Oprah Winfrey is an American media executive, talk show host, television producer and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history, she has been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world. Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and raised in inner-city Milwaukee, she has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14. Winfrey was sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's emotional, extemporaneous delivery led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.
Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. Through this medium, Winfrey broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream through television appearances. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, having an emotion-centered approach, she has been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, delivering about one million votes to Barack Obama in the razor close 2008 Democratic primary. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard.
In 2008, she formed Oprah Winfrey Network. Winfrey's first name was spelled "Orpah" on her birth certificate after the biblical figure in the Book of Ruth, but people mispronounced it and "Oprah" stuck, she was born in Mississippi, to an unmarried teenage mother. She said that her conception was due to a single sexual encounter and the couple broke up not long after, her mother, Vernita Lee, was a housemaid. Winfrey's biological father is noted as Vernon Winfrey, a coal miner turned barber turned city councilman, in the Armed Forces when she was born. However, Mississippi farmer and World War II veteran Noah Robinson Sr. has claimed to be her biological father. A genetic test in 2006 determined that her matrilineal line originated among the Kpelle ethnic group, in the area that today is Liberia, her genetic makeup was determined to be 89% Sub-Saharan African, 8% Native American, 3% East Asian. However, the East Asian markers may, given the imprecision of genetic testing be Native American. After Winfrey's birth, her mother traveled north, Winfrey spent her first six years living in rural poverty with her maternal grandmother, Hattie Mae Lee, so poor that Winfrey wore dresses made of potato sacks, for which the local children made fun of her.
Her grandmother taught her to read before the age of three and took her to the local church, where she was nicknamed "The Preacher" for her ability to recite Bible verses. When Winfrey was a child, her grandmother would hit her with a stick when she did not do chores or if she misbehaved in any way. At age six, Winfrey moved to an inner-city neighborhood in Milwaukee, with her mother, less supportive and encouraging than her grandmother had been as a result of the long hours she worked as a maid. Around this time, Lee had given birth to another daughter, Winfrey's younger half-sister, Patricia who died of causes related to cocaine addiction. By 1962, Lee was having difficulty raising both daughters so Winfrey was temporarily sent to live with Vernon in Nashville, Tennessee. While Winfrey was in Nashville, Lee gave birth to a third daughter, put up for adoption and was also named Patricia. Winfrey did not learn she had a second half-sister until 2010. By the time Winfrey moved back with her mother, Lee had given birth to a boy named Jeffrey, Winfrey's half-brother, who died of AIDS-related causes in 1989.
Winfrey has stated she was molested by her cousin, a family friend, starting when she was nine years old, something she first announced to her viewers on a 1986 episode of her TV show regarding sexual abuse. When Winfrey discussed the alleged abuse with family members at age 24, they refused to believe her account. Winfrey once commented that she had chosen not to be a mother because she had not been mothered well. At 13, after suffering what she described as years of abuse, Winfrey ran away from home; when she was 14, she became pregnant but her son was born prematurely and he died shortly after birth. Winfrey stated she felt betrayed by the family member who had sold the story of her son to the National Enquirer in 1990, she began attending Lincoln High School in Milwaukee, but after early success i
West Allis, Wisconsin
West Allis is a city in Milwaukee County, United States. A suburb of Milwaukee, it is part of the Milwaukee metropolitan area; the population was 60,411 at the 2010 census. The name West Allis derives from Edward P. Allis, whose Edward P. Allis Company was a large Milwaukee-area manufacturing firm in the late 19th century. In 1901, the Allis company became Allis-Chalmers, in 1902 built a large new manufacturing plant west of its existing plant; the locale in which the new plant was constructed was at the time called North Greenfield, prior to the 1880s had been called Honey Creek. With the building of the western Allis plant, the area was incorporated as the Village of West Allis, it became the City of West Allis in 1906. With the presence of Allis-Chalmers, the largest manufacturer in the area, West Allis became the largest suburb of Milwaukee in the early 20th century. After that, West Allis grew quickly. Between 1910 and 1930, its population grew fivefold. After 1965, the Allis-Chalmers company's fortunes had turned.
By 1985, Allis-Chalmers's global workforce had shrunk to 13,000 from its peak of 31,000. Since West Allis has had some success attracting other employers, such as Quad Graphics. West Allis is located at 43°0′29″N 88°1′6″W; the upper courses of the Root and Kinnickinnic Rivers flow through the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.41 square miles, of which, 11.39 square miles is land and 0.02 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 60,411 people, 27,454 households, 14,601 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,303.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 29,353 housing units at an average density of 2,577.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.7% White, 3.6% African American, 1.1% Native American, 2.0% Asian, 3.6% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.6% of the population. There were 27,454 households of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.3% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 46.8% were non-families.
38.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 37.7 years. 20.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 61,254 people, 27,604 households, 15,375 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,397.6 people per square mile. There were 28,708 housing units at an average density of 2,529.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.03% White, 1.34% African American, 0.70% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.52% of the population. There were 27,604 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.3% were non-families.
37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $39,394, the median income for a family was $50,732. Males had a median income of $36,926 versus $26,190 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,914. About 4.6% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.0% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. The Wisconsin State Fair Park, which includes the Milwaukee Mile and is the site of the annual Wisconsin State Fair, is located in West Allis.
On June 15, 2006, the city celebrated its 100th anniversary. The celebration included fireworks and a family festival; the West Allis Post Office contains two oil on canvas murals, Wisconsin Wild Flowers – Spring and Wisconsin Wild Flowers – Autumn. Painted in 1943 by Frances Foy. Murals were produced from 1934 to 1943 in the United States through the Section of Painting and Sculpture called the Section of Fine Arts, of the Treasury Department. Candy Cane Lane runs through Montana Avenues and 92nd to 96th Street. Residents have been creating elaborate Christmas display since 1984, bringing bumper-to-bumper traffic through the streets on December nights; the festive event has raised over 2.2 million dollars for the MACC Fund. Pettit National Ice Center is one of only two indoor speed skating rinks in USA. West Allis is served by many MCTS bus routes. Interstate 94 and Interstate 41 run through the city; the schools in the West Allis – West Milwaukee School District: Franklin Elementary School Hoover Elementary School Horace Mann Elementary School Irving Elementary School Jefferson Elementary School Longfellow Elementary School Madison Elementary School Mitchell Elementary School Pershing Elementary School Walker Elementary School Wilson Elementary School Frank Lloyd Wright Intermediate School Lane Intermediate School
Bill Kurtis is an American television journalist, producer and news anchor. He was the host of a number of A&E crime and news documentary shows, including Investigative Reports, American Justice, Cold Case Files, he anchored The CBS Morning News, was the longtime anchor at WBBM-TV, the CBS-owned and -operated TV station in Chicago. Kurtis is the scorekeeper/announcer for National Public Radio's news comedy/quiz show Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!, as well as serving as the host of Through the Decades, a documentary-style news magazine seen on CBS/Weigel Broadcasting's digital multicast network, Decades syndicated subchannel. Kurtis was born in Pensacola, Florida, to Wilma Mary Horton and William A. Kuretich, of Croatian origin, a U. S. Marine Corps brigadier general and decorated veteran of World War II, his father's military career included extensive travel for his family. Upon his retirement, the family settled in Kansas, his sister is former Kansas state Senate Majority Whip Jean Schodorf, of Kansas.
At age 16, Kurtis began working as an announcer for a radio station in Independence. He graduated from Independence High School in 1958, the University of Kansas with a Bachelor of Science degree in journalism in 1962 and he earned a Juris Doctor degree from Washburn University School of Law in 1966. While in law school he worked part time at WIBW-TV in Topeka, Kansas. After passing the Kansas bar examination and accepting a job with a Wichita law firm, Kurtis discussed his options with Harry Colmery and Bob McClure of Colmery and Russell and decided not to pursue a career in law. On the evening of June 8, 1966, Kurtis left a bar review class at Washburn to fill in for a friend at WIBW-TV to anchor the 6 o'clock news. Severe weather was approaching Topeka, so Kurtis stayed to update some weather reports. At 7:00 p.m. while on the air, a tornado was sighted by WIBW cameraman Ed Rutherford southwest of the city. Within 15 seconds another sighting came in: "It's wiped out an apartment complex." Kurtis's warning "For God's sake, take cover" became synonymous with the 1966 Topeka tornado that left 16 dead and injured hundreds more.
Kurtis and the WIBW broadcast team remained on the air for 24 straight hours to cover the initial tornado and its aftermath. Being the only television station in town and one of the few radio stations not damaged by the tornado, WIBW became a communications hub for emergency operations; the experience changed Kurtis's career path from law to broadcast news. Within three months, after seeing his work covering the tornado, WBBM-TV in Chicago hired Kurtis and set the stage for a 30-year career with CBS; the year 1966 in Chicago was the beginning of a tumultuous four years, as a reporter and anchor Kurtis was in the middle of historic events. He covered the neighborhood fires that followed the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and again when Robert Kennedy was shot. The protests against the Vietnam War dominated the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, which Kurtis covered. In 1969, Kurtis produced a documentary about Iva Toguri, "Tokyo Rose," the first interview after her conviction for treason in 1949.
His reporting, along with Ron Yates of the Chicago Tribune, helped persuade President Gerald Ford to pardon her in 1977. His law degree came into play when he covered the Chicago Seven conspiracy trial in 1969, which led to a job with CBS News in Los Angeles as correspondent. One of his first assignments was covering the Charles Manson murder trial for 10 months, he covered the murder trials of Angela Davis and Juan Corona and the Pentagon Papers trial of Daniel Ellsberg. In 1973, Kurtis returned to Chicago to co-anchor with Walter Jacobson at WBBM-TV. In 1978, his investigative focus unit broke the Agent Orange story, U. S. veterans. After a dramatic screening of the documentary in Washington, D. C. the Veterans Administration issued guidelines to diagnose and compensate those veterans affected by Agent Orange. Kurtis returned to Vietnam in 1980 to cover the Vietnamese side of the story and, while there, discovered some 15,000 Vietnamese children conceived and left behind by Americans when the U.
S. left in 1975. A story Kurtis wrote for The New York Times Magazine was instrumental in obtaining special status for the children to enter the United States, where they live today. In 1982, Kurtis joined Diane Sawyer on The CBS Morning News, the network broadcast from New York City; the two were on the CBS Early Morning News, which aired an hour earlier on most CBS stations. He anchored three CBS Reports: The Plane That Fell from the Sky, The Golden Leaf, The Gift of Life, he returned to WBBM-TV in 1985. In 1986, Kurtis hosted a four-part science series on PBS called The Miracle Planet as well as a four-part series in 1987 on the CIA, he formed his own documentary production company, Kurtis Productions, in 1988, the same year he produced "Return to Chernobyl" for the PBS series Nova. Kurtis narrated nearly 1,000 documentaries, Kurtis Productions produced nearly 500 for series like The New Explorers on PBS, he hosted American Justice, produced by Towers Productions. For CNBC, the company has produced nearly 100 episodes of American Greed.
In 1994, Kurtis obtained a videotape showing Richard Speck, convicted of murdering eight student nurses in Chicago in 1966, having jailhouse sex and using drugs within the maximum security facility known as Stateville in Joliet, Illinois. He aired a report on WBBM-TV, produced a documentary for A&E Network that shocked the nati
The Westinghouse Broadcasting Company known as Group W, was the broadcasting division of Westinghouse Electric Corporation. It owned several radio and television stations across the United States and distributed television shows for syndication. Westinghouse Broadcasting was formed in the 1920s as Inc.. It was renamed Westinghouse Broadcasting Company in 1954, adopted the Group W moniker on May 20, 1963, it was a self-contained entity within the Westinghouse corporate structure. It kept national sales offices in Los Angeles. Group W stations are best known for using a distinctive corporate typeface, introduced in 1963, for their logos and on-air imaging. Styled typefaces had been used on some non-Group W stations as well and several former Group W stations still use it today; the Group W corporate typeface has been digitized and released by John Sizemore. The font is used in the video game Damnation. Westinghouse Broadcasting was well known for two long-running television programs, the Mike Douglas Show and PM Magazine.
The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company entered broadcasting with the November 2, 1920, sign-on of KDKA radio in Pittsburgh. The oldest surviving licensed commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA was an outgrowth of experimental station 8XK, a 75-watt station, located in the Pittsburgh suburb of Wilkinsburg, founded in 1916 by Westinghouse assistant chief engineer Frank Conrad. Westinghouse launched three more radio stations in 1921: WJZ licensed to Newark, New Jersey, in September. WBZA in Boston, a station which shared WBZ's frequency and simulcasted WBZ's programming, signed on in November 1924. Westinghouse was one of the founding owners of the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, in 1926 RCA established the National Broadcasting Company, a group of 24 radio stations that made up the first radio network in the United States. Westinghouse owned a 20 percent stake in NBC, as a result, all of Westinghouse's stations became affiliates of NBC's Blue Network when it was launched on January 1, 1927.
Most of the Blue Network's programming originated at WJZ, which in 1923 had its license moved to New York City, its ownership transferred to RCA. In 1931, Westinghouse switched the call letters of its two Massachusetts stations, with WBZA moving to Springfield and WBZ going to Boston; the two stations had suffered from interference problems, though the Boston facility was the more powerful of the two. In 1934, KYW was moved from Chicago to Philadelphia following a Federal Communications Commission-dictated frequency realignment. Westinghouse's next station was its first purchase: WOWO in Fort Wayne, Indiana joined the group in August 1936; the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement of 1941 saw all of Westinghouse's original stations move to their current dial positions. With WOWO's power increase to 50,000 watts that year, the Westinghouse stations were now clear-channel stations. A decade the FCC forbade common ownership of two or more clear channel stations with overlapping nighttime coverage, though the commission allowed Westinghouse to keep WBZ, KYW, KDKA, WOWO together under a grandfather clause.
Among them, the four stations' nighttime signals blanketed all of the eastern half of North America. Despite the assignments which resulted from NARBA, WBZA became a 1,000-watt daytime-only operation as it continued to share a frequency with WBZ; the Westinghouse group survived the government-dictated split of NBC's radio division in 1943. WBZ/WBZA, KDKA, KYW became affiliates of NBC's Red Network while WOWO, which had a secondary affiliation with the Blue Network, fell back on its primary relationship with CBS. Westinghouse expanded to the West Coast in 1944 with its purchase of 5,000-watt KEX in Portland, Oregon, a station which shared a frequency with WOWO. Westinghouse would increase KEX's power to 50,000 watts in 1948. In the 1940s, Westinghouse moved on to develop FM and television stations as the FCC began to issue permits for those services. Westinghouse built FM sister stations for WBZ/WBZA, KDKA, KYW, KEX, WOWO, all of which were on the air by the end of the decade. FM radio was an unsuccessful venture for Westinghouse, the company would silence most of its FM stations during the 1950s.
Of the early Westinghouse FMs, only the original KDKA-FM and the second WBZ-FM facility proved to be worth keeping, Westinghouse sold those outlets in the early 1980s. Moving back to AM radio, Westinghouse returned to Chicago with its 1956 purchase of WIND. In 1962, Westinghouse re-entered the New York market when it bought WINS a local Top-40 powerhouse. Having reached the FCC's then-limit of seven AM stations, Westinghouse sold KEX to actor and singer Gene Autry, decided to shut down WBZA and return its license to the FCC. In 1966, Westinghouse agreed to buy KFWB in Los Angeles. On April 19, 1965, WINS instituted a 24-hour, all-news format. KYW went all-news six months on September 12, three months after Westinghouse regained control of the station. KFWB would adopt the format on March 11, 1968; the three stations all prospered with their new formats ranking among the five highest-rated stations in their marke
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Inverness is a suburban village in Cook County, United States. The population was 7,399 at the 2010 census. Inverness is located at 42°6′47″N 88°5′54″W. According to the 2010 census, Inverness has a total area of 6.703 square miles, of which 6.54 square miles is land and 0.163 square miles is water. The village borders are defined by Barrington Road to the west, Roselle Road to the east, Algonquin Road to the south, Dundee Road to the north; the Inverness area became known as Deer Grove. After surveying the township area, in 1840 the US government offered land in the area for $1.25 per acre. By 1854, rail service was established to Deer Grove, in 1859 the line was incorporated into the Chicago and North Western Railway system; the Inverness area was now accessible to Chicago. The frontier had been opened. In 1926, Mr. Arthur T. McIntosh, one of Chicago's leading land developers, bought the Temple farm and house, built by Ralph Atkinson, it was the first of eleven parcels to be acquired by him. These lands, combined with the acquisition of the Cudahy Company Golf Course, comprised 1,500 contiguous acres for development.
With the area under McIntosh's control, it became known as Inverness, after the McIntosh clan home in Scotland. An important person during this early development was Way Thompson, who preserved the natural beauty of the area by laying out the road system to take advantage of the rolling land and by subdividing lots to conform to natural contours. A minimum lot size of 1-acre was established. Thompson approved all house plans and where they were located on the lots; the first ten homes were decorated by his wife, Barbara. The first new homes were occupied by 1939; these homes were situated around the edge of the Inverness Golf Club and were designed to be affordable to young couples. They were priced from $9,500 to $20,000. McIntosh built the first 20 homes. After that, the homes were custom built for individuals. Construction in Inverness was halted during World War II. During the early post-war years, the McIntosh Company had complete control over the sale of lots as well as the resale of homes.
Placement of homes was controlled to protect the character of the community. In 1962, Inverness was incorporated as a village to be governed by a president and board of trustees; the first meeting of the village board was July 5, 1962 and was held at the Field House, at the western edge of the village. In the spring of 1977 the Village Hall was relocated to a 100-year-old farmhouse on Palatine Road, it was again relocated in 1985 to its present location at the Four Silos, which has become a famous landmark and gateway to the community. During the 1970s and'80s, the village continued to grow at a pace. Homes became styles were more varied, it was during this period that the village annexed large areas of existing homes in unincorporated Cook County, which laid the foundation for further annexations to the west, which continued to expand the village limits to what they are today. Williamsburg Village, the only business development in Inverness, was started in 1981; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,749 people, 2,312 households, 2,041 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,068.3 people per square mile. There were 2,361 housing units at an average density of 373.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 91.97% White, 0.67% African American, 0.09% Native American, 6.24% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.90% of the population. There were 2,312 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 83.4% were married couples living together, 3.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 11.7% were non-families. 9.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.12. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 19.8% from 25 to 44, 37.9% from 45 to 64, 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.2 males. The median income for a household in the village was $141,672, the median income for a family was $154,646. Males had a median income of greater than $100,000 versus $60,298 for females; the per capita income for the village was $73,271, making Inverness one of the wealthiest suburbs in Chicago. About 1.2% of families and 1.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.4% of those under age 18 and 1.8% of those age 65 or over. Inverness ranks 63rd on the list of highest-income places in the United States, with nearby North Barrington, South Barrington, Barrington Hills making the list. Public schools are managed by either Barrington Elementary and High School District 220 or Palatine Elementary School District 15 and Township High School District 211; the village is home to the Holy Family Catholic Academy. Established in 2002, the Academy is a Catholic school, part of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago, that educates around 300 students in grades PK-8.
Village of Inverness official website