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Concordat of Worms

The Concordat of Worms is the 1122 agreement between Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, Pope Callixtus II, which brought to an end the first phase of the power struggle between the papacy and the Holy Roman Emperor, known as the Investiture Controversy. It was signed on 1122, near the German city of Worms; the Concordat of Worms is sometimes called the Pactum Callixtinum by papal historians, since the term concordat was not in use until Nicolas of Cusa's De concordantia catholica of 1434. The pact has been interpreted as containing within itself the germ of nation-based sovereignty that would one day be confirmed in the Peace of Westphalia. In part this was an unforeseen result of strategic maneuvering between the Church and the European sovereigns over political control within their domains; the king was recognized as having the right to invest bishops with secular authority in the territories they governed, but not with sacred authority. The result was that bishops owed allegiance in worldly matters both to the pope and to the king, for they were obliged to affirm the right of the sovereign to call upon them for military support, under his oath of fealty.

Previous Holy Roman emperors had thought it their right, granted by God, to name Church officials within their territories and to confirm the papal election. In fact, the emperors had been relying on bishops for their secular administration, as they were not hereditary or quasi-hereditary nobility with family interests. A more immediate result of the investiture struggle identified a proprietary right that adhered to sovereign territory, recognizing the right of kings to income from the territory of a vacant diocese and a basis for justifiable taxation; these rights lay outside feudalism, which defined authority in a hierarchy of personal relations, with only a loose relation to territory. The pope emerged as a figure out of the direct control of the Holy Roman Emperor. Following efforts by Lamberto Scannabecchi, the future Pope Honorius II, the 1121 Diet of Würzburg, Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V entered into an agreement that ended the Investiture Controversy. By the terms of the agreement, the election of bishops and abbots in Germany was to take place in the emperor's presence as judge between disputing parties, free of bribes, thus retaining to the emperor a crucial role in choosing these great territorial magnates of the Empire.

Beyond the borders of Germany, in Burgundy and Italy, the emperor was to forward the symbols of authority within six months. Callixtus' reference to the feudal homage due the emperor on appointment is guarded: "shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should" was the wording of the privilegium granted by Callixtus; the emperor's right to a substantial imbursement on the election of a bishop or abbot was denied. The emperor renounced the right to invest ecclesiastics with ring and crosier, the symbols of their spiritual power, guaranteed election by the canons of cathedral or abbey and free consecration; the two ended by granting one another peace. The Concordat was confirmed by the First Council of the Lateran in 1123; the Concordat of Worms was a part of the larger reforms put forth by many popes, most notably Pope Gregory VII. These included the reinforcement of celibacy of the clergy, end of simony and autonomy of the Church from secular leaders; the most prized and contested rights that attached to benefices were inheritance and security against confiscation.

Benefices were lands granted by the Church to faithful lords. In exchange, the Church expected rent or other services, such as military protection; these lands would be further divided between lesser lords and commoners. This was the nature of European feudalism. Inheritance was an important issue, since land could fall into the hands of those who did not have loyalty to the Church or the great lords; the usual grant was in precaria, the granting of a life tenure, whereby the tenant stayed on the land only at the pleasure of the lord. The tenant could be expelled from the land at any time, his tenancy was precarious. Counts' benefices came to be inherited as counties were broken up and as counts assimilated their offices and ex-officio lands to their family property. In central Europe and counts were willing to allow the inheritance of small parcels of land to the heirs of those who had offered military or other services in exchange for tenancy; this was contingent on the heirs being reasonably capable.

Churches in Germany, as elsewhere, were willing to allow peasants to inherit their land. This was a source of profit to both churches and lords when the inheritors were charged a fee to inherit the land. Most bishops had a different attitude toward freemen and nobles. To these peasants, grants were made in precario or in beneficio for a specified and limited number of life tenures, it was not impossible to recover land left to noble families for generations. But the longer the family held church land, the more difficult it was to oust them from the land; some church officials came to view granting land to noble families amounted to outright alienation. By the twelfth century great churches in Germany, like those elsewhere were finding it difficult to hold out against the accumulation of lay custom and lay objections to temporary inheritance; the Bishop of Worms issued a statement in 1120 indicating the poor and unfree should be allowed to inherit tenancy without payment of fees. It appears to have been something novel.

The growing masses of unfree and the marginal were needed for labour, to bolster the milita

Five Mystical Songs

The Five Mystical Songs are a musical composition by English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1906 and 1911. The work sets four poems by seventeenth-century Welsh-born English poet and Anglican priest George Herbert, from his 1633 collection The Temple: Sacred Poems. While Herbert was a priest, Vaughan Williams himself was an atheist at the time, though this did not prevent his setting of verse of an overtly religious inspiration; the work received its first performance on 14 September 1911, at the Three Choirs Festival in Worcester, with Vaughan Williams conducting. The work is written with several choices for accompaniment: Piano only. Piano and string quintet. Wind Ensemble. Orchestra with optional SATB chorus; this was the choice used at the premiere. Like Herbert's simple verse, the songs are direct, but have the same intrinsic spirituality as the original text, they were supposed to be performed together, as a single work, but the styles of each vary quite significantly. The first four songs are quiet personal meditations in which the soloist takes a key role in the third – Love Bade Me Welcome, where the chorus has a wholly supporting role, the fourth, The Call, in which the chorus does not feature at all.

The final "Antiphon" is the most different of all: a triumphant hymn of praise sung either by the chorus alone or by the soloist alone. It is sometimes performed on its own, as a church anthem for choir and organ: "Let all the world in every corner sing". Easter – from Herbert's Easter Rise heart. Sing his praise without delayes, Who takes thee by the hand, that thou with him may'st rise. Awake, my lute, struggle for thy part with all thy art; the crosse taught all wood to resound his name. His stretched sinews taught all strings. Consort both heart and lute, twist a song pleasant and long. O let thy blessed Spirit bear a part. I Got Me Flowers – from the second half of Easter I got me flowers to strew thy way; the Sunne arising in the East. Though he give light, th'East perfume. Can there be any day but this, Though many sunnes to shine endeavour? We count three hundred, but we misse: There is but one, that one ever. Love Bade Me Welcome – from Love Love bade me welcome: yet my soul drew back. Guiltie of dust and sinne.

But quick-ey'd Love, observing me grow slack From my first entrance in, Drew nearer to me, sweetly questioning If I lack'd anything. A guest, I answer, You shall be he. I the unkinde, ungrateful? Ah, my deare, I cannot look on thee. Love took my hand, smiling did reply, Who made the eyes but I? Truth Lord, but I have marr'd them: let my shame Go where it doth deserve, and know you not, sayes Love, who bore the blame? My deare I will serve. You must sit down, sayes Love, taste my meat: So I did sit and eat; the Call – from The Call Come, my Way, my Truth, my Life: Such a Way, as gives us breath: Such a Truth, as ends all strife: Such a Life, as killeth death. Come, my Light, my Feast, my Strength: Such a Light, as shows a feast: Such a Feast, as mends in length: Such a Strength, as makes his guest. Come, my Joy, my Love, my Heart: Such a Joy, as none can move: Such a Love, as none can part: Such a Heart, as joys in love. Antiphon -- from Antiphon Let all the world in ev'ry corner sing: King; the heavens are not too high, His praise may thither flie.

Let all the world in ev'ry corner sing: My God and King. The Church with psalms must shout, No doore can keep them out. Let all the world in ev'ry corner sing: My God and King

Tanya Streeter

Tanya Streeter is a British-Caymanian-American world champion freediver, inducted into the Women Diver's Hall of Fame in March 2000. For more than two months, from 17 August 2002, she held the overall "no limits" freediving record with a depth of 525 feet, still the women's world record for No Limits Apnea. Streeter was born to Sandra Dailey in the Cayman Islands, she has a brother. She was educated in England at Brighton University, she married her husband Paul Streeter in England. They moved to the Cayman Islands in 1995, they have Tilly Annina Andrus Streeter and a son, Charlie Streeter. After giving birth Tanya Streeter retired from freediving, she resides in Austin, Texas. She has four step children residing in the UK. James and Christopher Streeter, Sophie Streeter and Katie Streeter. Streeter took up freediving at age 25 and immediately began to break records, she made her first important breakthrough in 1998 when she bettered Deborah Andollo's Women's No Limits diving record by 10 feet, achieving a total depth of 370 feet.

She was inducted into the'Women Divers Hall of Fame' in March 2000. In 2002, she broke the men's No Limit world diving record by diving to a depth of 525 feet near the Turks and Caicos Islands, a record, surpassed that year by French diver Loïc Leferme. On 19 July 2003 she broke the men's Variable Weight world record by diving to a depth of 400 feet and held it over a year until the record was broken by Carlos Coste in Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela on 27 October 2004, but as a women's record it lasted seven years, until Natalia Molchanova reached 125 m in June 2010 in Kalamata, Greece. Streeter was featured in an Animal Planet documentary and presented Dive Galapagos, she presented a documentary shown on BBC Two called Shark Therapy in which she attempted to overcome her fear of sharks. She is a public speaker, presenting "The Deepest Dive Ever" at TEDx in Austin, Texas in 2012, at the Divers Alert Network UHMS DAN 2006 Breath-hold Proceedings, she appeared on a set of five commemorative postage stamps distributed by the Turks and Caicos Islands in 2003.

In 2014, she appeared as a coach on the television show Calzedonia Ocean Girls. She features in the documentary A Plastic Ocean, today focuses on her work as an environmentalist. David Apperley "AIDA homologated world records, incl. Record history". Archived from the original on 26 April 2007. Tanya Streeter on IMDb "DeeperBlue.com Interview with Tanya Streeter". 9 September 2002. Retrieved 17 November 2011

Human embryonic stem cells clinical trials

The Food and Drug Administration approved the first clinical trial in the United States involving human embryonic stem cells on January 23, 2009. Geron Corporation, a biotechnology firm located in Menlo Park, California planned to enroll ten patients suffering from spinal cord injuries to participate in the trial; the company hoped that GRNOPC1, a product derived from human embryonic stem cells, would stimulate nerve growth in patients with debilitating damage to the spinal cord. The trial began in 2010 after being delayed by the FDA because cysts were found on mice injected with these cells, safety concerns were raised. In the United States, the FDA must approve all clinical trials involving newly developed pharmaceuticals. Researchers must complete an Investigational New Drug application in order to earn the FDA's approval. IND applications include data from animal and toxicology studies in which the drug's safety is tested, drug manufacturing information explaining how and where the drug will be produced, a detailed research protocol stating who will be included in the study, how the drug will be administered and how participants will be consented.

Testing for new drugs must go through three phases of research before a drug can be marketed to the public. In Phase I trials, the drug's safety is tested on a small group of participants; the drug's effectiveness is tested during Phase II trials with a larger number of participants. Phase III trials, involving 1,000- 3,000 participants, analyze effectiveness, determine side effects and compare the outcomes of the new drug to similar drugs on the market. An additional phase, Phase IV, is included to continually gain information after a drug is on the market. Geron's IND application for the GRNOPC1 clinical trial, nearly 28,000 pages in length, was one of the most extensive applications to be submitted to the FDA. Before Geron could test GRNOPC1 in humans, tests in animals had to occur. At the University of California at Irvine, Dr. Hans Keirstead and Dr. Gabriel Nistor, credited with the technique used to develop oligodendrocytes from human embryonic stem cells, injected the cells into rats with spinal cord injuries.

The condition of the rats improved after treatment. The first patient, identified in an article by the Washington Post as Timothy J. Atchison of Alabama, enrolled in the trial in October 2010; the patient was treated at the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, GA just two weeks after he sustained a spinal cord injury in a car accident. The Shepherd Center and six other spinal centers were recruited by Geron to participate in the clinical trial; the Washington Post reported that Atchison "has begun to get some slight sensation: He can feel relief when he lifts a bowling ball off his lap and discern discomfort when he pulls on hairs on some parts of his legs. He has strengthened his abdomen." Atchison underwent therapy at the Shepherd Center for three months before returning home to Alabama. Although Geron aimed to enroll ten patients in the trial, only three additional patients were added after Atchison; as specified by Geron, eligible patients had to experience a neurologically complete spinal cord injury within seven to fourteen days prior to enrollment.

In addition, patients had to be between the ages of 18 and 65 and could not have a history of malignancy, significant organ damage, be pregnant or nursing, unable to communicate or participate in any other experimental procedures. Participants received one injection of GRNOPC1 containing 2 million cells. Though the trial has ended, Geron will continue to monitor participants for fifteen years. Although no official results from the trial have been published, preliminary results from the clinical trial were presented at the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine conference in October 2011. None of the participants experienced serious adverse events, although nausea and low magnesium were reported. In addition, no changes to the spinal cord or neurological condition were found. After investing millions of dollars in the research leading up to this trial, Geron Corporation discontinued the study in November 2011 to focus on cancer research. John Scarlett, Geron's chief executive officer, said "In the current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions, we intend to focus our resources on advancing our two novel and promising oncology drug candidates."

The company's stocks fell to $1.50 per share from $2.28 per share when news of the trial's discontinuation became public. A spokesperson for the company said that Geron would save money by ending the trial despite the loss in investors; because many believed Geron's trial offered hope for advancing knowledge related to stem cells and their potential uses, there was disappointment in the scientific community when the trial was cut short. An article on Bioethics Forum, a publication produced by The Hastings Center, stated, "It is one thing to close a trial to further enrollment for scientific reasons, such as a problem with trial design, or for ethical reasons, such as an unanticipated serious risk of harm to participants, it is quite another matter to close a trial for business reasons, such as to improve profit margins."In 2013 Geron's stem cell assets were acquired by biotechnology firm BioTime, led by CEO Michael D. West, the founder of Geron and former Chief Scientific Officer of Advanced Cell Technology.

BioTime indicated that it plans to restart the embryonic stem cell-based clinical trial for spinal cord injury. Two clinical trials involving derivatives of human embryonic stem cells were approved in 2010. Advanced Cell Technology located in Marlborough, leads the trials aimed at improving the vision of patients with Stargardt's Macular

George Paulet (1553–1608)

Sir George Paulet known as Pawlet or Powlet, was an English soldier and governor of Derry, killed by the followers of Sir Cahir O'Dogherty during O'Doherty's Rebellion. After his death, Paulet's command at Derry was burned to the ground by the rebels. Paulet was knighted in 1607, he was a son of Sir George Paulet of Crondall, brother of William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, his third wife, daughter of William Windsor, 2nd Baron Windsor. Paulet was educated at Eton, 1564–72, at King's College, Cambridge, 1572-5, his contemporaries call George a gentleman of Hampshire. The king's letters of 20 and 23 July 1606, directing his appointment to the governorship of Derry, speak of his service in the wars, he began at Derry by buying land from the constable, Sir Henry Docwra, who had built a town there more than thirty years after the destruction of Randolph's settlement. Docwra incurred the hostility of Charles Blount, 8th Baron Mountjoy, Lord Deputy of Ireland, by supporting Donnell Ballagh O'Cahan, Sir Cahir O'Doherty, Niall Garve O'Donnell, who he thought had been ill-treated.

James I agreed with Devonshire on Irish policy, about the desirability of ruling Ulster through Hugh Ó Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and Rory Ó Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, without much regard for minor chiefs. Devonshire died 3 April 1606. Docwra accordingly sold him his house, land which he had bought, his company of foot, at a low price; the vice-provostship of Derry was thrown in without extra charge. The new governor was established at Derry in the early winter of 1606, on 20 February following Sir Arthur Chichester, the new Lord Deputy, told Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury that he was unfit for the place, that there had been many dissensions since his arrival, he fell out with the new bishop of Derry, over land claims. Tyrone and Tyrconnell fled from Ireland early in September 1607. Docwra had tried to divide these chiefs from the Earls, but Paulet had his own ideas on handling them. O'Doherty put some armed men on Tory Island, but this seems to have been done with the consent of the few inhabitants.

Sir Richard Hansard, who commanded for the Plantation of Ulster at Lifford in Donegal, recounts that O'Dogherty left Burt Castle, on Lough Swilly, at the end of October to superintend the felling of timber for building. He began to arm about seventy followers, refusing all recruits from outside his own district. Paulet made an unsuccessful attempt to seize Burt in the chief's absence, reported everything to Chichester. O'Doherty remonstrated with him in a temperate letter. O'Doherty went to Dublin early in December and made his excuses to Chichester, who accepted them, but without much confidence. On 18 April the privy council ordered him to be restored to such of his ancestral lands as were still withheld, but this order did not reach the Irish government until he was in rebellion; the Annals of the Four Masters state. Paulet's carelessness invited attack, though Chichester warned him to keep good watch. On the night of Monday, 18 April 1608, O'Doherty, at the head of fewer than a hundred men, seized the outpost at Culmore by a trick, surprised Derry itself an hour before daybreak.

Paulet was killed by O'Doherty's foster-father Phelim Reagh MacDavitt, the city was sacked and burned. Sir Josias Bodley, not however an eye-witness, reported. Paulet had been warned by Richard Hansard. Despite the early success at Derry, O'Doherty's Rebellion was defeated by the swift response of the Dublin government. A force was sent out which recovered the ruins of Derry and killed O'Doherty at the Battle of Kilmacrennan. Paulet married Joan Kyme, daughter of Richard Kyme of Lewes and Margery Humphrey, they had a daughter. Frances Paulet, married Richard Mascall of South Malling, Sussex, his wife was with him at Derry, the contemporary tract Newes from Ireland concerning the late treacherous Action. Lady Paulet had only a short imprisonment with the O'Doherties, she was alive in 1617. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Paulet, George". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Bagwell, Richard. "Paulet, George". In Lee, Sidney.

Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 86. Coulson, Patrick C.. The Early Life of Erasmus O'Rourke. Hockley: Pamasuco Paperbacks. ISBN 9780955988936. Hasler, P. W.. Hasler, P. W.. "Members. The House of Commons 1558–1603"; the History of Parliament. Historyofparliamentonline.org. Retrieved 8 December 2013. Hunter, R. J.. "Paulet, Sir George, administrator". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21616. Shaw, W. A.. The Knights of England. II. London: Sherrat a

Lynda Clark, Baroness Clark of Calton

Lynda Margaret Clark, Baroness Clark of Calton PC, known as Lady Clark of Calton, is a Scottish judge. She was the Labour Member of Parliament for Edinburgh Pentlands, she was Advocate General for Scotland from the creation of that position in 1999 until 2006, whereupon she became a Judge of the Court of Session in Scotland. Clark read Law at Queens College, St Andrews during its transition to independence as the University of Dundee School of Law, graduating in 1970 with a LLB from St Andrews, subsequently gained a PhD in Criminology and Penology from the University of Edinburgh in 1975, she was a lecturer in Jurisprudence from 1973 at the University of Dundee until she was called to the Scottish Bar in 1977. She took silk in 1989, was subsequently called to the English Bar in 1990 as a member of the Inner Temple. Clark first stood for election to Parliament at the 1992 general election, where she unsuccessfully contested the North East Fife seat held by Menzies Campbell of the Liberal Democrats.

At the 1997 general election, she was elected to the House of Commons for the Edinburgh Pentlands constituency, unseating the Conservative Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Malcolm Rifkind. Rifkind was one of the high-profile losses on election night for the Conservative Party. In May 1999, Clark was appointed as the first-ever Advocate General for Scotland, a new post created by the Scotland Act 1998 to advise the Crown and Government of the United Kingdom on Scots law, she stood down at the 2005 general election, allowing Secretary of State for Transport Alistair Darling to contest the new Edinburgh South West constituency. On 13 May 2005, it was announced that Clark would be created a life peer, on 21 June 2005 the title was gazetted as Baroness Clark of Calton, of Calton in the City of Edinburgh. On 18 January 2006, Lady Clark of Calton resigned as Advocate General, pending an expected judicial appointment, she was replaced as Advocate General by Neil Davidson, QC.

On 19 January, Clark was appointed as a Senator of the College of Justice, a judge of the Supreme Courts of Scotland. She was installed in office in February 2006. On 21 June 2012, Lady Clark succeeded Lord Drummond Young as Chairman of the Scottish Law Commission. Lady Clark demitted office on 31 December 2013 in order to sit in the Inner House of the Court of Session, was succeeded as Chairman by Lord Pentland; as of 2016, Lady Clark of Calton is the most recent Senator of the College of Justice to have served in the House of Commons. She retired from the bench in 2019; the Role of the Advocate General for Scotland Human Rights and Scots Law: Comparative Perspectives on the Incorporation of the ECHR. Hart Publishing. 2002. ISBN 978-1-84113-044-6. TheyWorkForYou.com – Baroness Clark of Calton The Public Whip – Voting Record – Lynda Clark MP/Baroness Clark of Calton BBC News – Lynda Clark profile – October 2002 Guardian – Ask Aristotle – Dr Lynda Clark