Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire known as Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added, its size diminished over time from 1648 onward, by the time of its dissolution, it contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia, bordered by the German lands on three sides. At the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, most of the Holy Roman Empire was included in the German Confederation. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476.

The title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries; some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties.

The German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains; the power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy.

The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward. In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation", a form first used in a document in 1474; the new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its territories in Italy and Burgundy to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has argued in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claims of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."In the modern period, the Empire was informally called the German Empire or Roman-German Empire.

After its dissolution through the end of the German Empire, it was called "the old Empire". Beginning in 1923, early-twentieth century German nationalists and Nazi propaganda would identify the Holy Roman Empire as the First Reich, with the German Empire as the Second Reich and either a future German nationalist state or Nazi Germany as the Third Reich; as Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Mart

Frédéric Chopin monument in Żelazowa Wola

The Frédéric Chopin monument at Żelazowa Wola is a notable Żelazowa Wola statue, located in a park adjacent to Chopin's birth house. The monument was designed in 1955 by Józef Gosławski, but unveiled on 13 July 1969 by Tadeusz Zaorski, vice-minister of culture and art; the pedestal was designed by Wanda Gosławska. The bronze cast was produced by the Decorative Bronze company. A model of the statue has been featured at several International Frédéric Chopin Piano Competitions; the Polish Mint's Famous Medallic Artists medal series includes one bearing an image of the Żelazowa Wola Chopin monument. The medal was produced in 2009 by Hanna Jelonek; the sculpture inspired Polish painter Piotr Pawiński, who painted a series of pictures. Rudzka, Anna. Józef Gosławski. Rzeźby, medale. Warszawa: Alegoria. ISBN 978-83-62248-00-1. Chopin's Poland. Żelazowa Wola

Charles F. Douglas

Charles Francis Douglas was an American architect from Maine. Douglas was born in Brunswick, was educated at the Foxcroft Academy. At the age of 18, he was apprenticed to a house-builder. While working as a carpenter, he independently studied architecture. In the 1860s, he moved to Skowhegan, he remained there until his bankruptcy in 1869, relocated his office to Lewiston by the following year. He left Maine for Philadelphia in 1873 because of strains put on the architectural profession by the Panic of 1873. Upon arriving in Philadelphia, he gave up his practice. Many of his works have been placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Eaton School, Upper Main St. & Mercer Rd. Norridgewock, ME Charles F. Douglas House, 13 Perkins St. Norridgewock, ME Pleasant Street M. E. Church, 61 Pleasant St. Waterville, ME - Demolished. Lyceum Hall, 49 Lisbon St. Lewiston, ME Somerset County Courthouse, 47 Court St. Skowhegan, ME Barker Mill, 143 Mill St. Auburn, ME William H. Glover House, 67 Talbot Ave. Rockland, ME Albert B.

Nealey House, 10 Frye St. Lewiston, ME Milton Wedgewood House, 101 Pine St. Lewiston, ME