determines the answer to other questions, such as how to integrate concepts into a wider theory of the mind, what functions are allowed or disallowed by a concept's ontology, etc.

There are two main views of the ontology of concepts: Concepts are abstract objects, concepts are mental representations. Within the framework of the representational theory of mind, the structural position of concepts can be understood as follows: Concepts serve as the building blocks of what are called mental representations. Mental representations, in turn, are the building blocks of, and these propositional attitudes, in turn, are the building blocks of our understanding of thoughts that populate everyday life, as well as folk psychology. In this way, we have an analysis that ties our common everyday understanding of thoughts down to the scientific and philosophical understanding of concepts. In a physicalist theory of mind, a concept is a mental representation, which the brain uses to denote a class of things in the world; this is to say that it is a symbol or group of symbols together made from the physical material of the brain. Concepts are mental representations that allow us to draw appropriate inferences about the type of entities we encounter in our everyday lives.

Concepts do not encompass all mental representations, but are a subset of them. The use of concepts is necessary to cognitive processes such as categorization, decision making and inference. Concepts are thought to be stored in long term cortical memory, in contrast to episodic memory of the particular objects and events which they abstract, which are stored in hippocampus. Evidence for this separation comes from hippocampal damaged patients such as patient HM; the abstraction from the day's hippocampal events and objects into cortical concepts is considered to be the computation underlying sleep and dreaming. Many people report memories of dreams which appear to mix the day's events with analogous or related historical concepts and memories, suggest that they were being sorted or organised into more abstract concepts; the semantic view of concepts suggests. In this view, concepts are abstract objects of a category out of a human's mind rather than some mental representations. There is debate as to the relationship between natural language.

However, it is necessary at least to begin by understanding that the concept "dog" is philosophically distinct from the things in the world grouped by this concept—or the reference class or extension. Concepts that can be equated to a single word are called "lexical concepts". Study of concepts and conceptual structure falls into the disciplines of linguistics, philosophy and cognitive science. In the simplest terms, a concept is a name or label that regards or treats an abstraction as if it had concrete or material existence, such as a person, a place, or a thing, it may represent a natural object that exists in the real world like a tree, an animal, a stone, etc. It may name an artificial object like a chair, house, etc. Abstract ideas and knowledge domains such as freedom, science, etc. are symbolized by concepts. It is important to realize that a concept is a symbol, a represe

Sufetula (moth)

Sufetula is a genus of moths of the family Crambidae. Where known, distribution records are given. Sufetula alychnopa Sufetula anania Solis, Sanabria, Ujueta & Gulbronson, 2019 Sufetula bilinealis Hampson, 1912 Sufetula brunnealis Hampson, 1917 Sufetula carbonalis Hayden, 2013 Sufetula chagosalis Sufetula choreutalis Sufetula cyanolepis Hampson, 1912 Sufetula diminutalis Sufetula dulcinalis Sufetula grumalis Schaus, 1920 Sufetula hemiophthalma Sufetula hypocharopa Dyar, 1914 Sufetula hypochiralis Dyar, 1914 Sufetula macropalpia Hampson, 1899 Sufetula melanophthalma E. Hering, 1901 Sufetula minimalis T. B. Fletcher, 1910 Sufetula minuscula Inoue, 1996 Sufetula nigrescens Hampson, 1912 Sufetula nitidalis Hampson, 1908 Sufetula obliquistrialis Hampson, 1912 Sufetula polystrialis Hampson, 1912 Sufetula pygmaea Hampson, 1912 Sufetula rectifascialis Hampson, 1896 Sufetula sacchari Sufetula sufetuloides Sufetula sunidesalis Walker, 1859 Sufetula sythoffi Sufetula trichophysetis Hampson, 1912

Climate change policy of California

California has taken legislative steps in the hope of mitigating the risks of potential effects of climate change in California by incentives and plans for clean cars, renewable energy, pollution controls on industry. Development of the Scoping Plan is a central requirement of AB 32, a bill that calls on California to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020; the required Scoping Plan is intended to outline the approach California will take to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The comprehensive approach includes both new and existing measures in every sector of California's economy; the initial AB 32 Scoping Plan included a series of proposals that would become law in 2008. The initiatives include implementing a cap-and-trade program on carbon dioxide emissions that will require buildings and appliances to use less energy. Additionally, it requires oil companies to make cleaner fuels, utilities to provide a third of their energy from renewable sources like wind and geothermal power and proposes to expand and strengthen existing energy efficiency programs.

The Plan will encourage development of walkable cities with shorter commutes, high-speed rail as an alternative to air travel, will require more hybrid vehicles to move goods and people, following the implementation of the California Clean Car law. Several additional initiatives and measures factor into reaching the required reductions under AB 32; these include: full deployment of the Million Solar Roofs initiative. A fuel efficiency tire program which sets standards for tire pressure and purchasing replacement tires water-related energy efficiency measures. A key feature of the Scoping Plan is that it must be updated by the California Air Resources Board every five years; this is so California can continue reducing greenhouse gas emissions as the government sets stricter standards in recent years. Multiple public workshops are held every time a new Scoping Plan is proposed, so that the Board can receive feedback from the public before approving the updated Plan; the first update to the Scoping Plan was approved by the Board on May 22, 2014, builds upon the original Scoping Plan by outlining new initiatives and recommendations.

The update identifies possibilities to invest new and existing funds in low carbon technologies and other opportunities to continue reducing greenhouse gas emissions below 1990 levels in the next five years. These proposed measures focus on nine main sectors including transportation, energy, waste management, the cap-and-trade program, the energy efficiency of residential and non-residential buildings, natural and agricultural lands. California has enacted climate change legislation and executive orders: Assembly Bill 32 – California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 – Pavley, Statutes of 2006, Chapter 488 Governor Schwarzenegger Executive Order S-3-05, June 1, 2005 Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act of 2008 known as SB 375, which required urban planners to limit urban sprawl Assembly Bill 1007, requires the California Energy Commission to prepare a state plan to increase the use of alternative fuels in California Senate Bill 812 – Statutes of 2002, Chapter 423 AB 1493 SB 527 SB 1771 SB 1204 – establishes a fund that will technology for zero- and near-zero-emission trucks and off-road vehicles.

SB 1275 – Establishes a state goal of 1 million zero-emission and near-zero-emission vehicles in service by 2020 In 2006, California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger expressed interest in California joining the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative It is the successor bill to AB 1058, was enacted on July 22, 2002 by Governor Gray Davis and mandates that the California Air Resources Board develop and implement greenhouse gas limits for vehicles beginning in model year 2009. Subsequently, as directed by AB 1493, the CARB on September 24, 2004 approved regulations limiting the amount of greenhouse gas that may be released from new passenger cars, SUVs and pickup trucks sold in California in model year 2009; the automotive industry has sued, claiming this is a way to impose gas mileage standards on automobiles—a field preempted by federal rules. The case is working its way through the court system; the CARB staff's analysis has concluded that the new rules will result in savings for vehicle buyers through lower fuel expenses that will more than offset the increased initial costs of new vehicles.

Critics claim that these will only work if serious reductions are made in automobile and truck sizes. California standard uses grams per mile average CO2-equivalent value, which means that emissions of the various greenhouse gases are weighted to take into account their differing impact on climate change. A federal district court ruled on December 12, 2007, that the state and federal laws could co-exist, but on December 19, the EPA denied California's request for the necessary waiver to implement its law, saying the local emissions had little effect on global warming, that the conditions in California were not "compelling and extraordinary" as required by law. California intends to sue the EPA to force reconsideration, given the precedent of Massachusetts v. EPA, which ruled that carbon dioxide was an air pollutant which EPA had authority t

Prokop (Belgrade)

Prokop is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Belgrade's municipality of Savski Venac. Major facility in the neighborhood is the new Belgrade Centre railway station, opened for limited use in 2016. Prokop is located at the southern edges of downtown Belgrade to which it is directly connected by the Kneza Miloša street, it borders the area of former Zapadni Vračar on the north and Senjak on the west and Dedinje on the south. It is bounded by three boulevards: Franše D'Eperea, Vojvode Putnika and Kneza Aleksandra Karađorđevića. Prokop is located in the eastern section of the former neighborhood of Jatagan Mala, it was a geographical reference, as the area was located in the lower valley of the now underground stream of Mokroluški Potok. The earth and gravel were dug here and used to cover and drain the swamps on the Sava's right bank, so that neighborhoods of Savamala and Bara Venecija could be constructed, along with the building of Belgrade's central railway station.

After the works were completed, the area around Mokroluški Potok was left as a steep, elongated cut in the ground and so got its name. As an eastern extension of the impoverished shanty town Jatagan Mala, Prokop was more destitute and was considered one of the poorest neighborhoods of Belgrade. Due to that, as well as the lack of any communal infrastructure or plans for the area, a fact that geographically the settlement existed at the bottom of a big hole, during rains floods and mudslides were common, like in the winter of 1935. Jatagan Mala was demolished in the mid-to-late 1960s; as a curiosity, the daily newspaper Politika from 8 March 2007 reprinted its own article from 1957 about Prokop. The article, titled "For how long will Prokop defy the construction of the city", colors Prokop as a black hole in the city center and describes the project of the reconstruction of the Franše d'Eperea street which would include an artificial lake with lots of restaurants, foreseeing that Prokop will be the most beautiful part of Belgrade.

In another reprint, Politika published its article from 1 April 1965 about Prokop titled New settlement on Čukarica will be built for the inhabitants of Prokop. In it, Prokop is depicted as the largest informal settlement in Belgrade which has no roads, grocery stores and is being flooded during rains. Demolition of Prokop was scheduled for 1965 but had to be postponed and instead of the settlement, whose inhabitants were to be resettled to the neighborhood of Čukarica, a large garage and depot for Belgrade’s public transit company GSP Belgrade was to be built. Both projects were scrapped later. In February 1969 another relocation was announced; the municipality of Savski Venac obtained 270 apartments in the neighborhoods of Žarkovo and Kanarevo Brdo, so the moving of the population by the spring brought the closing of the slum section of the neighborhood, which was, at the time, one of the oldest surviving such parts of the city. The population of the modern local community was 2,710 in 1981, 2,467 in 1991, 2,103 in 2002 and 1,786 in 2011.

The ill-fated construction of the new railway station, supposed to replace the old one in Savamala has lasted for decades. The official work began in 1977, it was halted in the 1980s, resumed in the 1990s and halted again in 2000. In the late 1960s, it was supposed to be constructed near the present interchange of Autokomanda, but the idea was dropped, one of the major authorities at the time, Branko Žeželj, picked Prokop instead, which left the Autokomanda interchange unfinished. Despite constant attempts to build it and upgrade it, after years of starting and halting works and bankrupted companies, Prokop railway station is still just one of a dozen secondary stations in Belgrade. After the Avala Tower was destroyed in NATO bombing of Serbia 1999, certain Russian companies offered to build a new, higher TV tower in Prokop. No one took it so the news was used for publicity purposes; the construction of the Belgrade Waterfront and track removal in Savamala restarted the construction of the station once again in December 2014.

Energoprojekt AD was once again selected as the contracting company and was given nearly 26 million euros and 14 months to complete the construction. For the first time the deadline was kept and the station was opened on 26 January 2016

K. Kamaraj

Kumaraswami Kamaraj, was a founder and leader of the Indian National Congress acknowledged as the "Kingmaker" in Indian politics during the 1960s. He served as the president of the Indian National Congress for two terms i.e. four years between 1964–1967 and was responsible for the elevation of Lal Bahadur Shastri to the position of Prime Minister of India after Nehru's death and Indira Gandhi after Shastri's death. Kamaraj was the 3rd Chief Minister of Madras State during 1954–1963 and a Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha during 1952–1954 and 1969–1975, he was known for his integrity. He played a major role in developing the infrastructure of the Madras state and worked to improve the quality of life of the needy and the disadvantaged, he was involved in the Indian independence movement. As the president of the INC, he was instrumental in navigating the party after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru; as the chief minister of Madras, he was responsible for bringing free education to the disadvantaged and introduced the free Midday Meal Scheme while he himself did not complete schooling.

He was awarded with India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, posthumously in 1976. Kamaraj was born on 15 July 1903 in Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, to Kumaraswami Nadar and Sivakami Ammal, his name was Kamatchi changed to Kamarajar. His father Kumaraswami was a merchant. Kamaraj had a younger sister named Nagammal. Kamaraj was first enrolled in a traditional school in 1907 and in 1908 he was admitted to Yenadhi Narayana Vidhya Salai. In 1909 Kamaraj was admitted in Virudupatti High School. Kamaraj's father died. In 1914 Kamaraj dropped out of school to support his mother; as a young boy, Kamaraj worked in his uncle's provision shop and during this time he began to attend public meetings and processions about the Indian Home Rule Movement. Kamaraj developed an interest in prevailing political conditions by reading newspapers daily; the Jallianwala Bagh massacre was the decisive turning point in his life - he decided to fight for national freedom and to bring an end to foreign rule. In 1920, when he was 18, he became active in politics.

He joined Congress as a full-time political worker. In 1921 Kamaraj organised public meetings at Virudhunagar for Congress leaders, he was eager to meet Gandhi, when Gandhi visited Madurai on 21 September 1921 Kamaraj attended the public meeting and met Gandhi for the first time. He visited villages carrying Congress propaganda. In 1922 Congress boycotted the visit of the Prince of Wales as part of the Non-Cooperation Movement, he took part in the event. In 1923–25 Kamaraj participated in the Nagpur Flag Satyagraha. In 1927, Kamaraj started the Sword Satyagraha in Madras and was chosen to lead the Neil Statue Satyagraha, but this was given up in view of the Simon Commission boycott. Kamaraj went to jail for two years in June 1930 for participating in the "Salt Satyagraha". Led by Rajagopalachari at Vedaranyam. In 1932, Section 144 was imposed in Madras prohibiting the holding of meetings and organisation of processions against the arrest of Gandhi in Bombay. In Virdhunagar, under Kamaraj's leadership and demonstrations happened every day.

Kamaraj was sentenced to one year's imprisonment. In 1933 Kamaraj was falsely charged in the Virudhunagar bomb case. Varadarajulu Naidu and George Joseph argued on Kamaraj's behalf and proved the charges to be baseless. At the age of 34, Kamaraj entered the Assembly winning the Sattur seat in the 1937 election. Kamaraj conducted a vigorous campaign throughout the state asked people not to contribute to war funds when Sir Arthur Hope, the Madras Governor, was collecting contributions to fund for the Second World War. In December 1940 he was arrested again at Guntur, under the Defence of India rules for speeches that opposed contributions to the war fund, sent to Vellore Central Prison while he was on his way to Wardha to get Gandhi's approval for a list of Satyagrahis. While in jail, he was elected as Municipal Councillor of Virudhunagar, he was released nine months in November 1941 and resigned from this post as he thought he had greater responsibility for the nation. His principle was "One should not accept any post to which one could not do full justice".

In 1942, Kamaraj attended the All-India Congress Committee in Bombay and returned to spread propaganda material for the Quit India Movement. The police issued orders to all the leaders. Kamaraj did not want to be arrested before he took the message to local leaders. Finishing his work and sent a message to the local police that he was ready to be arrested, he was arrested in August 1942. He was under detention for three years and was released in June 1945; this was his last prison term. Kamaraj was imprisoned six times by the British for his pro-Independence activities, that added up to more than 3,000 days in jail. On 13 April 1954, Kamaraj became the Chief Minister of Madras Province. To everyone's surprise, Kamaraj nominated C. Subramaniam and M. Bhakthavatsalam, who had contested his leadership, to the newly formed cabinet; as Chief Minister, Kamaraj removed the family vocation based Hereditary Education Policy introduced by Rajaji. The State made immense strides in trade. New schools were opened, so that poor rural students had to walk no more than three kilometres to their nearest school.

Better facilities were added to existing ones. No village remained without no panchayat without a high school. Kamaraj strived to eradicate illiteracy by introducin

The Darjeeling Limited (soundtrack)

The Darjeeling Limited: Original Soundtrack is the soundtrack album for the Wes Anderson film, The Darjeeling Limited. The album features three songs by The Kinks, "Powerman", "Strangers" and "This Time Tomorrow", all from the 1970 album Lola versus Powerman and the Moneygoround, Part One, as well as "Play With Fire" by The Rolling Stones. Most of the album, features film score music composed by Bengali filmmaker Satyajit Ray and other artists from the cinema of India; the works from Ray's 1964 film, Charulata. The film is the first of Anderson's not to feature music by Mark Mothersbaugh; the Darjeeling Limited is the first Wes Anderson soundtrack album to feature a song by The Rolling Stones