Monasticism or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself to spiritual work. Monastic life plays an important role in many Christian churches in the Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Similar forms of religious life exist in other faiths, most notably in Buddhism, but in Hinduism and Jainism, although the expressions differ considerably. By contrast, in other religions monasticism is criticized and not practiced, as in Islam and Zoroastrianism, or plays a marginal role, as in Judaism. Women pursuing a monastic life are called nuns, while monastic men are called monks. More both have described themselves as “monastics.” Many monastics live in monasteries to stay away from the secular world. The way of addressing monastics differs between the Christian traditions; as a general rule, in Roman Catholicism and nuns are called brother or sister, while in Eastern Orthodoxy, they are called father or mother. The Sangha or community of ordained Buddhist bhikkhus and original bhikkhunis was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime over 2500 years ago.
This communal monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics, some of whom the Buddha had studied under. It was fairly eremitic or reclusive in nature. Bhikkhus and bhikkunis were expected to live with a minimum of possessions, which were to be voluntarily provided by the lay community. Lay followers provided the daily food that bhikkhus required, provided shelter for bhikkhus when they needed it. After the Parinibbana of the Buddha, the Buddhist monastic order developed into a cenobitic or communal movement; the practice of living communally during the rainy vassa season, prescribed by the Buddha grew to encompass a settled monastic life centered on life in a community of practitioners. Most of the modern disciplinary rules followed by bhikkhus and bhikkhunis — as encoded in the Patimokkha — relate to such an existence, prescribing in great detail proper methods for living and relating in a community of bhikkhus or bhikkhunis; the number of rules observed.
There are a larger number of rules specified for bhikkhunis. The Buddhist monastic order consists of the female bhikkhuni assembly. Consisting only of males, it grew to include females after the Buddha's stepmother, asked for and received permission to live as an ordained practitioner. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are expected to fulfill a variety of roles in the Buddhist community. First and foremost, they are expected to preserve the discipline now known as Buddhism, they are expected to provide a living example for the laity, to serve as a "field of merit" for lay followers—providing laymen and women with the opportunity to earn merit by giving gifts and support to the bhikkhus. In return for the support of the laity and bhikkhunis are expected to live an austere life focused on the study of Buddhist doctrine, the practice of meditation, the observance of good moral character. A bhikkhu or bhikshu, first ordains as a Samanera. Novices ordain at a young age, but no younger than eight. Samaneras live according to the Ten Precepts, but are not responsible for living by the full set of monastic rules.
Higher ordination, conferring the status of a full Bhikkhu, is given only to men who are aged 20 or older. Bhikkhunis follow a similar progression, but are required to live as Samaneras for longer periods of time- five years; the disciplinary regulations for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are intended to create a life, simple and focused, rather than one of deprivation or severe asceticism. However, celibacy is a fundamental part of this form of monastic discipline. Monasticism in Christianity, which provides the origins of the words "monk" and "monastery", comprises several diverse forms of religious living, it is not mentioned in the scriptures. It has come to be regulated by religious rules and, in modern times, the Church law of the respective apostolic Christian churches that have forms of monastic living; the Christian monk embraces the monastic life as a vocation for God. His goal is to attain eternal life in his presence; the rules of monastic life are codified in the "counsels of perfection".
In the beginning, in Egypt, Christians felt called to a more reclusive or eremitic form of monastic living. Saint Anthony the Great is cited by Athanasius as one of these early "Hermit monks". In the Middle East, eremitic monasticism continued to be common until the decline of Syriac Christianity in the late Middle Ages; the need for some form of organized spiritual guidance was obvious. Soon, similar institutions were established throughout the Egyptian desert as well as the rest of the eastern half of the Roman Empire. Notable monasteries of the East include: Monastery of Saint Anthony, one of the oldest Christian monasteries in the world. Mar Awgin founded a monastery on Mt. Izla above Nisibis in Mesopotamia, from this monastery the cenobitic tradition spread in Mesopotamia, Armenia and India and China. St. Sabbas the Sanctified organized the monks
Angers is a city in western France, about 300 km southwest of Paris. It is chef-lieu of the Maine-et-Loire department and was the capital of the province of Anjou until the French Revolution; the inhabitants of both the city and the province are called Angevins. Not including the metropolitan area, Angers is the third most populous commune in northwestern France after Nantes and Rennes and the 17th in France. For centuries, Angers was an important stronghold in northwestern France, it was the cradle of the Plantagenet dynasty and became one of the intellectual centers of Europe during the reign of René of Anjou. Angers developed at the confluence of three rivers, the Mayenne, the Sarthe, the Loir, all coming from the north and flowing south to the Loire, their confluence, just north of Angers, creates the Maine, a short but wide river that flows into the Loire several kilometres south. The Angers metropolitan area is a major economic centre in western France active in industry and tourism. Angers proper covers 42.70 square kilometers and has a population of 147,305 inhabitants, while around 394,700 live in its metropolitan area.
The Angers Loire Métropole is made up of 30 communes covering 540 square kilometers with 287,000 inhabitants. Angers enjoys a rich cultural life, made possible by its museums; the old medieval center is still dominated by the massive château of the Plantagenêts, home of the Apocalypse Tapestry, the biggest medieval tapestry ensemble in the world. Angers is both at the edge of the Val de Loire, a World Heritage Site, the Loire-Anjou-Touraine regional natural park; the city is first mentioned by Ptolemy around AD 150 in his Geography. It was known as Juliomagus, a name by which it appears in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the name is a compound of the Latin name Julius and the Celtic magos, "market". Similar town dedications were common in Roman Gaul, toponyms kept a Gallic element; when the location needed to be distinguished from other Juliomagi, it was known as Juliomagus Andecavorum, in reference to the principal Gallic tribe in and around the city. Around AD 400, the city came to be referred to as the civitas Andecavorum.
This was a common change in Gaul seen in the names of Paris, Tours and Évreux around this time. During the Middle Ages, the late Latin name developed into the modern one, it is successively mentioned as Andecava civitas, Andegavis and Angeus. The form Angiers appeared during the 12th century and was corrupted to "Angers"; the Latin Andecavum gave Anjou its name. This double formation is quite common in France and is seen in Poitiers & Poitou and Bourges & Berry. Angers was traditionally known as the "Black City" because many roofs were built of slate, due to the quarry in neighbouring Trélazé; these have become less common since the development of the city in the 19th century. The city has been known as: "The Athens of the West", a name borne since the 19th century from the development of its university "The City of Flowers", a name from the Second Empire "Green City", in reference to its numerous parks and important horticultural industry "Angers the White", from its modern tufa façades and with ironic reference to its former name The coat of arms of Angers bears the French royal fleur de lys of the dukes of Anjou.
An acrostic from the Middle Ages calls it Antique clef de France, which means "Ancient key to France": Antique clef de France, Neteté de souffrance, Garant contre ennemis, Etappe d'assurance, Recours de secourance, Securité d'amis. Under Napoleon I's rule, Angers was one of the "Bonnes villes" and was therefore allowed to ask for a new coat of arms; the bees, symbol of the First French Empire replaced the royal fleurs de lys. In 1949, Angers received the 1939–1945 War Cross and since the decoration is sometimes placed between the two fleurs de lys. Angers had several mottos through its history: During Antiquity: Assiuis conciliis. Angers in located at the geographical center of the Maine-et-Loire department, on the road which connects Paris to the Atlantic ocean; the city is situated just south of the confluence of the Loir and Sarthe which form together the river Maine. The Maine crosses heads south towards the Loire; the confluence of the three rivers and the proximity of the Loire make up a natural crossroads which favoured the foundation of the antique Juliomagus.
Angers is located 124 km from Rennes, 132 km from Poitiers and 297 km from Paris. It is 118 km far from Pornic, the closest sea resort, situated on the Atlantic ocean. Elevation varies 12 to 64 meters above sea level. Angers is a hilly town marked by a rocky promontory dominating the lower valley of Anjou; this was the site of the ancient city and still houses the town's castle and medieval quarters. At the north and south, where the river Maine arrives in and leaves Angers, the landscape is formed by islands and floodplains which a
Buckfast Abbey forms part of an active Benedictine monastery at Buckfast, near Buckfastleigh, England. Buckfast first became home to an abbey in 1018; the first Benedictine abbey was followed by a Savignac abbey constructed on the site of the current abbey in 1134. The monastery was surrendered for dissolution in 1539, with the monastic buildings stripped and left as ruins, before being demolished; the former abbey site was used as a quarry, became home to a Gothic mansion house. In 1882 the site was purchased by a group of French Benedictine monks, who refounded a monastery on the site, dedicated to Saint Mary. New monastic buildings and a temporary church were constructed incorporating the existing Gothic house. Work on a new abbey church, constructed on the footprint of the former Cistercian abbey, started in 1907; the church was consecrated in 1932 but not completed until 1938. Buckfast was formally reinstated as an Abbey in 1902, the first abbot of the new institution, Boniface Natter, was blessed in 1903.
The abbey continues to operate as a Benedictine foundation today, is a registered charity under English law. The first abbey at Buckfast was founded as a Benedictine monastery in 1018; the abbey was believed to be founded by Earldorman of Devon, or King Cnut. This first monastery was "small and unprosperous", it is unknown where it was located, its existence was "precarious" after the Norman Conquest. In 1134 or 1136, the abbey was established in its current position; this second abbey was home to Savignac monks. In 1147 the Savignac congregation merged with the Cistercian, the abbey thereby became a Cistercian monastery. Following the conversion to the Cistercian Congregation, the abbey was rebuilt in stone. Limited excavation work undertaken in 1882 revealed that the monastery was built to the standard plan for Cistercian monasteries. In medieval times the abbey became rich through fishing and trading in sheep wool, By the 14th century Buckfast was one of the wealthiest abbeys in the south-west of England.
It had come to own "extensive sheep runs on Dartmoor, seventeen manors in central and south Devon, town houses in Exeter, fisheries on the Dart and the Avon, a country house for the abbot at Kingsbridge". The Black Death killed many monks. By the mid 1400s however, the abbey again flourished. By the 16th century, the abbey was in decline. Only 22 new monks were tonsured between 1500 and 1539, at the time of the abbey's dissolution in 1539, there were only 10 monks in residence. At the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the last Abbot, Gabriel Donne, despite the solemn oaths he had taken, on 25 February 1539 together with nine others of his religious community, surrendered his abbey into the hands of Sir William Petre, as agent for King Henry VIII. On 26 April 1539 he was rewarded with a large annual pension of £120 which he enjoyed until his death; the other monks, who all co-signed the deed of surrender received smaller pensions. Afterwards, 1.5 tons of gold and silver, from the treasures of the abbey, were delivered to the Tower of London.
The site was granted to the King who granted it to others, including William Petre, the Secretary of State, Sir Thomas Dennis of Holcombe Burnell in Devon, who had married Donne's sister Elizabeth and was Chamberlain of the Household to Cardinal Wolsey. Following dissolution, the abbey site and its lands were granted by the crown to Sir Thomas Denys of Holcombe Burnell, near Exeter, who stripped the buildings and "reduced them to ruins"; the abbey site was subsequently used as a stone quarry. In 1800, the site was purchased by Samuel Berry. Berry had the ruins demolished, constructing a Gothic style "castellated Tudor" mansion house, a wool mill on the site in 1806; the Gothic house was constructed on the site of the abbey's former west cloister. The only pieces of the former abbey to escape demolition were some of the outer buildings - which were retained as farm buildings - and the tower from the former abbot's lodgings, the only part which remains to this day. Over the next eighty years, the Buckfast site changed hands four times falling into the hands of Dr. James Gale in 1872.
Ten years Dr. Gale decided to sell the property, but was keen to offer it to a religious community. An advert was placed in The Tablet, describing the Abbey as "a grand acquisition could it be restored to its original purpose." Within six weeks of the sale, monks were again living at the abbey. In 1882 "the whole site was purchased" by French Benedictine monks, exiled from the Abbaye Sainte-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in 1880. On 28 October 1882, six Benedictine monks arrived at Buckfast having been exiled from France; the land had been leased by monks from the St. Augustine's Priory in Ramsgate and it was bought for £4,700. Most of Samuel Berry's house was remodeled and incorporated into new claustral ranges which were built in 1882. A temporary church was constructed to the south of these new buildings, with the current abbey church constructed between 1906 and 1938 on the footprint of the Cistercian Abbey; the new abbey church was built in the "Norman Transitional and Early English" styles, to the designs of architect, Frederick Arthur Walters.
There were never more than six monks working on the project at any one time, although the whole community had repaired the ancient foundations up to ground level. Construction methods were primitive: wooden scaffolding was held together by
Le Breuil-Benoît Abbey
Le Breuil-Benoît Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey in Marcilly-sur-Eure in the Eure department of Upper Normandy, France. It is located around 10 km on the left bank of the River Eure; the abbey was founded in 1137 by Foulques, lord of Marcilly, his son Guillaume consequent upon an oath made in the Holy Land,and settled with monks from Vaux-de-Cernay Abbey, as a member of the congregation of Savigny Abbey. The abbey was soon able to settle a foundation of its own, that of La Trappe Abbey in 1140. In 1147 the Savigniac houses became part of the Cistercian movement, among them Breuil-Benoît, made a daughter house of the filiation of Clairvaux. In 1421 the troops of Henry V of England occupied the abbey, set the church on fire, plundered the conventual buildings and killed the monks. By 1762 the monastery, which had meanwhile fallen into the hands of commendatory abbots, comprised only two monks, it was dissolved in 1790 during the French Revolution and demolished. It has been classed as a monument historique since 1993.
In the grounds, converted into a park, the church still stands, the only extant Cistercian church in Normandy. Restoration works were carried out in 1855, further works have been in progress since 1995. Built between 1190 and 1224, the Gothic church contains two aisles of six spans; the west front has two oculi and a double door. The western walls of the transept remain, as do the five radiating chapels that form the semi-circular chevet behind the choir; the abbot's house, converted into a gentleman's residence in the 1550s, is still extant, but most of the other buildings have disappeared. Peugniez, Bernard: Routier cistercien, p. 320. Editions Gaud: Moisenay ISBN 2-84080-044-6
Savigny-le-Vieux is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France. Savigny Abbey Communes of the Manche department
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Combermere Abbey is a former monastery a country house, near Burleydam, between Nantwich and Whitchurch in Cheshire, near the border with Shropshire. Savigniac and Cistercian, the abbey was founded in the 1130s by Hugh Malbank, Baron of Nantwich, was associated with Ranulf de Gernons, Earl of Chester; the abbey flourished, but by 1275 was sufficiently in debt to be removed from the abbot's management. From that date until its dissolution in 1538, it was in royal custody, acquired a reputation for poor discipline and violent disputes with both lay people and other abbeys, it was the third largest monastic establishment in Cheshire, based on net income in 1535. After the dissolution it was acquired by Sir George Cotton, who demolished the church and most of the buildings, converted part of the abbey into a country house; the house was remodelled in 1563 by Sir George's son, Richard Cotton, altered in 1795 by Sir Robert Cotton, Gothicised in 1814–21 by Stapleton Cotton, Viscount Combermere. It remained in the Cotton family until 1919, is still in private ownership.
The abbey is listed at grade I, is on the "Heritage at Risk" register, with the north wing being in danger of collapse. Its park includes the large lake of a Site of Special Scientific Interest. A total of around 400 hectares of the park are listed at grade II; the name means "lake of the Cumbri", or Welsh, refers to an enclave of Britons surviving the Anglo-Saxon conquest of the area. Combermere Abbey was the earlier of the two great Cistercian abbeys in Cheshire, the other being Vale Royal; the abbey was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and Saint Michael, belonged to the Savigniac order, which merged with the Cistercian order by 1147. Hugh Malbank, the second Baron of Wich Malbank, was the founder, the original donation occurred early in the 12th century, it was confirmed in 1130 by Ranulf de Gernons, the fourth Earl of Chester, one of the witnesses of its foundation charter. Other witnesses included Hugh Malbank's son and Roger de Clinton, the Bishop of Coventry. Building of the abbey commenced later in 1133 stated as the date of foundation.
The site given for the monastery buildings was a wooded area by the large lake of Comber Mere, a peaceful and isolated location near the Shropshire border, suitable for the austere Savigniac order. Little or nothing is known of the early abbey buildings; the first abbot was named William. A copy of the foundation charter survives; the original grant included the manor of Wilkesley, comprising two Domesday manors worth 18 shillings pre-Conquest. It included a quarter of Nantwich, the largest salt producer in the county until the 17th century, with a tithe of the barony's salt revenues; the abbey was given the church at Acton and its associated chapel of Nantwich, as well as two churches in Staffordshire, at Sandon and Alstonfield. The abbey appropriated the church of Child's Ercall in Shropshire and the Cheshire churches and chapels of Baddiley, Church Coppenhall, Church Minshull and Wrenbury. Numerous other grants of land followed in the 12th and early 13th centuries in the south of Cheshire and the adjacent counties of Staffordshire and Shropshire, but in Derbyshire.
Other benefactors included William Malbank, who confirmed his father's grant and added further land, Robert de Ferrers, the Earl of Derby, William FitzAlan, William FitzRanulph and Ivo Pantulf, Ranulph de Blondeville, the Earl of Chester, Roger of Ightfield, Gilbert de Macclesfield, James de Audley and Robert de Baskerville. The early history of Combermere is obscure as most of its records were destroyed before the 17th century. For the first hundred or so years after its foundation, the abbey appears to have been reasonably prosperous. In 1146–53, Abbot William founded a daughter house at Poulton, endowed by Robert Pincerna. Both Combermere and Poulton are mentioned in about 1195 as Cistercian foundations in the area surrounding Chester. Several other daughter houses followed. Stanlow Abbey on the Wirral Peninsula was founded in 1178 by John FitzRichard, Baron of Halton moving to Whalley Abbey in Lancashire, in 1219, a small daughter house was founded at Hulton in Staffordshire by Henry de Audley.
In 1220, the abbot was reprimanded for unauthorised building, but an inspection by Abbot Stephen of Lexington in 1231 found no particular problems with the abbey. Combermere received a royal visit in 1245, at that time the abbey was granted a market and fair at what is now known as Market Drayton in Shropshire. Combermere established granges before 1237 at nearby Acton and Burland, Wincle in east Cheshire, Cliff and Shifford in Shropshire. Wincle was a large holding of pastureland in Macclesfield Forest, given by Ranulf de Blondeville. By the end of the 13th century, Ditchley, Newton, Smeaton and Yarlet were included among its granges; the abbey is known to have been farming sheep by the mid-13th century, earlier than the other major Cheshire monasteries. Combermere was producing six sacks of wool annually, worth 101⁄2–21 marks per sack, which were being sold at the fair at Boston in Lincolnshire, exported abroad; these figures are, much lower than monasteries in neighbouring counties. The mid-13th century saw the start of th