Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
A stable is a building in which livestock horses, are kept. It most means a building, divided into separate stalls for individual animals. There are many different types of stables in use today; the term "stable" is used to describe a group of animals kept by one owner, regardless of housing or location. The exterior design of a stable can vary based on climate, building materials, historical period and cultural styles of architecture. A wide range of building materials can be used, including masonry and steel. Stables range in size, from a small building housing one or two animals to facilities at agricultural shows or race tracks that can house hundreds of animals; the stable is historically the second-oldest building type on the farm. The world’s oldest horse stables were discovered in the ancient city of Pi-Ramesses in Qantir, in Ancient Egypt, were established by Ramesses II; these stables covered 182,986 square feet, had floors sloped for drainage, could contain about 480 horses. Free-standing stables began to be built from the 16th century.
They were well built and placed near the house because these animals were valued and maintained. They were once vital to an indicator of their owners' position in the community. Few examples survive of complete interiors from the mid-19th century or earlier. Traditionally, stables in Great Britain had a hayloft on their first floor and a pitching door at the front. Doors and windows were symmetrically arranged, their interiors were divided into stalls and included a large stall for a foaling mare or sick horse. The floors were featured drainage channels. Outside steps to the first floor were common for farm hands to live in the building. For horses, stables are part of a larger complex which includes trainers and farriers. "Stable" is used metaphorically to refer to a group of people – sportspeople – trained, supervised or managed by the same person or organisation. For example, art galleries refer to the artists they represent as their stable of artists; the headquarters of a unit of cavalry, not their horses' accommodation, would be known as "a stable".
Media related to stables at Wikimedia Commons. Horse care: Barns and stables Glossary of equestrian terms Livery stable Nativity of Jesus Pen
Chinese Pavilion at Drottningholm
The Chinese Pavilion, located in the grounds of the Drottningholm Palace park, is a Chinese-inspired royal pavilion built between 1753–1769. The pavilion is one of Sweden's Royal Palaces and a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the first building was a simple pavilion with two wings in Chinese style. The buildings were prefabricated at Arsenalsgatan in Stockholm, they were shipped to Drottningholm where they were assembled. The architects were Carl Hårleman and Carl Johan Cronstedt. Everything was finished and in place in time for Queen Lovisa Ulrika's birthday on 24 July 1753; the pavilion was a surprise gift to the Queen from King Adolf Frederick. At the presentation, she received the gold key to the castle from the young Crown Prince Gustav, seven years old, dressed as a Chinese mandarin. In a letter to her mother, Queen Sophia Dorothea of Prussia, the Queen wrote: Having been built in haste and secrecy, the small castle did not endure the harsh Swedish climate. After ten years, rot had begun to attack the wooden frame and the king and queen commissioned Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz to create a new and bigger pavilion made from more durable materials.
The second and current structure replaced the old wooden pavilion from 1753. Designed by Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz, construction began in 1763 and was completed in 1769; the royal court’s chief supervisor, Jean Eric Rehn, led the interior design work. The architecture is rococo and was intended to have an exotic character, containing Chinese elements, which were considered the height of fashion at the time; the rooms of the Pavilion are full of luxury items brought to Sweden from China by the Swedish East India Company: porcelain, lacquers, etc. China had become a mythic land, a paradise, a fascination, to Swedes and every nobleman wanted to have a Chinese room or just some objects to get a glimpse of this fabled, but to Europeans, forbidden land; the walls in the Yellow Room are covered with Chinese lacquered panels, at the time a fascinating technique since no parallel craft existed in Europe. The panels depict relations between Europe in the 1700s; the motifs are scenes from Canton by the Pearl River and the European Thirteen Factories separated from the city by double walls.
The wings are connected to the main building by a series of curved rooms. Lacquer-red walls used for the facade and the sculptural ornamentation show good knowledge of Chinese buildings, but the structure of the building is characterized as European; the interior is among the foremost in Swedish rococo design. There are four houses in Chinese style, just north of the pavilion; the east one, northeast of the pavilion, is called The Billiard. It used to house a billiard table, now gone. Instead, two of King Adolf Fredericks lathes are on display together with tools from the lathe chamber; the house to the west, northwest of the pavilion, is known as The Silver Chamber. A bit further north, resting on a high base, is the Confidance; the Confidance is a dining room building. The tables were set on the floor below the royal dining room and on a given signal they were hoisted up through the floor; this meant that the royals could eat their dinner en confidance. North of The Confidance is the old kitchen.
As of 1957 it houses a café in the summers. In the park east of the Chinese Pavilion is a pagoda-like gazebo called The Volière; the Pavilion underwent exterior renovations in 1927–1928, 1943–1955 and an interior in 1959–1968. Another thorough restoration of the exterior was made in 1989–1996. During the reign of King Gustav III, plans were made for a Chinese pagoda on the Flora Hill just east of the Chinese Pavilion; the project, as with most of King's ideas for buildings within the English garden, were never realized because of the assassination of the King. All the elements necessary for a royal English style pleasure garden were present in 1781, when Fredrik Magnus Piper drew up the plans for the park; these included streams, knolls, sloping lawns and several small pavilions and gazebos in different styles. In Piper's 1797 land use plan, one extension to the north was to contain a cave with canals and cascades, a small lake with bridges and walking paths, a Turkish pavilion. To the east of the Chinese Pavilion at Flora Hill a Chinese pagoda would act as a connecting pont de vue between the Chinese quarter and the English Garden across Tessin's strict baroque garden.
On 6 August 2010, at 2:00 am, burglars broke into the Chinese Pavilion via the double doors at the back of the house. Once inside, they stole a number of objects; the alarm system worked. The collection at the Chinese Pavilion consists of, among other things, Chinese clay figurines, porcelain dolls, lacquer furniture and other art pieces from China dating to 1753; the Royal Court have confirmed that the permanent state collection was on display at the time of the break-in. The pieces are considered priceless; the thieves fled from the pavilion on a moped, found by the Mälaren lake. The police suspected that the thieves left by boat and that the robbery had been specially commissioned, it was the first time. The stolen objects were: a small Japanese lacquered box on a stand, a sculpture in green soapstone, a red lacquered chalice with a lid, a chalice carved from a rhinoceros horn, a small blackened, bronze teapot and a plate made of musk wo
A tavern is a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and be served food, in most cases, where travelers receive lodging. An inn is a tavern; the word derives from the Latin taberna whose original meaning was a shed, stall, or pub. Over time, the words "tavern" and "inn" became synonymous. In England, inns started to be referred to as public houses or pubs and the term became standard for all drinking houses. "Wowser" was a negative term for Christian moralists in Australia activists in temperance groups such as the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Historian Stuart Macintyre argues, "the achievements of the wowsers were impressive." They passed laws that restricted obscenity and juvenile smoking, raised the age of consent, limited gambling, closed down many pubs, in 1915–16 established a 6pm closing hour for pubs, which lasted for decades. From at least the fourteenth century, along with inns and cabarets, were the main places to dine out. A tavern offered various roast meats, as well as simple foods like bread, cheese and bacon.
Some offered a richer variety of foods, though it would be cabarets and traiteurs who offered the finest meals before the restaurant appeared in the eighteenth century. Their stated purpose however was to serve wine and they were disreputable enough that women of any standing avoided them. After 1500, taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverages grew more burdensome, not only because of the continual increase in the level of taxation, but because of the bewildering variety and multiplicity of the taxes; this chaotic system was enforced by an army of tax collectors. The resultant opposition took many forms. Wine growers and tavern keepers concealed wine and falsified their methods of selling it to take advantage of lower tax rates; the retailers engaged in clandestine refilling of casks from hidden stocks. Wine merchants stealthily circumvented inspection stations to avoid local import duties; when apprehended, some defrauders reacted with passive resignation, while others resorted to violence. Situated at the heart of the country town or village, the tavern was one of the traditional centers of social and political life before 1789, a meeting place for both the local population and travelers passing through and a refuge for rogues and scoundrels.
Taverns symbolized opposition to religion. Taverns sometimes served as restaurants. In 1765, in Paris was founded the first restaurant in the modern sense of the term. However, the first Parisian restaurant worthy of the name was the one founded by Beauvilliers in 1782 in the Rue de Richelieu, called the Grande Taverne de Londres. Émile Zola's novel L'Assommoir depicted the social conditions typical of alcoholism in Paris among the working classes. The drunk destroyed not only his own body, but his employment, his family, other interpersonal relationships; the characters Gervaise Macquart and her husband Coupeau exemplified with great realism the physical and moral degradation of alcoholics. Zola's correspondence with physicians reveal he used authentic medical sources for his realistic depictions in the novel. A common German name for German taverns or pubs is Kneipe. Drinking practices in 16th-century Augsburg, suggest that the use of alcohol in early modern Germany followed structured cultural norms.
Drinking was not a sign of disorder. It helped define and enhance men's social status and was therefore tolerated among men as long as they lived up to both the rules and norms of tavern society and the demands of their role as householder. Tavern doors were closed to respectable women unaccompanied by their husbands, society condemned drunkenness among women, but when alcohol abuse interfered with the household, women could deploy public power to impose limits on men's drinking behavior. Taverns were popular places used for business as well as for eating and drinking – the London Tavern was a notable meeting place in the 18th and 19th centuries, for example. However, the word tavern is no longer in popular use in the UK as there is no distinction between a tavern and an inn. Both establishments serve beer/ale; the term'pub' is now used to describe these houses. The legacy of taverns and inns is now only found in the pub names, e.g. Fitzroy Tavern, Silver Cross Tavern, Spaniards Inn, etc; the word survives in songs such as "There is a Tavern in the Town".
The range and quality of pubs varies wildly throughout the UK as does the range of beers, wines and foods available. Most quality pubs will still serve food. In recent years there has been a move towards "gastro" pubs. Taverns served as rest stops about every fifteen miles and their main focus was to provide shelter to anyone, traveling; such taverns would be divided into two major parts -- the bar. There is a sign with some type of symbol related to the name of the premises, to draw in customers; the purpose of this is to indicate that the establishment sells alcohol and to set it apart from the competition. Reformers who denounced the terrible effects of heavy consumption of alcohol on public disorder and quality of work, made periodic attempts to control it in Mexico City in the late 18th century and early 19th century; the poor frequented the pulquerías. After the legalization of the more potent aguardiente in 1796, the poor could afford the viñaterías where hard liquor was serv
Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden
Adolf Frederick or Adolph Frederick was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach; the first king from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolf Frederick was a weak monarch, instated as first in line of the throne following the parliamentary government's failure to reconquer the Baltic provinces in 1741–43. Aside from a few attempts, supported by pro-absolutist factions among the nobility, to reclaim the absolute monarchy held by previous monarchs, he remained a mere constitutional figurehead until his death, his reign saw an extended period of internal peace, although the finances stagnated following failed mercantilist doctrines pursued by the Hat administration. The Hat administration ended only in the 1765–66 parliament, where the Cap opposition overtook the government and enacted reforms towards greater economic liberalism as well as a Freedom of Press Act unique at the time for its curtailing of all censorship, retaining punitive measures only for libeling the monarch or the Church of Sweden.
His father was Christian Augustus duke and a younger prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, prince-bishop of Lübeck, administrator, during the Great Northern War, of the duchies of Holstein-Gottorp for his relative Charles Frederick. His mother Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach was a descendant of earlier royal dynasties of Sweden, granddaughter of Princess Catherine of Sweden, eldest sister of King Charles X of Sweden. On his mother's side, Adolf Frederick descended from King Gustav Vasa and from Christina Magdalena, a sister of Charles X of Sweden. From both his parents he was descended from Holstein-Gottorp, a house with a number of medieval Scandinavian royal dynasties among its ancestors. Adolf Frederick was a 13th-generation descendant of King Erik V of Denmark. From 1727 to 1750 prince Adolf Frederick was prince-bishop of Lübeck, which meant the rulership of a fief around and including Eutin. After his first cousin Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp died in 1739, Adolf Frederick became administrator of Holstein-Kiel during the minority of the duke's orphan son known as Charles Peter Ulrich.
Shortly afterwards, the young boy was invited to Russia by his maternal aunt, Empress Elizabeth, who soon declared him her heir. In 1743, Adolf Frederick was elected heir to the throne of Sweden by the Hat faction in order that they might obtain better conditions at the Treaty of Abo from Empress Elizabeth of Russia, who had adopted his nephew as her heir, he succeeded as King Adolf Frederick twelve years on 25 March 1751. During his twenty-year reign, Adolf Frederick was little more than a figurehead, the real power being lodged in the hands of the Riksdag of the Estates distracted by party strife. Twice he endeavoured to free himself from the tutelage of the estates; the first occasion was in 1756 when, stimulated by his imperious consort Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, he tried to regain a portion of the attenuated prerogative through the Coup of 1756 to abolish the rule of the Riksdag of the Estates and reinstate absolute monarchy in Sweden. He nearly lost his throne in consequence. On the second occasion during the December Crisis, under the guidance of his eldest son, the crown prince Gustav, afterwards Gustav III of Sweden, he succeeded in overthrowing the "Cap" senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.
Adolf Frederick died in Stockholm on 12 February 1771 after having consumed a meal consisting of lobster, sauerkraut and champagne, topped off with 14 servings of his favourite dessert: hetvägg made of semla and served in a bowl of hot milk. The king was regarded, both during his time and in times, as dependent on others, a weak ruler and lacking of any talents, but he was also a good husband, a caring father, a gentle master to his servants. His favourite pastime was to make snuffboxes, which he spent a great deal of time doing, his personal hospitality and friendliness were witnessed by many who mourned him at his death. Following his death, his son Gustav III seized power in 1772 in a military coup d'état, reinstating absolute rule. By his marriage to Princess Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, he had the following children: Gustav III Charles XIII Frederick Adolf Sofia Albertina With Marguerite Morel he had one son who died as a child: Frederici Adolf Frederick may have been the father of Lolotte Forssberg by Ulla von Liewen, but this has however never been confirmed
Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson
Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, is the youngest of four older sisters of King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, she uses the name Christina Magnuson. Christina was born at Haga Palace outside Stockholm as the fourth child of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, she is the granddaughter of King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden. She was Chairman of the Swedish Red Cross for nine years, she met her future husband, Tord Magnuson, at a lunch in Stockholm in 1961. Her engagement to Magnuson was announced on 1 February 1974; the couple married on 15 June 1974 in the Palace Church of the Royal Palace of Stockholm. Because of her morganatic marriage, she lost her style of Royal Highness and from the king received the courtesy title of Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnuson, a policy begun by the previous king when her older sisters Margaretha and Désirée were married before her. Under the Swedish constitution at that time, they, as women, her descendants were not eligible to inherit the throne.
The couple have three sons: an economist. In October 2016, it was announced, it was made known that she had been cured following stem cell treatment. 3 August 1943 – 15 June 1974 Her Royal Highness Princess Christina of Sweden. 15 June 1974 – present Princess Christina, Mrs Magnuson Sweden: Member Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Seraphim Sweden: Member of the Royal Family Decoration of King Gustaf VI Adolf, 1st Class Sweden: Member of the Royal Family Decoration of King Carl XVI Gustaf, 1st Class Sweden: Recipient of the Prince Carl Medal Sweden: Recipient of the 90th Birthday Medal of King Gustav V Sweden: Recipient of the Commemorative Medal of King Gustav V Sweden: Recipient of the 85th Birthday Badge Medal of King Gustaf VI Adolf Sweden: Recipient of the 50th Birthday Badge Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Sweden: Recipient of the Wedding Medal of Crown Princess Victoria to Daniel Westling Sweden: Recipient of the Ruby Jubilee Badge Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Sweden: Recipient of the 70th Birthday Badge Medal of King Carl XVI Gustaf Argentina: Grand Cross of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant France: Commander of the Order of the Legion of Honour Germany: Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Iceland: Grand Cross of the Order of the Falcon Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Japan: Paulownia Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown Norway: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Olav Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Christ Sweden: Member Grand Cross of the Social Grand Order of the Amaranth Sweden: Member Grand Cross of the Social Order of Innocence International Red Cross and Red Crescent: Recipient of the Henry Dunant Medal
Royal National City Park
The Royal National City Park is a national city park, established by the Riksdag in 1995, located in the municipalities of Stockholm and Lidingö in Sweden. 1/ km²2/ Population per km² Some places in the Royal National City Park: Green belt Official website Online leaflet about the park