The conga known as tumbadora, is a tall, single-headed drum from Cuba. Congas are staved like barrels and classified into three types: quinto, tres dos or tres golpes, tumba or salidor. Congas were used in Afro-Cuban music genres such as conga and rumba, where each drummer would play a single drum. Following numerous innovations in conga drumming and construction during the mid-20th century, as well as its internationalization, it became common for drummers to play two or three drums. Congas have become a popular instrument in many forms of Latin music such as son, Afro-Cuban jazz, songo and Latin rock. Although the exact origins of the conga drum are unknown, researchers agree that it was developed by Cuban people of African descent during the late 19th century or early 20th century, its direct ancestors are thought to be the bembé drums. In Cuba and Latin America, congas are played as hand drums. In Trinidadian calypso and soca, congas are sometimes struck with mallets, while in the Congos, they are struck with one hand and one mallet.
Most modern congas have a staved wooden or fiberglass shell, a screw-tensioned drumhead. They are played in sets of two to four with the fingers and palms of the hand. Typical congas stand 75 centimetres from the bottom of the shell to the head; the drums may be played. Alternatively, the drums may be mounted on a rack or stand to permit the player to play while standing. While they originated in Cuba, their incorporation into the popular and folk music of other countries has resulted in diversification of terminology for the instruments and the players. In Cuba, congas are called tumbadoras. Conga players are called congueros, while rumberos refers to those who dance following the path of the players; the term "conga" was popularized in the 1930s. Cuban son and New York jazz fused together to create what was termed mambo, but became known as salsa. In that same period, the popularity of the Conga Line helped to spread this new term. Desi Arnaz played a role in the popularization of conga drums. However, the drum he played was similar to the type of drum known as bokú used in his hometown, Santiago de Cuba.
The word conga came from the rhythm la conga used during carnaval in Cuba. The drums used in carnaval could have been referred to as tambores de conga since they played the rhythm la conga, thus translated into English as conga drums. There are five basic strokes: Open tone is played with the four fingers near the rim of the head, producing a clear resonant tone with a distinct pitch. Muffled or mute tone: like the open tone, is made by striking the drum with the four fingers, but holding the fingers against the head to muffle the tone. Bass tone: played with the full palm on the head, it produces a low muted sound. Slap tone: the most difficult technique producing a loud clear "popping" sound. Touch tone: as implied by the name, this tone is produced by just touching the fingers or heel of the palm to the drum head, it is possible to alternate a touch of the palm with a touch of the fingers in a maneuver called heel-toe, which can be used to produce the conga equivalent of drumrolls. The moose call or glissando is done by rubbing the third finger, supported by the thumb, across the head of the drum.
The finger is sometimes moistened with saliva or sweat, sometimes a little coat of beeswax is put on the surface of the conga head to help make the sound. The moose call is done on the bongos. To bend the pitch of the congas, a conguero sometimes uses his elbow to shift around on and apply pressure to different parts of the head; this is not a traditional stroke. Guaguancó uses three congas; the smallest conga is the lead drum known as quinto. The following nine-measure quinto excerpt is from the guaguancó “La polémica” by Los Muñequitos de Matanzas; this passage moves between the main modes of playing. The A section is the basic ride, as it is known in North America, it spans one clave. An alternate phrase is one measure in length. Cross-beats, the basis of the third section, contradict the meter. By alternating between the lock and the cross, the quinto creates larger rhythmic phrases that expand and contract over several clave cycles; the great Los Muñequintos quintero Jesús Alfonso described this phenomenon as a man getting “drunk at a party, going outside for a while, coming back inside.”
The basic son montuno conga pattern is called tumbao. The conga was first used in bands during the late 1930s, became a staple of mambo bands of the 1940s; the primary strokes are sounded on the last offbeats of a two-beat cycle. The fundamental accent—2& is referred to by some musicians as ponche; the basic tumbao sounds open tones on the "and" offbeats. There are many variations on the basic tumbao. For example, a common variant sounds a single open tone with the third stroke of clave, two tones preceding the three-side of clave; the specific alignment between clave and this tumbao is critical. Another common variant sounds bombo on the tumba. For example: The conga marcha can be heard on countless record
Clube União Micaelense, is a Portuguese football club based in Ponta Delgada, Azores on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. CU Micaelense plays in the AF Ponta Delgada 1ª Divisão, the fifth tier of Portuguese football; the club was founded in 1911 and they play their home matches at the Campo Municipal Jâcome Correia in Ponta Delgada. The stadium is able to accommodate 1,500 spectators; the club is affiliated to Associação de Futebol de Ponta Delgada and has competed in the AF Ponta Delgada Taça. The club has entered the national cup competition known as Taça de Portugal on many occasions. Clube União Micaelense was founded in late 1911 but it has links to the Sociedade Promotora da Agricultura Micaelense and Sociedade dos Amigos das Letras e Artes, founded on 9 September 1848 by António Feliciano de Castilho; the new Clube União Micaelense specialised in a number of sports including football and made use of a field at Mercado Agrícola in São Gonçalo. The club won the Campeonato de Ponta Delgada in 1928-29, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1955–56, 1958–59, 1959–69, 1960–61, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1966–67 and 1967–68 but first came to national prominence in 1961-62 when they proceeded to the quarter-finals of the Taça de Portugal before going out 2-1 and 8-1 over two legs to Vitoria Guimaraes.
To get to this stage Micaelense won a qualifying tournament at the expense of Angústias Atlético of Horta, SC Lusitânia and CS Marítimo of Madeira. The results of the qualifying tournament were: 18 March 1962: Clube União Micaelense 4 Angústias Atlético Clube 1 20 March 1962: Clube União Micaelense 2 Sport Clube Lusitânia 2 Açores – Madeira Elimination Final6 April 1962: Clube União Micaelense 2 Clube Sport Marítimo 0 8 April 1962: Clube União Micaelense 1 Clube Sport Marítimo 2 The attendances at these matches and the trip to play Vitoria Guimaraes on the mainland represented a huge event at that time. Micaelense were represented by João Maciel, Tibério A. M. Ribeiro, João M. R. Carroça, José T. Amorim, João M. Arruda, Rui S. Martins, Fernando C. Raposo, Miguel C. Dias, Manuel V. Félix, José da Silva, D. A. Santos Pereira, Manuel Luís da M. J. Costa, Octávio M. F. Pacheco and Eugénio R. Oliveira and the head coach was Henrique Ben David. Micaelense have never been able to match their quarter-final appearance in the 1961-62 Taça de Portugal but in 2002-03 did reach the fifth round of the competition following victories against Casa Pia, Esposende, Sp.
Pombal before bowing out 4-1 away to Académica. In terms of league success Micaelense first gained promotion to the Terceira Divisão at the end of the 1993-94 season. In their first season in Série E of the Terceira Divisão the club finished in 15th place and should have been relegated. However, they were offered a reprieve with the formation of the Terceira Divisão Série Açores; the club had a successful period in this new competition, which culminated in them winning the championship in the 1999–2000 season. In 2000–01 Micaelense played in Segunda Divisão Série Sul for the first time but were relegated at the end of the season, they returned a year and played third tier football for the next 4 seasons, the most successful being in 2003–04 when the club finished in third position. Relegation arose at the end of the 2005–06 followed by six seasons back in the Terceira Divisão Série Açores, during which there has been a gradual decline in the club’s fortunes; the descent culminated in a further relegation at the end of the 2011–12 season and they are now back in the Campeonato de Ponta Delgada where they played up until 1993-94.
The most famous player to have appeared for the club is former star of Paris Saint-Germain. However, he left the islands at the age of 16, only learned his basic skills at U. Micaelense; the club's derby rival for a number of years were CD Operário from the neighbouring town of Lagoa. The team from FC Madalena, the capital Pico Island, has been considered a part of local rivalry; the club played at Campo da Grotinha. Portuguese Third Division: 1999/00 Hugo Nunes Coelho Pauleta Nuno Sociedade Tininho Quim Official website
Windhoek International School is an independent, co-educational, international school located in Windhoek, Namibia. The school provides education from Early Years 1 through to Grade 12, it offers the IB Primary Years Programme and IB Diploma Programme as well as the International General Certificate of Secondary Education. As an IB World School it is the only school in Namibia to offer International Baccalaureate programmes and is the one of the first schools worldwide to be authorised to offer these programmes; the school boasts an international community of students from 45 different countries. Unlike other schools in Namibia, the International School's school year runs from mid-August to mid-June; the Windhoek International School was founded by the Nielsen family in 1990, the same year Namibia achieved independence. The family were working for the United Nations in Windhoek and wanted to establish a school whose ethos was openness, free expression, democratic values and international understanding.
At its inception the school had shared campuses with other schools. The School moved into purpose-built facilities in 1994; the Windhoek International School campus is exceptionally large compared to other schools in Windhoek. The unique shape and layout of the structures were designed to resemble that of an African Village; the classrooms and other buildings are arranged in clusters of green-roofed hexagonal buildings. These clusters are distributed over a wide area and connected by bricked paths covered by corrugated iron shading; the campus includes on-site sports facilities including a football pitch and a smaller grass field, used for volleyball and other sports, a PE hall with an indoor basketball court and athletics and gymnastics equipment, an outdoor half court for streetball and a tennis court which serves as an outdoor basketball court. It has a library, an IT lab with more than 20 computers and science labs with advanced scientific equipment for students studying experimental sciences at IGCSE or IB level.
The school administration building is located in the centre of the campus and a large parking area has been built on the grounds. The school hosts the Diogo Cão Portuguese Language Centre which contains the classrooms for foreign language subjects, a media centre and an auditorium for the whole school; the Language Centre provides Portuguese language classes and other activities after school hours. The Windhoek International School is an IB World School and is the only school in Namibia to offer International Baccalaureate programmes. In contrast with other Namibian schools which offer the Namibian Senior Secondary Certificate, the International School offers a variety of International Curricula that it believes better suit its international community of students; the school offers different curricula for different year groups, as shown in the table below: The Middle School Programme in Grade 6 - 8 transition students from primary school to secondary school and prepare them for the International General Certificate of Secondary Education.
Education in Namibia List of schools in Namibia "About Us". Windhoek International School. Retrieved 2020-01-12. Windhoek International School Website
The KUR EC2 class known as the EAR 52 class, was a class of 1,000 mm gauge 4-8-2+2-8-4 Garratt-type articulated steam locomotives. The ten members of the class were ordered by the Kenya-Uganda Railway. Unusually, they were built by North British Locomotive Company in Glasgow, instead of Beyer, Peacock & Co. the builder of all the KUR's other Garratt locomotives. They entered service in 1931, were operated by the KUR's successor, the East African Railways, both in Kenya/Uganda and in Tanzania; the numbers, build dates and names of each member of the class were as follows: History of rail transport in Tanzania Rail transport in Kenya Rail transport in Uganda Media related to Steam locomotives of Kenya at Wikimedia Commons
Nicola Jane Bryant is an English actress known for her role as Perpugilliam "Peri" Brown, a companion to both the Fifth and Sixth Doctors in the BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who. She appeared on-screen from 1984 to 1986, before being succeeded in the show by Bonnie Langford as Melanie Bush. Nicola Bryant was born and raised in a small village near Guildford in Surrey, the older of two daughters of Denis and Sheila Bryant. Beginning dance classes at the age of three, she began to learn the piano. At the age of ten she auditioned to go to ballet schools, but was unable to take up places offered because of asthma. Upset by this development, she joined a local amateur dramatic group. On leaving school she auditioned for all of the London drama schools, took up a scholarship to the Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art. In her final year there, she played the part of Nanette in a production of the musical No, No, Nanette. Bryant's first professional part was as Peri Brown in Doctor.
She played the part from 1984 to 1986, first with Peter Davison, with Colin Baker as the Doctor. Bryant's tenure on the show was met with raised eyebrows in some quarters as series producer John Nathan-Turner admitted that his intention was to pump up the sex appeal of the ageing series by casting the young actress, seen wearing low-cut outfits in the show, her character was American and for a while a publicity-driven fiction was maintained suggesting Bryant was American, something Bryant had herself stated in press interviews when she landed the part. During her final series on Doctor Who, the actress was allowed to dress more conservatively on the show. Bryant appeared in the Doctor Who serial The Two Doctors, she enjoyed working with Patrick Troughton, who returned as the Second Doctor. During the programme's hiatus during 1985 and 1986, Bryant reprised the role of Peri in a BBC radio production entitled Slipback alongside Baker. After appearing in Doctor Who, Bryant spent nine months at the Savoy Theatre in the West End of London in the thriller Killing Jessica with Patrick Macnee, directed by Bryan Forbes.
She was cast including a part in Blackadder's Christmas Carol. In the early to mid-1990s, she co-starred with Baker in a series of made-for-video science fiction films entitled The Stranger for BBV, although the first few films in the series were little more than Doctor Who episodes in disguise, she appeared alongside Baker, Sylvester McCoy and Jon Pertwee in another BBV production, The Airzone Solution, which includes a love scene between Baker and Bryant. Bryant has reprised the role of Peri in several of the Big Finish Productions Doctor Who spin-off audio plays, appearing both with Peter Davison and Colin Baker, she directed UNIT: The Wasting and Judge Dredd: 99 Code Red!. In February 2006, she performed in a New End Theatre production of the Carl Djerassi play Taboos, in early 2007 appeared in a London stage production of Tom Stoppard's Rock'n' Roll at the Duke of York's Theatre. A DVD documentary, In The Footsteps of The Two Doctors, following Bryant's return to some of the locations featured in the Doctor Who serial The Two Doctors, was released in late 2006.
She returned to the stage in 2008 in a touring production of an adaptation of Daphne du Maurier’s "Don't Look Now", playing the part of Laura Baxter. This production continued into 2009. In the summer of 2009, Bryant filmed an improvised documentary-style film for Australian director Ben Briand as well as recording eight audio stories for Big Finish as a "missing season" of adventures for Doctor Who. On 2 March 2010 she appeared in Holby City as a television news reporter, in 2011 she featured in the Dark Shadows audio drama The Blind Painter. In 2013 she appeared in a Doctor Who-themed episode of the game show Pointless. Bryant guest-starred as ‘Lana’ in the 2017 two-part finale to the critically acclaimed and award-winning Star Trek Continues internet series, which finishes the five-year mission of Star Trek: The Original Series. Nicola Bryant on IMDb Official website Nicola Bryant at shillpages.com/dw Nicola Bryant on Twitter
Federico Masi is a former Italian professional footballer. Masi can play as centre-back, he is a former Italy U-20 international. Born in Frascati, the Province of Rome, Masi started his career at Atletico 2000 of Rome. In 2005, he joined Tuscany club Fiorentina, at first on loan, he was the member of Allievi U16–17 team for Allievi National League. Masi wore no.44 which vacated by Seculin, no.48 and no.39 vacated by Keirrison in the first team and named in squad "List B" of 2008–09 and 2009–10 UEFA Champions League. Masi made his professional and European debut on 10 December 2008, replacing Riccardo Montolivo in the last minute. Before the match, Viola finished as the third and the opponent Steaua as the fourth. Masi injured in his knee in May 2010, he was an overage player for the Primavera under-20 team in 2010–11 season. That season he played 15 times in the youth league group stage, shared the role with Andrea Bagnai. Moreover, Michele Camporese who promoted to the first team played the big match for the youth team, squeezing the opportunity of other players including Masi.
Masi finished as the runner-up of 2011 Torneo di Viareggio. He played the final as a substitute of Alessio Fatticcioni. In March, he won Coppa Italia Primavera, he played both legs of the finals as centre-back, partnered with Camporese. However, Masi did not play in the playoffs round in the youth league, to comply with overage quota and gave chance to younger players. Masi played once in 2010–11 Coppa Italia. In July 2011 he left for Serie B club Bari in co-ownership deal for a peppercorn of €500, he made his Serie B debut in the first round, as a starting right-back. On 23 June 2012 he is purchased by Bari. On 15 January 2015 he was signed by Lupa Roma. Masi capped for Azzurrini since under-16 level, he received his first call-up to 2005 Torneo Giovanile di Natale In December. Masi selected to Lazio region U15 representative team in 2005, he finished as the runner-up of a youth tournament in Vendée, France. He only started once in 2007 UEFA European Under-17 Football Championship qualification. However, in the elite round he started all three games.
The team was eliminated by Ukraine in the third game. He received call-up to U-18 training camp in 2007. Masi was promoted to U-20 team directly in August 2008, a feeder team of U21, for 2008–09 Four Nations Tournament. However, he did not enter the squad for 2009 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship qualification in Moldova, he received another U-20 call-up in December 2009 and again in May 2010, both for 2009–10 Four Nations Tournament. After the injury, he returned to the feeder team of U-21 in March 2011, for 2010–11 Four Nations Tournament, but again did not play. In 2011–12 season, Masi was too old for U-20 team. Instead, he received a call-up from Italy under-21 Serie B representative team, winning Serbian First League selection, he played the next match against Russian First League Selection. Masi was part of Italy squad at 2015 Summer Universiade. Federico Masi at Soccerway Bari Profile FIGC