SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Congolese franc

The Congolese franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is subdivided into 100 centimes. Currency denominated in centimes and francs was first introduced in 1887 for use in the Congo Free State. After the Free State's annexation by Belgium, the currency continued in the Belgian Congo; the francs were equal in value to the Belgian franc. From 1916, the Congolese franc circulated in Ruanda-Urundi and, from 1952, the currency was issued jointly in the names of the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi. After the independence of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1960, Ruanda-Urundi adopted its own franc, between 1960 and 1963, Katanga issued a franc of its own; the franc remained Congo's currency after independence until 1967, when the zaïre was introduced, at a rate of 1 zaïre = 1,000 francs. In 1887, copper coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5 and 10 centimes, together with silver coins worth 50 centimes, 1, 2, 5 francs. Coins ceased to be minted of silver in 1896.

Holed, cupro-nickel 5-, 10- and 20-centime coins were introduced in 1906, with the remaining copper coins minted until 1919. Cupro-nickel 50-centime and 1-franc coins were introduced in 1920, respectively; the coinage of Belgian Congo ceased in 1929, only to be resumed in 1936 and 1937 for the issue of nickel-bronze 5-franc coins. In 1943, brass 2-franc coins were introduced, followed by round, brass coins worth 1, 2 and 5 francs, silver 50-franc coins, between 1944 and 1947. In 1952, brass 5-franc coins were issued carrying the name "Ruanda-Urundi" for the first time. Aluminum coins worth 50 centimes, 1 and 5 francs followed between 1954 and 1957. In 1965, the only franc-denominated coins of the first Democratic Republic of Congo were issued, aluminum coins worth 10 francs; as with Belgium's own coins, some types were issued in two distinct versions, one with French legends, the other with Dutch legends. In 1896 the Independent State of Congo issued 100 franc notes. In 1912, the Bank of Belgian Congo introduced 20 and 1000 francs, followed by notes of 1, 5 and 100 franc notes in 1914.

The 1-franc notes were only printed until 1920, whilst 10 franc notes were introduced in 1937. 500 francs were introduced in the 1940s, with 10,000 francs introduced in 1942. In 1952, the Central Bank of Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi introduced notes for 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 francs, with 500 and 1000 francs added in 1953. In 1961, the National Bank of Congo introduced notes for 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 francs, some of which were issued until 1964. In 1962, the Monetary Council of the Republic of Congo introduced 1000 franc notes, which were notes of the Central Bank of Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi overprinted with the Monetary Council's name. In 1963, the Monetary Council issued regular type 100 and 5000 franc notes; the franc was re-established in 1997, replacing the new zaïre at a rate of 1 franc = 100,000 new zaïres. This was equivalent to 300,000,000,000,000 old francs. Coins were never issued as fractional units of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimes were issued in banknote form only. On the 30th of June 1998, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimes, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 francs, though all are dated 01.11.1997.

200-franc notes were introduced in 2000, followed by 500-franc notes in 2002. As of July 2018, the only negotiable instrument in circulation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo are banknotes of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 francs. Meanwhile, merchants in Kinshasa remain skeptical about the 5,000-franc note due to what has been described as a spate of counterfeiting of this denomination, but, suspected to be an irregular or unauthorised issue of the genuine note, bearing the serial number suffix C. In 2010, Banque Centrale du Congo issued 20 million 500 franc banknotes to commemorate the country's 50th anniversary of independence from Belgium. On July 2, 2012, the Banque Centrale du Congo issued new banknotes in denominations of 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 20,000 francs; as of July 2018, the smallest note in regular use is 50 francs. Smaller denomination notes are used. Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo Zaire currency from country data.com Histoire de la monnaie au Congo.

Banque Centrale du Congo

The Chehade Brothers

Farid and Rami Chehade, who perform professionally as the Chehade Brothers, are Palestinian–Lebanese musicians and singers. Natives of the Old City of Jerusalem and Rami Chehade started studying music at a young age and have come to master the oriental musical and poetical art forms of zajal, hija'a and taqsim, their professional career as The Chehade Brothers was launched by multifaceted artist and producer Michel Elefteriades. While Rami is the singer in the band, both brothers demonstrate virtuosity in playing all known Arabic musical instruments, ranging from melodic instruments like oud, kanun and ney to rhythmic instruments like tabla and riq; until the late 1990s, Farid and Rami Chehade had performed in numerous concerts in a number of Arab countries and in some international festivals representing Middle Eastern music around the world. Yet, the two brothers were dreaming of a career well beyond the patriotic and revolutionary scene or the circuit of cultural festivals where they performed folkloric Palestinian songs.

Therefore, they headed to Beirut, where they joined the newly established Oriental Roots Orchestra, an oriental-fashion "big band" formed by Michel Elefteriades with the goal of grouping most outstanding musicians from the Arab world. This collaboration has enriched their compositions with various ethnic influences, making their musical style evolve towards World music fusion, while keeping Middle Eastern roots, their collaboration with Michel Elefteriades has yielded the Chehade Brothers' first album. Composed by the two brothers and arranged by Elefteriades, the album captures the time-honored Tarab mood, they were helped by poet Elia Azar who contributed to the album a set of poetic lyrics that only the talent of the brothers, coupled with Elefteriades' mastery of World Music fusion, could turn into such subtle music, best known in the eastern notion as "inaccessible simplicity". This first album, titled "A Bridge Over the Mediterranean", was released by Warner Music in 2004; the Chehade Brothers were nominated for two BBC Awards for World Music in 2005: BBC Radio 3 World Music Awards BBC Radio 3 Audience Awards In 2005, the Chehade Brothers began touring throughout Europe and the Middle East, performing in the United Kingdom, Turkey, Bahrain, Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates

1975 Boise State Broncos football team

The 1975 Boise State Broncos football team represented Boise State University during the 1975 NCAA Division II football season, the eighth season of Bronco football and the third in the newly reorganized Division II. The Broncos were in their sixth year as members of the Big Sky Conference and played their home games on campus at Bronco Stadium in Boise, Idaho. Prior to the season, the stadium was expanded with an upper deck added to the east grandstand, which increased the permanent seating capacity to 20,000. Part of the original design, it had been delayed for five years due to high costs. Led by eighth-year head coach Tony Knap, the Broncos were 9–1–1 in the regular season and undefeated in conference, gaining their third straight Big Sky title. For those three seasons, the Broncos were 17–0–1 in conference play. Prior to the regular season finale at Idaho State, it was announced that the winner would gain one of the eight playoff berths. Invited again to the eight-team Division II playoffs, sixth ranked BSU hosted #5 Northern Michigan at Bronco Stadium in the quarterfinals on November 29.

Cold and windy conditions caused fourteen fumbles, nine by BSU, the visitors won 24–21. Winless the previous season, the Wildcats went on to win the national title, it was the third consecutive year that the Broncos fell in the playoffs to the eventual national champion, it was their last appearance in the D-II playoffs. Boise State won the Big Sky title in 1977 but could not participate in the playoffs because of a late regular season game, they moved up to the new Division I-AA in 1978. BSU won its only national title. Two months in January 1976, 61-year-old Knap moved south to Nevada-Las Vegas to replace Ron Meyer, who went to SMU in Dallas. At the time, UNLV was in Division II, but moved up to I-A in 1978. Jim Criner, the UCLA linebackers coach, was hired as BSU's next head coach in February 1976, stayed for seven seasons. Source: Three Broncos were selected in the 1976 NFL Draft, which lasted seventeen rounds. Bronco Football Stats – 1975