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A confraternity is a Christian voluntary association of lay people created for the purpose of promoting special works of Christian charity or piety, approved by the Church hierarchy. They are most common among Roman Catholics, Anglicans and the Western Orthodox; when a confraternity has received the authority to aggregate to itself groups erected in other localities, it is called an archconfraternity. An example is the Confraternity of the Rosary. Pious associations of laymen existed in ancient times at Constantinople and Alexandria. In France, in the eighth and ninth centuries, the laws of the Carlovingians mention confraternities and guilds, but the first confraternity in the modern and proper sense of the word is said to have been founded at Paris by Bishop Odo. It was under the invocation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Confraternities had their beginnings in the early Middle Ages, developed from the end of the twelfth century; the main object and duty of these societies were, above all, the practice of piety and works of charity.

Some confraternities were widely spread in the cities of the Middle Ages. Confraternities could be important and wealthy institutions for the elite, as in for example, the Scuole Grandi of Venice; the Purgatorial societies and orders of flagellants were other specialized medieval types. The medieval French term puy designated a confraternity dedicated to artistic performance in music and poetry. Various other congregations such as of the Holy Trinity, of the Scapular, etc. were founded between the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. From the latter century onwards, these pious associations have multiplied greatly; the Archconfraternity of the Gonfalone was headquartered in the Church of Santa Lucia del Gonfalone. Because of their white hooded robes, they were identified as the "White Penitents", they were established in 1264 at Rome. St. Bonaventure, at that time Inquisitor-general of the Holy Office, prescribed the rules, the white habit, with the name Recommendati B. V; each Confraternity organization has a set of rules or by-laws to follow which every member promises to live by.

Though the Catholic Church works in harmony with the confraternity, these rules are not religious vows, instead rules set up to govern the confraternal organization. Some confraternities allow only men; the religiosity of the members and their desire for a personal reward in the afterlife were reflected in confraternity activities, such as assisting with burials by donating burial robes or monetary payment, attending the burial mass, volunteering in the local hospitals, organization of and participation in religious fiesta days, giving dowries for local orphans and preparing bread used for local religious holidays, escorting the condemned during the inquisition, burying the dead during epidemics and other charitable acts as deemed appropriate by the confraternity members or parish priest. Society could not function through government programs because there was a need to take care of matters such as burials, provide for the poor and indigent. While government can and did maintain programs to handle these needs, they were better managed by lay organizations or the "neighbor helping neighbor" theory.

The term may have other meanings: The Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception is a renowned lay Marian apostolate in the Philippines known for administering the Grand Marian Procession parade on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception. The Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament is an example of an Anglo-Catholic confraternity established in the Church of England which has spread to many places within the Anglican Communion of churches. Members of The Augustana Confraternity, in the Lutheran tradition, "devote themselves to the teachings of Holy Scripture and to the elucidation of those teachings in the Confessional writings of the Lutheran Church the Small Catechism."Confraternities in Nigeria began as a term for fraternities in the American college sense, university-based social organisations. Orthodox Christian Laity Brotherhoods Confraternities of the Cord

Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica

Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica is a Roman Catholic basilica on the west side of Chicago, which houses the National Shrine of Saint Peregrine, a national shrine. Located at 3121 West Jackson Boulevard, within the Archdiocese of Chicago, it is, along with St. Hyacinth and Queen of All Saints, one of only three churches in Illinois designated by the Pope with the title of basilica. Founded in 1874, it has been administered by the Servite fathers for its entire history. Ground was broken for the current building on June 17, 1890 and the church was dedicated on January 5, 1902; the Parish served an Italian congregation for many years. The sorrowful mother novena was a major devotion at the parish during the first half of the 20th century, drawing worshippers from across the country and reaching many more listeners by radio; the church houses the National Shrine of St. Peregrine, the patron of those suffering from cancer. In the 1960s and 1970s the parish became predominantly African-American; the Basilica was used for a brief scene in the 1987 film The Untouchables in which Sean Connery's character explains "The Chicago Way" to Kevin Costner's character.

The church was designed in an Italian Renaissance Revival architectural style by Henry Engelbert, John F. Pope, William J. Brinkmann, it features a barrel-vaulted ceiling that wraps around a high altar made of Carrara marble. It was declared a basilica by the Vatican in 1956. Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica is featured in a number of books on Chicago architecture, most notably "The AIA Guide to Chicago" by Alice Sinkevitch. Our Lady of Sorrows Basilica is in a number of books devoted to church architecture, among them "Chicago Churches: A Photographic Essay" by Elizabeth Johnson, "Heavenly City: The Architectural Tradition of Catholic Chicago" by Denis R. McNamara, "The Archdiocese of Chicago: A Journey of Faith" by Edward R. Kantowicz, "Chicago Churches and Synagogues: An Architectural Pilgrimage" by George A. Lane, as well as "The Spiritual Traveler: Chicago and Illinois: A Guide to Sacred Sites and Peaceful Places" by Marylin Chiat. Our Lady of Sorrows Official website Traditional Latin Catholic Mass: Easter Sunday in 1941 on YouTube

Dirty Sole

Dirty Sole is an indie electronic dance music group, consisting of Daniel Anderegg and Richie Heller. The moniker was created by Richie, who wanted to make house music that soulful; the group is based out of Chicago where they met, in 2001. They wrote several projects together before being noticed by Derrick Carter and Luke Solomon who signed them to their Classic Music Company record label; this release was acclaimed and topped UK Muzik dance charts at number five alongside Basement Jaxx and Roni Size. Dirty Sole had an experienced past before joining forces in 2001. Both artists came from a strong musical background, as Daniel was a keyboardist and drummer while Richie played the guitar and bass. Prior to their introduction, Daniel was working as a club DJ while Richie worked at Strictly Hype Recordings, the parent company for over a dozen recording labels, including Underground Construction and Afterhours. After their initial success of Skattered Jazz, the duo recorded commercial work for Nike,_Inc. and Toyota Motor Corporation in a commercial starring Brad Pitt and followed up with singles on Yousef's Carioca imprint and Phil Weeks' Robsoul Recordings.

During this time, Daniel recorded under the guise of No Assembly Firm with acclaimed Chicago DJ Justin Long. In 2009, Dirty Sole returned to the studio to collaborate with Foremost Poets to write their first full-length album; the album was sold to Four Play Music, under the parent company EsNtion Records, who soon went into bankruptcy following the deal. This bankruptcy caused the album to get permanently shelved, until several singles saw new life in 2018 on Four Play Music. After a seven year hiatus, the group returned to the studio in 2016 to release a new album, entitled FWD Motion; this album features collaborations with Lyrics Born, Jon Von Letcher, Foremost Poets, Adam Pickrell and remixes from DFA Records artist James Curd and Hannsen. The album was featured on a variety of digital outlets, including Hype Machine, Northern Transmissions, Enter The Venture, High Clouds, Noise Porn, The Deli Magazine. In additional review, Eat Sleep Breathe Music wrote that Dirty Sole "will vibe with listeners as soon as the first notes hit their ears".

Following their FWD Motion album, the group has released a series of singles on Four Play Music and their own Dirty Sole Music imprint, in addition to placements with various commercial sync licensing outlets. What's Going On Without You She Saved My Life It's Your Life Blu Eyed Soul Away FWD Motion Owning It Driving Lady Dangerous Radio Back In The Day Humboldt Park EP Cold Time Jazz Skattered Jazz Dirty Sole - Official Website Dirty Sole - YouTube Page

Hello Pig

Hello Pig is the sixth studio album by the Levellers, released in 2000 on China Records. The album was the first by the band to feature Matt Savage. "Happy Birthday Revolution" "Invisible" "The Weed That Killed Elvis" "Edge of the World" "Do It Again Tomorrow" "Walk Lightly" "Voices on the Wind" "Sold England" "Modern Day Tragedy" "Dreams" "61 Minutes of Pleading" "Red Sun Burns" "Gold and Silver"The song "61 Minutes of Pleading" is based on the death of Loraine Whiting, who bled to death over the course of an hour while on the phone to a 999 police call handler after being shot by her husband, who had shot himself dead and lay next to her. Emergency services personnel outside the property considered it too dangerous to enter, following a recent similar incident in which a gunman had forced his injured hostage to claim he was dead in order to lure emergency crews in, before shooting dead two ambulance crew members and a police officer. Levellers Mark Chadwick - guitars, vocals Charlie Heather - drums/percussion Jeremy Cunningham - bass guitar, artwork Simon Friend - guitars, mandolin Jonathan Sevink - fiddle Matt Savage - keyboard

Jean Richer

Jean Richer was a French astronomer and assistant at The French Academy of Sciences, under the direction of Giovanni Domenico Cassini. Between 1671 and 1673 he performed experiments and carried out celestial observations in Cayenne, French Guiana, at the request of the French Academy, his observations and measurements of Mars during its perihelic opposition, coupled with those made in Paris by Cassini, led to the earliest data-based estimate of the distance between Earth and Mars, which they used to calculate the distance between the Sun and Earth. While there he measured the length of a seconds pendulum, a pendulum with a half-swing of one second, found it to be 1.25 lignes shorter than at Paris. Isaac Newton commented that if, as he had proposed, the force of gravity decreases with the inverse square of the distance between objects, the obvious conclusion to be drawn from Richer's work is that near-equatorial Cayenne is further from the center of the earth than Paris, where the first such measurements had been taken.

Thus the earth could not be spherical, as had earlier been presumed, but rather bulges at and near the equator. It could be said that Richer was the first person to observe a change in gravitational force over the surface of the earth, beginning the science of gravimetry. Richer's 1673 return to Paris was duly celebrated, when his data were reduced, the findings for which we remember him could be made public. However, publication was delayed, for unknown causes, until 1679, when a work entitled Observations Astronomiques et Physiques Faites en L'Isle de Caïenne par M. Richer, de l'Academie Royale des Sciences. Was released under Richer's name. Not long thereafter, he was assigned to an engineering project in Germany; the remainder of his life is undocumented. Most biographers believe that he died at Paris in 1696. Note: this does not agree with the difference of 2.5 minutes observed as quoted on the pendulum page... This number gives a time difference of 8.1 minutes Seconds pendulum

Lucas (film)

Lucas is a 1986 American romantic comedy-drama film written and directed by David Seltzer and starring Corey Haim, Kerri Green, Charlie Sheen, Courtney Thorne-Smith. Smith and Winona Ryder made their theatrical debut in Lucas. Lucas Blye is an nerdy 14-year-old high school student, he becomes acquainted with an attractive older girl who has just moved to town. After meeting Lucas on one of his entomological quests, Maggie befriends him, spending time with him during the remainder of the summer until school begins Lucas, who finds himself a frequent victim of bullying and teasing, has a protector of sorts, Cappie Roew, an older student and football player. Cappie was once one of Lucas' tormentors, until Cappie contracted hepatitis and Lucas, for reasons no one knew, brought him his homework every day, ensuring that Cappie didn't fail and have to repeat a year of school. Though Lucas deems it beneath her, Maggie becomes a cheerleader for the football team in order to get closer to Cappie, on whom she has a growing crush.

Angered and offended by Maggie's continuing to ignore him, Lucas begins to chastise Maggie, continuing to castigate her cheerleading as "superficial" and making the incorrect assumption that she will be his date to an upcoming school dance. Maggie complains to Lucas. On the night of the dance, Cappie is dumped by his girlfriend Alise over his attraction to Maggie, which she has been noticing. A depressed Cappie finds comfort with Maggie at her house—much to the chagrin of Lucas, who has arrived, in tuxedo, to pick her up for the dance. Though Cappie and Maggie invite him out for pizza, he rebukes them and rides off on his bike. Rina, one of Lucas' friends, encounters Lucas as he sits alone, watching the dance from across a lake. It's obvious Rina has feelings for Lucas, she consoles him as he frets about Maggie and him being "from two different worlds." Meanwhile and Maggie are out on their pizza date. In a last-ditch attempt to impress Maggie and win her back and gain the respect he so craves, the diminutive Lucas joins the football team.

In the shower after practice, Lucas endures yet another prank from his constant tormentors Bruno and Spike. At the end of the day, Lucas flees in embarrassment to his favorite hiding place and Maggie chases him to talk with him. After Maggie tells him that she wants him to be her friend, Lucas tries to kiss her. Maggie recoils, a heartbroken Lucas screams at her to leave; the next day at the football game, Lucas removes his helmet during a play and is injured after being tackled and is rushed to the hospital. Maggie and Rina attempt to contact Lucas' parents, though Maggie discovers that she does not know Lucas as well as she thought she did. Correcting Maggie's misguided impression that Lucas lives in the large luxurious house where she has seen him several times, Rina shows them that Lucas lives in a dilapidated trailer in a junkyard with his alcoholic father and only works as a gardener at the large house. Meanwhile, Lucas' schoolmates hold vigil for him in the hospital. Maggie visits Lucas' room that evening and sternly tells him never to play football again.

Lucas promises, the two reconcile, picking up their friendship where they left off. Lucas and Maggie speculate as to. Lucas returns to school a short time after his recovery, with schoolmates all casting surprised looks at him as he walks through the hall. Upon reaching his locker, he finds Bruno and Spike there waiting for him, but he tries to ignore them as he opens his locker. Inside is a varsity letter jacket, with Lucas's number on the back; as Lucas takes it out in shock, Bruno starts the "slow clap," and the entire hallway starts applauding. Maggie, Cappie and Rina are there as well, leading the applause as Lucas raises his arms triumphantly and smiles. Reviews for Lucas were positive. Based on 20 reviews collected by the film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 70% of critics gave Lucas a positive review and the film has an average score of 6.6/10. On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 75 out of 100 based on 11 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". Roger Ebert gave the film 4 out of 4 stars, calling it a film "about teenagers who are looking how to be good with each other, to care, not to be filled with egotism and selfishness, all most Hollywood movies think teenagers can experience".

Ebert included the film in his top 10 films of 1986. The film was not considered a box office success. Both Corey Haim and Kerri Green were nominated for a Young Artist Award in 1987; the film ranked number 16 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies. In his 2013 book Coreyography, Corey Feldman said that Corey Haim was subjected to sexual abuse during the filming of Lucas. Feldman said that an adult male on the set convinced Haim it was "normal for older men and younger boys in the business to have sexual relations"; the man walked off with Haim to between two trailers on the set. Feldman says the man is one of the most successful people in the industry. Lucas on IMDb Lucas at AllMovie Lucas at Rotten Tomatoes