The Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British–French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner, operated until 2003. It had a maximum speed over twice the speed of sound, at Mach 2.04, with seating for 92 to 128 passengers. First flown in 1969, Concorde continued flying for the next 27 years, it is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially. Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Sud Aviation and the British Aircraft Corporation under an Anglo-French treaty. Twenty aircraft were built, including development aircraft. Air France and British Airways were the only airlines to fly Concorde; the aircraft was used by wealthy passengers who could afford to pay a high price in exchange for the aircraft's speed and luxury service. For example, in 1997, the round-trip ticket price from New York to London was $7,995, more than 30 times the cost of the cheapest option to fly this route; the original programme cost estimate of £70 million met huge overruns and delays, with the program costing £1.3 billion.
It was this extreme cost that became the main factor in the production run being much smaller than anticipated. Another factor, which affected the viability of all supersonic transport programmes, was that supersonic flight could only be used on ocean-crossing routes, to prevent sonic boom disturbance over populated areas. With only seven airframes each being operated by the British and French, the per-unit cost was impossible to recoup, so the French and British governments absorbed the development costs. British Airways and Air France were able to operate Concorde at a profit, in spite of high maintenance costs, because the aircraft was able to sustain a high ticket price. Among other destinations, Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London's Heathrow Airport and Paris's Charles de Gaulle Airport to John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Washington Dulles International Airport in Virginia and Grantley Adams International Airport in Barbados. Concorde won the 2006 Great British Design Quest, organised by the BBC and the Design Museum of London, beating other well-known designs such as the BMC Mini, the miniskirt, the Jaguar E-Type, the London Tube map and the Supermarine Spitfire.
The type was retired in 2003, three years after the crash of Air France Flight 4590, in which all passengers and crew were killed. The general downturn in the commercial aviation industry after the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the end of maintenance support for Concorde by Airbus contributed to the retirement; the origins of the Concorde project date to the early 1950s, when Arnold Hall, director of the Royal Aircraft Establishment asked Morien Morgan to form a committee to study the supersonic transport concept. The group met for the first time in February 1954 and delivered their first report in April 1955. At the time it was known that the drag at supersonic speeds was related to the span of the wing; this led to the use of short-span thin trapezoidal wings such as those seen on the control surfaces of many missiles, or in aircraft like the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter or the Avro 730 that the team studied. The team outlined a baseline configuration that looked like an enlarged Avro 730.
This same short span produced little lift at low speed, which resulted in long take-off runs and frighteningly high landing speeds. In an SST design, this would have required enormous engine power to lift off from existing runways, to provide the fuel needed, "some horribly large aeroplanes" resulted. Based on this, the group considered the concept of an SST infeasible, instead suggested continued low-level studies into supersonic aerodynamics. Soon after, Johanna Weber and Dietrich Küchemann at the RAE published a series of reports on a new wing planform, known in the UK as the "slender delta" concept; the team, including Eric Maskell whose report "Flow Separation in Three Dimensions" contributed to an understanding of the physical nature of separated flow, worked with the fact that delta wings can produce strong vortices on their upper surfaces at high angles of attack. The vortex will lower the air pressure and cause lift to be increased; this effect had been noticed earlier, notably by Chuck Yeager in the Convair XF-92, but its qualities had not been appreciated.
Weber suggested that this was no mere curiosity, the effect could be deliberately used to improve low speed performance. Küchemann's and Weber's papers changed the entire nature of supersonic design overnight. Although the delta had been used on aircraft prior to this point, these designs used planforms that were not much different from a swept wing of the same span. Weber noted that the lift from the vortex was increased by the length of the wing it had to operate over, which suggested that the effect would be maximised by extending the wing along the fuselage as far as possible; such a layout would still have good supersonic performance inherent to the short span, while offering reasonable take-off and landing speeds using vortex generation. The only downside to such a design is that the aircraft would have to take off and land "nose high" to generate the required vortex lift, which led to questions about the low speed handling qualities of such a design, it would need to have long landing gear to produce the required angle of attack while still on the runway.
Küchemann presented the idea a
Rudolf "Rudi" Müller was a Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. Müller was credited with 94 victories. Müller was born on 21 November 1920 in Frankfurt am Main; when Müller first joined the German army he served with the signal corps. In 1940 he transferred to the Luftwaffe, underwent pilot training. Müller was transferred to Jagdgeschwader 77 in August of 1941, his first claimed victory came on September 12th 1941 when he shot down a Russian Polikarpov I-16 fighter. 1./JG 77 was re-designated to Jagdgeschwader 5 in January 1942. On 23 April 1942, he claimed. Müller received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 19 June 1942 for 41 aerial victories; the presentation was made by Generaloberst Hans-Jürgen Stumpff at Petsamo, present-day Pechenga in Murmansk Oblast. He was shot down in his Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2 by a Hurricane from 609 IAP on 19 April 1943.
Iron Cross 2nd Class 1st Class Wound Badge in Black Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold Honorary Cup of the Luftwaffe German Cross in Gold on 27 May 1943 as Feldwebel in the 6./Jagdgeschwader 5 Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 19 June 1942 as Feldwebel and pilot in the 6./Jagdgeschwader 5
Bernard Lee "Pretty" Purdie is an American drummer, an influential R&B, soul and funk musician. He is known for his precise musical time keeping and his signature use of triplets against a half-time backbeat: the "Purdie Shuffle." He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 2013. Purdie recorded Soul Drums as a band leader and although he went on to record Alexander's Ragtime Band, the album remained unreleased until Soul Drums was reissued on CD in 2009 with the Alexander's Ragtime Band sessions. Other solo albums include Purdie Good, Soul Is... Pretty Purdie and the soundtrack for the blaxploitation film Lialeh. In the mid-1990s he was a member of The 3B's, with Bob Cunningham. Purdie was born on June 1939 in Elkton, Maryland, US, the eleventh of fifteen children. At an early age he began hitting cans with sticks and learned the elements of drumming techniques from overhearing lessons being given by Leonard Heywood, he took lessons from Heywood and played in Heywood's big band. Purdie's other influences at that time were Papa Jo Jones, Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Joe Marshall, Art Blakey, as well as Cozy Cole, Sticks Evans, Panama Francis, Louis Bellson, Herbie Lovelle.
In 1961 he moved from his home town of Maryland, to New York City. There he played sessions with Mickey and Sylvia and visited the Turf Club on 50th and Broadway, where musicians and promoters met and touted for business, it was during this period that he played for the saxophonist Buddy Lucas, who nicknamed him'Mississippi Bigfoot'. Barney Richmond contracted him to play session work. In a 1978 interview, Purdie claimed to have added drum overdubs to "several of the Beatles' Hamburg recording" with Tony Sheridan, including "Ain't She Sweet", "Take Out Some Insurance On Me Baby" and "Sweet Georgia Brown", to give them a punchier sound for the US market. Purdie was contracted by arranger Sammy Lowe to play a session with James Brown in 1965 and recording session records show that Purdie played on "Ain't That A Groove" at the same session. Purdie is credited on the James Brown's albums Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud and Get on the Good Foot. Purdie started working with Aretha Franklin as musical director in 1970 and held that position for five years, as well as drumming for Franklin's opening act, King Curtis and The King Pins.
5–7 March 1971 he performed with both bands at the Fillmore West. His best known track with Franklin was "Rock Steady", on which he played what he described as "a funky and low down beat". Of his time with Franklin he once commented that "backing her was like floating in seventh heaven". Purdie was credited on the soundtrack album for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and more he was the drummer for the 2009 Broadway revival of Hair and appeared on the associated Broadway cast recording. Purdie has been a resident of New Jersey, living in Edison and Springfield Township. In 1973 Purdie founded Encounter Records and released five albums: EN 3000: Seldon Powell – Messin' With EN 3001: Sands of Time – Profile EN 3002: East Coast – East Coast EN 3003: Frank Owens – Brown N Serve EN 3004: Harold Vick as "Sir Edward" – The Power of Feeling Purdie is known as a groove drummer with immaculate timing and makes use of precision half note and grooves. Purdie's signature sixteenth note hi-hat lick pish-ship, pish-ship, pish-ship is distinct.
He employs a straight eight groove sometimes fusing several influences such as swing and funk. He created the now well-known drum pattern Purdie Half-Time Shuffle, a blues shuffle variation with the addition of syncopated ghost notes on the snare drum. Variations on this shuffle can be heard on songs such as Led Zeppelin's "Fool in the Rain", the Police's "Walking on the Moon", Toto's "Rosanna". Purdie plays the shuffle on Steely Dan's "Babylon Sisters" and "Home At Last". Soul Drums Purdie Good! Stand by Me with The Playboys Soul Is... Pretty Purdie Shaft recorded 1971 Lialeh Delights of the Garden with The Last Poets Purdie as a Picture with Galt MacDermot's New Pulse Jazz Band Coolin"N Groovin' Bernard Purdie's Jazz Groove Sessions in Tokyo After Hours with The 3B's Soothin"N Groovin' With The 3B's with Houston Person The Hudson River Rats Fatback! The Jazz Funk Masters Featuring Bernard Purdie Kick'N Jazz Soul to Jazz I with The WDR Big Band Soul to Jazz II with The WDR Big Band In the Pocket Get It While You Can with The Hudson River Rats The Masters of Groove Meet Dr.
No with Reuben Wilson, Grant Green Jr. Tarus Mateen King Of The Beat Purdie Good Cookin' with Purdie's Powerhouse The Godfathers of Groove with Reuben Wilson, Grant Green Jr. Jerry Jemmott The Godfathers of Groove 3 with Reuben Wilson, G