Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert. It has been defined as "the art of directing the simultaneous performance of several players or singers by the use of gesture." The primary duties of the conductor are to interpret the score in a way which reflects the specific indications in that score, set the tempo, ensure correct entries by ensemble members, "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. Conductors communicate with their musicians through hand gestures with the aid of a baton, may use other gestures or signals such as eye contact. A conductor supplements their direction with verbal instructions to their musicians in rehearsal; the conductor stands on a raised podium with a large music stand for the full score, which contains the musical notation for all the instruments or voices. Since the mid-19th century, most conductors have not played an instrument when conducting, although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common.
In Baroque music from the 1600s to the 1750s, the group would be led by the harpsichordist or first violinist, an approach that in modern times has been revived by several music directors for music from this period. Conducting while playing a piano or synthesizer may be done with musical theatre pit orchestras. Communication is non-verbal during a performance. However, in rehearsals, frequent interruptions allow the conductor to give verbal directions as to how the music should be played or sung. Conductors choirs they conduct, they choose the works to be performed and study their scores, to which they may make certain adjustments, work out their interpretation, relay their vision to the performers. They may attend to organizational matters, such as scheduling rehearsals, planning a concert season, hearing auditions and selecting members, promoting their ensemble in the media. Orchestras, concert bands, other sizable musical ensembles such as big bands are led by conductors; the principal conductor of an orchestra or opera company is sometimes referred to as a music director or chief conductor, or by the German words Kapellmeister or Dirigent.
Conductors of choirs or choruses are sometimes referred to as choral director, chorus master, or choirmaster for choirs associated with an orchestra. Conductors of concert bands, military bands, marching bands and other bands may hold the title of band director, bandmaster, or drum major. Respected senior conductors are sometimes referred to by the Italian word, which translates as "master" or "teacher". An early form of conducting is cheironomy; this has been practiced at least as far back as the Middle Ages. In the Christian church, the person giving these symbols held a staff to signify his role, it seems that as music became rhythmically more complex, the staff was moved up and down to indicate the beat, acting as an early form of baton. In the 17th century, other devices to indicate the passing of time came into use. Rolled sheets of paper, smaller sticks and unadorned hands are all shown in pictures from this period; the large staff was responsible for the death of Jean-Baptiste Lully, who injured his foot with one while conducting a Te Deum for the king's recovery from illness.
The wound became gangrenous and Lully refused amputation, whereupon the gangrene spread to his leg and he died two months later. In instrumental music throughout the 18th century, a member of the ensemble acted as the conductor; this was sometimes the concertmaster, who could use his bow as a baton, or a lutenist who would move the neck of his instrument in time with the beat. It was common to conduct from the harpsichord in pieces. In opera performances, there were sometimes two conductors, with the keyboard player in charge of the singers and the principal violinist or leader was in charge of the orchestra. On Fri, 30 Sep 1791 in Vienna, Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte premiered at the Theater auf der Wieden, with Mozart himself conducting the orchestra, according to documents and publicity posters from that time. In 1798, Joseph Haydn conducted the premiere of Creation with his hands and a baton while "Kapellmeister Weigl at the fortepiano." By the early 19th century, it became the norm to have a dedicated conductor, who did not play an instrument during the performance.
While some orchestras protested the introduction of the conductor, since they were used to having a concertmaster or keyboard player act as leader the role of a conductor was established. The size of the usual orchestra expanded during this period, the use of a baton became more common, as it was easier to see than bare hands or rolled-up paper. Among the earliest notable conductors were Louis Spohr, Carl Maria von Weber, Louis-Antoine Jullien and Felix Mendelssohn, all of whom were composers. Mendelssohn is claimed to have been the first conductor to utilize a wooden baton to keep time, a practice still in use in the 2010s. Prominent conductors who did not or do not use a baton include Pierre Boulez, Kurt Masur, James Conlon, Yuri Temirkanov, Leopold Stokowski, Vasily Safonov, Eugene Ormandy, Dimitri Mitropoulos; the composers Hector Berlioz and Richard Wagner attained greatness as conductors, they wrote two of the earliest essays dedicated to the subject. Berlioz is considered the fi
MS European Gateway was a roll-on roll-off car and passenger ferry built in 1975 owned and operated by Townsend Thoresen. On 19 December 1982, she capsized following a collision with Speedlink Vanguard off Harwich, settling on a sandbank, she was subsequently refloated and repaired and served the Greek Islands as Penelope, until 2013 when she was scrapped at the Port of Piraeus. The European Gateway has three sister ships: European Enterprise - Currently serving as Gardenia European Trader - Currently serving as Lina Trader European Clearway - Currently serving as Via Mare MS Herald of Free Enterprise - Another ferry owned by Townsend Thoresen which sank. Harwich Lifeboat Station for description of The European Gateway Disaster
Julius Brink is a beach volleyball player from Germany, who won the gold medal in the men's beach team competition at the 2006 European Beach Volleyball Championships in The Hague, partnering Christoph Dieckmann. He took part at the Olympic Games in 2008. In 2009 he and his current partner Jonas Reckermann won four FIVB competitions and the German Masters of the CEV European Championship Tour; this includes the 2009 FIVB World Championship, held from 26 June to 5 July in Stavanger, beating top seeded Harley/Alison in the final and former FIVB world champions and gold medalist of the 2008 Summer Olympics Rogers/Dalhausser in the semi final. They are the first German and European team to win a world championship title and are ranked 22nd on the FIVB World Tour. On 9 August 2012, Brink and his teammate Jonas Reckermann won the gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics. With this victory Germany become the first European country to win the Beach Volleyball in Olympics. Kjell Schneider Rudiger Strosik Markus Dieckmann Christoph Dieckmann Jonas Reckermann Swatch Julius Brink at the Beach Volleyball Database Entry in the Leverkusen who's who Swatch FIVB World Tour CEV European Championship Tour Homepage of Brink Reckermann