Tom Green County, Texas
Tom Green County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 110,224, its county seat is San Angelo. The county was created in 1874 and organized the following year. Tom Green County is included in TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was established by the state legislature on March 13, 1874, named after Thomas Green, a Confederate brigadier general. It comprised an area over 60,000 square miles; the original county seat was the town of Ben Ficklin. In 1882, flood waters of the Concho River drowned 65 people; the county seat was moved to San Angela. In 1883, the town's name was changed to San Angelo by the United States Post Office. Tom Green County has a narrow strip of land extending to the west; this unusual feature is because Reagan County to the west used to be part of Tom Green County, the state of Texas required that all counties have a contiguous land route to their county seat. Therefore, the small strip of land served to connect the two main regions.
In 1903, the residents of the western section voted to form their own county, while in the same vote it was decided that the connecting strip would remain as part of Tom Green County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,541 square miles, of which 1,522 square miles are land and 19 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 277 SH 208 Coke County Runnels County Concho County Schleicher County Irion County Reagan County Sterling County Menard County As of the census of 2000, 104,010 people, 39,503 households, 26,783 families resided in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 43,916 housing units at an average density of 29 per mi2; the racial makeup of the county was 50.76% White, 5.13% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 12.82% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. About 30.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, 13.2% were of German, 10.7% American, 8.2% English and 7.2% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.
Of the 39,503 households, 33.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.10% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were not families. About 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population age was distributed as 26.10% under the age of 18, 12.80% from 18 to 24, 27.10% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 13.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,148, for a family was $39,482. Males had a median income of $27,949 versus $20,683 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,325. About 11.20% of families and 15.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.20% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
These school districts serve Tom Green County: Christoval ISD Grape Creek ISD Miles ISD San Angelo ISD Veribest ISD Wall ISD Water Valley ISD Howard College Angelo State University San Angelo Carlsbad Christoval Grape Creek Ben Ficklin Goodfellow AFB List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Tom Green County, Texas USS Tom Green County Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Tom Green County Tom Green County government's website Tom Green County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas County genealogy links at Rootsweb Entry for Tom Green from the Biographical Encyclopedia of Texas published 1880, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. San Angelo LIVE! News, live events and music in San Angelo, the county seat of Tom Green County
McCulloch County, Texas
McCulloch County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. At the 2010 census, its population was 8,283, its county seat is Brady. The county was created in 1856 and organized in 1876, it is named for a famous Texas Ranger and Confederate general. The geographical center of Texas lies near Brady. From 5000 BC to 1500 AD, the early Native American inhabitants included Tonkawa, Lipan Apache and Tawakoni; the 1788 José Mares expedition passed through the area while travelling from San Antonio to Santa Fe. On November 21, 1831, in the Brady vicinity, James Bowie, Rezin P. Bowie, David Buchanan, Cephas D. Hamm, Matthew Doyle, Jesse Wallace, Thomas McCaslin, Robert Armstrong, James Coryell with two servants and Gonzales, held at bay for a day and a night 164 Caddo and Lipans. After 80 warriors had been killed, the Indians withdrew. Camp San Saba was established in 1852 to protect settlers from Indians; the Sixth Texas Legislature in 1856 formed McCulloch County from Bexar County, named it for Benjamin McCulloch.
The Voca waterwheel mill was built in 1876. The Brady Sentinel was established by D. F. Hayes in 1880 as the county’s first newspaper, it was absorbed by the Heart o’ Texas News run by R. B. Boyle. During 1886-1912, the Swedish colonies of East Sweden, West Sweden and Melvin were established. From 1897 to 1910, the Brady Enterprise or McCulloch County Enterprise was published. In 1899, the McCulloch County sandstone courthouse built in the Romanesque Revival style by architects Martin and Moodie. In the last year of the 19th century, the Milburn Messenger was edited by T. F. Harwell. Cotton became a major county crop. Three years the Fort Worth and Rio Grande Railway came to McCulloch County. W. D. Currie published the Mercury Mascot from 1904 to 1907. In 1906-1910, the McCulloch County Star was published. In 1909, the Brady Standard, edited by F. W. Schwenker, began publication, absorbed the McCulloch County Star and the Brady Enterprise in 1910; the Rochelle Record was started by W. D. Cowan in 1909; the Melvin Rustler began publication in 1915. in 1917, J. Marvin Hunter founded the Melvin Enterprise.
During the 1920s, McCulloch County billed itself as "the Turkey Center of the Universe", held an annual Turkey Trot. Tenant farming in the county peaked at 60% in the 1930s; the Colorado River flooded in 1932. In 1938, Brady Creek flooded; the San Saba River flooded. Curtis Field, named for Brady Mayor Harry L. Curtis, opened as a flying school in 1941, with 80 students. A county prisoner-of-war camp was set up in 1943. S. and the Gestapo. Crockett State School took over the former POW camp in 1946, used it as a training school for delinquent black girls. From 1954 to 1960, 48 restraining structures were installed in the county to control flooding. Brady Creek Reservoir was constructed to control flooding on Brady Creek in 1963. A tourist information marker placed in the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,073 square miles, of which 1,066 square miles are land and 7.8 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 190 U. S. Highway 283 U. S. Highway 377 State Highway 71 Coleman County Brown County San Saba County Mason County Menard County Concho County At the 2000 census, 8,205 people, 3,277 households and 2,267 families resided in the county.
The population density was 8 per square mile. The 4,184 housing units averaged 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.64% White, 1.57% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 11.71% from other races, 1.63% from two or more races. About 27 % of the population were Latinos of any race. Of the 3,277 households, 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.30% were married couples living together, 10.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.80% were not families. About 28.20% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.01. About 26.60% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 22.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.00 males.
The median household income was $25,705 and family income was $30,783. Males had a median income of $25,844 versus $18,337 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,579. About 17.30% of families and 22.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.40% of those under age 18 and 21.50% of those age 65 or over. In 1947, the State of Texas opened the Brady State School for Negro Girls in McCulloch County, near Brady on a former prisoner of war camp leased from the federal government of the United States. In 1950, the state replaced the Brady facility with the Crockett State School; the following school districts serve McCulloch County: Brady ISD Lohn ISD Mason ISD Rochelle ISD Brady Melvin List of museums in West Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in McCulloch County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in McCulloch County Old McCulloch County Jail McCulloch County from the Handbook of Texas Online
The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of West Texas, parts of the middle and lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower Pecos Valley in New Mexico, a portion of southeastern Arizona, as well as the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau, it is bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, along with northwestern lowlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental range. On the Mexican side, it covers a large portion of the state of Chihuahua, along with portions of Coahuila, north-eastern Durango, the extreme northern part of Zacatecas, small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km2, it is the third largest desert of the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert. Several larger mountain ranges include the Sierra Madre, the Sierra del Carmen, the Organ Mountains, the Franklin Mountains, the Sacramento Mountains, the Chisos Mountains, the Guadalupe Mountains, the Davis Mountains.
These create "sky islands" of cooler, climates adjacent to, or within the desert, such elevated areas have both coniferous and broadleaf woodlands, including forests along drainages and favored exposures. The Sandia–Manzano Mountains, the Magdalena–San Mateo Mountains, the Gila Region border the Chihuahuan Desert at their lower elevations. There are a few urban areas within the desert: the largest is Ciudad Juárez with two million inhabitants. Las Cruces and Roswell are among the other significant cities in this ecoregion. Monterrey and Santa Fe are located near the Chihuahuan desert. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature the Chihuahuan Desert may be the most biologically diverse desert in the world as measured by species richness or endemism; the region has been badly degraded due to grazing. Many native grasses and other species have become dominated by woody native plants, including creosote bush and mesquite, due to overgrazing and other urbanization; the Mexican wolf, once abundant, remains on the endangered species list.
The desert is a rain shadow desert because the two main mountain ranges covering the desert, the Sierra Madre Occidental to the west and the Sierra Madre Oriental to the east block most moisture from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico respectively. Climatically, the desert has a dry climate with only one rainy season in the summer and smaller amounts of precipitation in early winter. Most of the summer rains falls between late June and early October, during the North American Monsoon when moist air from the Gulf of Mexico penetrates into the region. Owing to its inland position and higher elevation than the Sonoran Desert to the west varying from 600 to 1,675 m in altitude, the desert has a milder climate in the summer and cool or cold winters with occasional frosts; the average annual temperature in the desert is 24 °C. The hottest temperatures in the desert occur in valleys. Northern areas can receive snowstorms; the mean annual precipitation for the Chihuahuan Desert is 235 mm with a range of 150–400 mm, although it receives more precipitation than other warm desert ecoregions.
Nearly two-thirds of the arid zone stations have annual totals between 275 mm. Snowfall is scant except at the higher elevation edges; the desert is young, existing for only 8000 years. Creosote bush is the dominant plant species on gravelly and occasional sandy soils in valley areas within the Chihuahuan Desert; the other species it is found with depends on factors such as the soil and degree of slope. Viscid acacia, tarbush dominate northern portions, as does broom dalea on sandy soils in western portions. Yucca and Opuntia species are abundant in foothill edges and the central third, while Arizona rainbow cactus and Mexican fire-barrel cactus inhabit portions near the US–Mexico border. Herbaceous plants, such as bush muhly, blue grama, gypsum grama, hairy grama, are dominant in desert grasslands and near the mountain edges including the Sierra Madre Occidental. Lechuguilla, honey mesquite, Opuntia macrocentra and Echinocereus pectinatus are the dominant species in western Coahuila. Ocotillo and Yucca filifera are the most common species in the southeastern part of the desert.
Candelilla, Mimosa zygophylla, Acacia glandulifera and lechuguilla are found in areas with well-draining, shallow soils. The shrubs found near the Sierra Madre Oriental are lechuguilla, Queen Victoria's agave and barreta, while the well-developed herbaceous layer includes grasses and cacti. Grasslands comprise 20% of this desert and are mosaics of shrubs and grasses, they include purple three-awn, black grama, sideoats grama. Early Spanish explorers reported encountering grasses.
Crockett County, Texas
Crockett County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,719; the county seat is Ozona. The county was founded in 1875 and organized in 1891, it is named in honor of Davy Crockett, the legendary frontiersman who died at the Battle of the Alamo. Prehistoric people live in Gobbler Shelter, located on a small tributary canyon of Live Oak Creek. Earliest known Native American tribes are Lipan Apache and Comanche. 1590 Spanish explorer Gaspar Castaño de Sosa leads a mining expedition of 170 who pass through the western section of Crockett County to reach the Pecos River. 1684, May 22 - Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and his expedition cross the Pecos River and camp at San Pantaleón. 1849 John Coffee Hays expedition charting waterholes for transporting people and freight. 1852 U. S. Army Colonel Joseph K. Mansfield recommends establishing a new post on Live Oak Creek to protect travelers. 1855, August 20, Fort Lancaster is established in response to Mansfield’s recommendation.
1866 The Texas legislature provides three battalions of Texas Rangers to protect settlers in the area. 1868 Camp Melvin established. 1875, January 12 - Crockett County, named for Davy Crockett, is formed from Bexar County. 1880’s Sheep and cattle ranchers establish themselves in the county. Kirkpatrick Hotel built to serve stagecoach cowboys. 1885 W. P. Hoover becomes one of the first settlers, on the Pecos River. Crockett County becomes a subsidiary of Val Verde County. 1887 Crockett County is further reduced as Schleicher counties are formed from it. 1889 Emerald becomes first town in Crockett County. 1891 Crockett County is organized. Ozona becomes the county seat; the first water well is drilled at the First Baptist Church in Ozona. 1900 Stagecoach service begins in Crockett County. County reports seven manufacturing firms. 1902 Crockett County Courthouse built, Empire style, architect Oscar Ruffini. The building does multiple duty for courtroom and county offices, as well as a community center and dance hall.
1925 First producing oil well on L. P. Powell's ranch in north central Crockett County. 1938 Ozona erects a statue of Davy Crockett in the town square. 1939 Ozona opens the Crockett County Museum. In 1958, it was moved to its current location on the town square. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,807 square miles all of, land. Interstate 10 U. S. Highway 190 State Highway 137 State Highway 163 State Highway 349 Crockett County is among the few counties in the United States to border as many as nine counties; as of the census of 2000, there were 4,099 people, 1,524 households, 1,114 families residing in the county. The population density was 1.46 people per square mile. There were 2,049 housing units at an average density of 0.73 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.34% White, 0.68% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 19.71% from other races, 2.39% from two or more races. 54.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 1,524 households out of which 36.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.30% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.90% were non-families. 24.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.90% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,355, the median income for a family was $34,653. Males had a median income of $29,925 versus $14,695 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,414. About 14.90% of families and 19.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.30% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over.
Ozona EmeraldThere are no incorporated municipalities in Crockett County. List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Crockett County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Crockett County Crockett County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Inventory of county records, Crockett County courthouse, Texas, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Schleicher County, Texas
Schleicher County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,461, its county seat is Eldorado. The county was created in 1887 and organized in 1901, it is named for a German immigrant who became a surveyor and politician. Schleicher County was home to the YFZ Ranch, the past headquarters of the FLDS movement headed by Warren Jeffs. Around 8000 BC, by estimation, the first inhabitants in the area were Jumano Indians. Inhabitants were Lipan Apaches and Comanches. In 1632, Fray Juan de Salas and Father Juan de Ortega did missionary work among the Jumanos. Soldier Francisco Amangual led an expedition across the area in 1808. In 1882, Christopher Colombus Doty became the first permanent citizen of Schleicher County; the Texas legislature established Schleicher County in April 1887 from Crockett County, named it in honor of Gustav Schleicher. By 1890, the population was 155, of whom 134 were listed as white, four were Black, 17 were American Indian.
In 1894, the county’s first public school opened at Verand, moved to Eldorado. The next year, W. B. Silliman named it after the mythical city. To populate it, he offered free town lots to residents of nearby Verand. In 1930, the Panhandle and Santa Fe Railway Company resumed work on a previous railroad, making access possible to San Angelo and Sonora. On February 27, 1941, the West Texas Woolen Mills plant in Eldorado held a grand opening, with a parade and BBQ lunch. About 5000 people attended. Governor "Pappy" W. Lee O'Daniel was the guest speaker. Oilfield discoveries on school lands in the 1950s enabled Schleicher County to build new library and gymnasium facilities for its students. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,311 square miles. U. S. Highway 190 U. S. Highway 277 Tom Green County Menard County Sutton County Crockett County Irion County Kimble County As of the census of 2000, 2,935 people, 1,115 households, 817 families resided in the county; the population density was about two people per square mile.
The 1,371 housing units averaged about one per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.59% White, 1.53% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 18.98% from other races, 2.62% from two or more races. About 43.54% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 1,115 households, 34.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were not families. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was distributed as 27.90% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 24.00% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,746, for a family was $37,813.
Males had a median income of $28,412 versus $22,250 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,969. About 16.00% of families and 21.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.00% of those under age 18 and 19.90% of those age 65 or over. Eldorado Adams Hulldale List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Schleicher County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Schleicher County Schleicher County government's website Schleicher County from the Handbook of Texas Online Inventory of county records, Schleicher County Courthouse, Texas, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Schleicher County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
San Angelo, Texas
San Angelo is a city in and the county seat of Tom Green County, United States. Its location is in the Concho Valley, a region of West Texas between the Permian Basin to the northwest, Chihuahuan Desert to the southwest, Osage Plains to the northeast, Central Texas to the southeast. According to a 2014 Census estimate, San Angelo has a total population of 100,450, it is the principal city and center of the San Angelo metropolitan area, which has a population of 118,182. San Angelo is home to Angelo State University, historic Fort Concho, Goodfellow Air Force Base. Common nicknames of the city include Angelo, Land of Sand and Jello, the Concho City, the Pearl of the Conchos, the Oasis of West Texas. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, San Angelo was the center of the Jumano people; as of 1600, the area had been inhabited for over a thousand years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples. In 1632, a short-lived mission of Franciscans under Spanish auspices was founded in the area to serve the Indians.
The mission was led by the friars Juan de Salas and Juan de Ortega, with Ortega remaining for six months. The area was visited by the Castillo-Martin expedition of 1650 and the Diego de Guadalajara expedition of 1654. During the colonization of the region, San Angelo was at the western edge of the region called Texas, successively claimed in the 1800s by the nations of Spain, the Republic of Texas, the United States, in 1846; the current city of San Angelo was founded in 1867, when the United States built Fort Concho, one of a series of new forts designed to protect the frontier. The fort was home to cavalry and the famous Black Cavalry known as Buffalo Soldiers by Indigenous Americans; the settler Bartholomew J. DeWitt founded the village of Santa Angela outside the fort at the junction of the North and South Concho Rivers, he named the village after Carolina Angela. The name was changed to San Angela; the name would change again to San Angelo in 1883 on the insistence of the United States Postal Service, as San Angela was grammatically incorrect in Spanish.
The town became a trade center for farmers and settlers in the area, as well as a lawless cowtown filled with brothels and gambling houses. After being designated as the county seat, the town grew in the 1880s, aided by being on the route of newly constructed railroads, it became a central transportation hub for the region. The Santa Fe Railroad arrived in 1888 and the Kansas City and Orient Railway in 1909. After a tuberculosis outbreak hit the United States in the early 1900s, many patients moved to San Angelo. At the time, doctors could only recommend rest in warm climates. TB sufferers went to San Angelo for treatment. In 1928, the city founded San Angelo College, one of the region's first institutes of higher education; the city had been passed over by the Texas State Legislature to be the home of what would become Texas Tech University. San Angelo College, one of the first municipal colleges, has grown to become Angelo State University; the military returned to San Angelo during World War II with the founding of Goodfellow Air Force Base, assigned to train pilots at the time.
San Angelo grew exponentially during the oil boom of the 1900s, when vast amounts of oil were found in the area, the city became a regional hub of the oil and gas industry. The San Angelo Independent School District became one of the first in Texas to integrate, doing so voluntarily in 1955. San Angelo is located at 31°26′34″N 100°27′1″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.2 square miles, of which, 55.9 square miles are land and 2.3 square miles are covered by water. San Angelo falls on the southwestern edge of the Edwards Plateau and the northeastern edge of the Chihuahuan Desert at the junction of the North and South Concho Rivers; the city has three lakes: Twin Buttes Reservoir, O. C. Fisher Reservoir, Lake Nasworthy; the Middle Concho River joined the South Concho several miles upstream, but the confluence has been obscured by the Twin Buttes dam. San Angelo is about 225 miles west of Austin. San Angelo falls near the boundary between the subtropical semiarid steppe and mid-latitude steppe climates.
It is located at the region. Temperatures reach 100 °F about 18 times in a typical year. However, in 2011, San Angelo recorded 100 days of higher; the typical year has 50 days with lows below freezing. Though the region does experience snow and sleet, they occur only a few times a year. San Angelo averages 251 days of sunshine a year, the average temperature is 65.4 °F. The city has an average rainfall of 21.25 inches. As of the census of 2010, 93,200 people, 36,117 households, 22,910 families resided in the city; the population density was 1,601 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83% White, 5.4% African American, 1.4% Indigenous American, 1.7% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 11.3% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 38.5% of the population. Of 36,117 households, 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were not families.
The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was distributed as 23.4% under the age of 18 and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32.8 years. The population
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties. It is the 4th-most populous city in Texas, it is the fastest growing large city in the United States, the second most populous state capital after Phoenix and the southernmost state capital in the contiguous United States. As of the U. S. Census Bureau's July 1, 2017 estimate, Austin had a population of 950,715 up from 790,491 at the 2010 census; the city is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 2,115,827 as of July 1, 2017. Located in Central Texas within the greater Texas Hill Country, it is home to numerous lakes and waterways, including Lady Bird Lake and Lake Travis on the Colorado River, Barton Springs, McKinney Falls, Lake Walter E. Long. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River. In 1839, the site was chosen to replace Houston as the capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name "Waterloo."
Shortly afterward, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas" and the republic's first secretary of state; the city grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin. After a severe lull in economic growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its steady development, by the 1990s it emerged as a center for technology and business. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin including, 3M, Amazon.com, Apple Inc. Cisco, eBay, General Motors, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, PayPal, Texas Instruments, Whole Foods Market. Dell's worldwide headquarters is located in Round Rock. Residents of Austin are known as Austinites, they include a diverse mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers, a vibrant LGBT community. The city's official slogan promotes Austin as "The Live Music Capital of the World," a reference to the city's many musicians and live music venues, as well as the long-running PBS TV concert series Austin City Limits.
The city adopted "Silicon Hills" as a nickname in the 1990s due to a rapid influx of technology and development companies. In recent years, some Austinites have adopted the unofficial slogan "Keep Austin Weird," which refers to the desire to protect small and local businesses from being overrun by large corporations. In the late 19th century, Austin was known as the "City of the Violet Crown," because of the colorful glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Today, many Austin businesses use the term "Violet Crown" in their name. Austin is known as a "clean-air city" for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars. U. S. News & World Report named Austin the #1 place to live in the U. S. for 2017 and 2018. In 2016, Forbes ranked Austin #1 on its "Cities of the Future" list in 2017 placed the city at that same position on its list for the "Next Biggest Boom Town in the U. S." In 2017, Forbes awarded the South River City neighborhood of Austin its #2 ranking for "Best Cities and Neighborhoods for Millennials."
WalletHub named Austin the #6 best place in the country to live for 2017. The FBI ranked Austin as the #2 safest major city in the U. S. for 2012. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of human habitation since at least 9200 BC; the area's earliest known inhabitants lived during the late Pleistocene and are linked to the Clovis culture around 9200 BC, based on evidence found throughout the area and documented at the much-studied Gault Site, midway between Georgetown and Fort Hood. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area; the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, though few permanent settlements were created for some time. In 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin; the mission was in this area for only about seven months, was moved to San Antonio de Béxar and split into three missions.
Early in the 19th century, Spanish forts were established in what are now San Marcos. Following Mexico's independence, new settlements were established in Central Texas, but growth in the region was stagnant because of conflicts with the regional Native Americans. In 1835 -- 1836, Texans won independence from Mexico. Texas thus became an independent country with its own president and monetary system. After Vice President Mirabeau B. Lamar visited the area during a buffalo-hunting expedition between 1837 and 1838, he proposed that the republic's capital in Houston, be relocated to the area situated on the north bank of the Colorado River. In 1839, the Texas Congress formed a commission to seek a site for a new capital to be named for Stephen F. Austin. Mirabeau B. Lamar, second president of the newly formed Republic of Texas, advised the commissioners to investigate the area named Waterloo, noting the area's hills and pleasant surroundings. Waterloo was selected, "Austin" was chosen as the town's new name.
The location was seen as a convenient crossroads for trade routes between Santa Fe and Galveston Bay, as well as routes between northern Mexico and the Red River. Edwin Wall