Concept album

A concept album is an album whose tracks hold a larger purpose or meaning collectively than they do individually. This is achieved through a single central narrative or theme, which can be instrumental, compositional, or lyrical. Sometimes the term is applied to albums considered to be of "uniform excellence" rather than an LP with an explicit musical or lyrical motif. There is no consensus among music critics as to the specific criteria; the format originates with folk singer Woody Guthrie's Dust Bowl Ballads and was subsequently popularized by traditional pop singer Frank Sinatra's 1940s–50s string of albums, although the term is more associated with rock music. In the 1960s several well-regarded concept albums were released by various rock bands, which led to the invention of progressive rock and rock opera. Since many concept albums have been released across numerous musical genres. There is no clear definition of what constitutes a "concept album". Fiona Sturges of The Independent stated that the concept album "was defined as a long-player where the songs were based on one dramatic idea – but the term is subjective."

A precursor to this type of album can be found in the 19th century song cycle which ran into similar difficulties in classification. The broad definitions of a "concept album" could encompass all soundtracks, cast recordings, greatest hits albums, tribute albums, Christmas albums, live albums; the most common definitions refer to an expanded approach to a rock album, or a project that either revolves around a specific theme or a collection of related materials. AllMusic writes, "A concept album could be a collection of songs by an individual songwriter or a particular theme — these are the concept LPs that reigned in the'50s... the phrase'concept album' is inextricably tied to the late 1960s, when rock & rollers began stretching the limits of their art form." Author Jim Cullen describes it as "a collection of discrete but thematically unified songs whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts... sometimes assumed to be a product of the rock era." Author Roy Shuker defines concept albums and rock operas as albums that are "unified by a theme, which can be instrumental, narrative, or lyrical....

In this form, the album changed from a collection of heterogeneous songs into a narrative work with a single theme, in which individual songs segue into one another."Speaking of concepts in albums during the 1970s, Robert Christgau wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, because "overall impression" of an album matters, "concept intensifies the impact" of certain albums "in more or less the way Sgt. Pepper intended", as well as "a species of concept that pushes a rhythmically unrelenting album like The Wild Magnolias or a vocally irresistible one like Shirley Brown's Woman to Woman, to a deeper level of significance." In the 2016 documentary When Pop Went Epic: The Crazy World of the Concept Album, narrated by Rick Wakeman, it is suggested that the first concept album is Woody Guthrie's 1940 album Dust Bowl Ballads. The Independent regards it as "perhaps" one of the first concept albums, consisting of semi-autobiographical songs about the hardships of American migrant labourers during the 1930s.

In the late 1940s, the LP record was introduced, with space age pop composers producing concept albums soon after. Themes included exploring wild life and dealing with emotions, with some albums meant to be played while dining or relaxing; this was accompanied in the mid 1950s with the invention of the gatefold, which allowed room for liner notes to explain the concept. Singer Frank Sinatra recorded several concept albums prior to the 1960s rock era, including In the Wee Small Hours and Frank Sinatra Sings for Only the Lonely. Sinatra is credited as the inventor of the concept album, beginning with The Voice of Frank Sinatra, which led to similar work by Bing Crosby. According to biographer Will Friedwald, Sinatra "sequenced the songs so that the lyrics created a flow from track to track, affording an impression of a narrative, as in musical comedy or opera.... First pop singer to bring a consciously artistic attitude to recording." In the early 1960s, concept albums began featuring in American country music, however the fact went unacknowledged by rock/pop fans and critics who would only begin noting "concept albums" as a phenomenon in the decade, when albums became aligned with countercultural ideology, resulting in a recognised "album era" and the introduction of the rock concept album.

The author Carys Wyn Jones writes that the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds, the Beatles' Revolver and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, the Who's Tommy are variously cited as "the first concept album" for their "uniform excellence rather than some lyrical theme or underlying musical motif". Other records have been claimed as "early" or "first" concept albums; the 100 Greatest Bands of All Time states that the Ventures "pioneered the idea of the rock concept album years before the genre is acknowledged to have been born" with their 1964 album The Ventures in Space. Another is the Beach Boys' Little Deuce Coupe. Writing in 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music, Chris Smith commented: "Though albums such as Frank Sinatra's 1955 In the Wee Small Hours and Marty Robbins' 1959 Gunfighter Ballads and Trail Songs had introduced concept albums, Little Deuce Coupe was the first to comprise all original material rather than standard covers." Writing in his Concise Dictionary of Popular Culture, Marcel Danesi identifies the Beatles' Rubber

Purdue Boilermakers football statistical leaders

The Purdue Boilermakers football statistical leaders are individual statistical leaders of the Purdue Boilermakers football program in various categories, including passing, receiving, total offense, defensive stats, kicking. Within those areas, the lists identify single-game, single-season, career leaders; the Boilermakers represent Purdue University in the NCAA's Big Ten Conference. Although Purdue began competing in intercollegiate football in 1887, the school's official record book considers the "modern era" to have begun in 1946. Records from before this year are incomplete and inconsistent, they are not included in these lists; these lists are dominated by more recent players for several reasons: Since 1946, seasons have increased from 10 games to 11 and 12 games in length. The NCAA didn't allow freshmen to play varsity football until 1972, allowing players to have four-year careers. Bowl games only began counting toward single-season and career statistics in 2002; the Boilermakers have played in seven bowl games since then.

The Boilermakers accumulated more than 5,000 yards eight times in the 11-year period between 1997 and 2007. However, they have only done it once since so there have not been nearly as many entries on this list since 2008 as there were in that 11-year stretch; these lists are updated through Purdue's game against Vanderbilt on September 7, 2019. Total offense is the sum of rushing statistics, it does not include receiving or returns

Georges Hanna Sabbagh

Georges Hanna Sabbagh was an Egyptian-born French artist. Georges Hanna Sabbagh was born at Alexandria to a Catholic family of Syro-Lebanese in Egypt, he studied art in Paris. He was a pupil of Félix Vallotton and the Symbolist painter Maurice Denis, it can be said that he was attached to the artists of the Paris School - he worked beside Amedeo Modigliani - but he always refused to be considered one of them, keeping his independence and freedom. His family and the region of Brittany provided him with subjects for many of his paintings, before trips to Egypt led him to rediscover the lights and characters of his childhood, he excelled in portraits and landscapes both in France and in Egypt and was enchanted by the old districts of Cairo. A painter of talent, Georges Sabbagh forms one of the group of artists who Jean Cassou called "the sacrificed generation" - absorbing the school of Les Nabis and Cubism at the beginning of the century, but forgotten after the Second World War. Cassou describes him as a "cordial and human painter".

He was able to create in the end of his career a new attitude towards realism. He served in the British Army in the First World War. In 1916 he married the art historian Agnès Humbert, by whom he had two children: the television producer and director Pierre Sabbagh, the sub-mariner and advisor to General Charles de Gaulle, Jean Sabbagh. Georges and Agnès divorced in 1934. After his death, his son Jean and daughter-in-law Monique were able to make a retrospective appreciation of his work and a catalogue; this is a partial list of the works of Georges Hanna Sabbagh Fernand Mazade, 1918, Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art, Doha Allégorie de la paix, 1918, Musée de la Princerie, Verdun Synthèse de Ploumanac'h, 1920, Musée départemental de l'Oise, Beauvais La chapelle de la Clarté, 1920, Musée des Années Trente, Boulogne-Billancourt Les Sabbagh à la Clarté, 1920, Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris La robe bleue, 1920, Musée départemental Maurice Denis "The Priory", Saint-Germain-en-Laye Maternités arabes, 1920-1921, Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art, Doha Les Sabbagh à Paris, 1921, Museum of Grenoble Le nu à la fourrure, 1921, Musée des Années Trente Portrait of Johannes Tielrooy, 1921, Nederlands Letterkundig Museum, The Hague Vénus Anadyomène, 1922, Musée des Années Trente L'Été, 1922, Musée des Années Trente Le jugement de Pâris, 1923, Musée de Rio de Janeiro La Creuse de Crozant, 1925, Mairie de Crozant Assouan, 1930, Gezira Center for Modern Art, Cairo Le couvent copte de Saint-Siméon, 1930 Marine, 1931, Musée des Beaux-Arts André Malraux, Le Havre Jean Sabbagh and Pierre Sabbagh, Georges Sabbagh, Paris, J. Sabbagh, 1981 ISBN 2-903640-00-9 Jean Sabbagh with Monique Sabbagh, Mathide Sabbagh and Marc Sabbagh, Georges Sabbagh, Peintures-Aquarelles-Dessins, preface by Monique Sabbagh and Emmanuel Bréon, Editions du Panama ISBN 2-7557-0149-8 Humbert, Agnès, Résistance: Memoirs of Occupied France, Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7475-9597-7 Georges Sabbagh Mathaf: biography