Conning tower

A conning tower is a raised platform on a ship or submarine armored, from which an officer in charge can conn the vessel, controlling movements of the ship by giving orders to those responsible for the ship's engine, rudder and ground tackle. It is located as high on the ship as practical, to give the conning team good visibility of the entirety of the ship, ocean conditions, other vessels; the verb "conn" stems from the verb "conduct" rather than another plausible precedent, the verb "control". On surface ships, the conning tower was a feature of all battleships and armored cruisers from about 1860 to the early years of World War II. Located at the front end of the superstructure, the conning tower was a armored cylinder, with tiny slit windows on three sides providing a reasonable field of view. Designed to shield just enough personnel and devices for navigation during battles, its interior was cramped and basic, with little more than engine order telegraphs, speaking tubes or telephones, a steering wheel.

At all other times than during battles, the ship would be navigated from the bridge. Conning towers were used by the French on their floating batteries at the Battle of Kinburn, they were fitted to the first ironclad the French battleship La Gloire. The first Royal Navy conning tower appeared on HMS Warrior. In the Royal Navy, the conning tower became a massive structure reaching weights of hundreds of tons on the Admiral-class battlecruisers, formed part of a massive armoured citadel on the mid-1920s Nelson-class battleships, which had armour over a foot thick; the King George V class, in contrast to the Nelson class, had comparatively light conning tower protection with 4.5-inch sides, 3-inch front and rear, 2-inch roof and deck. The RN's analysis of World War I combat revealed that command personnel were unlikely to use an armoured conning tower, preferring the superior visibility of unarmoured bridge positions. Older RN battleships that were reconstructed with new superstructures had their armoured conning towers removed and replaced with much lighter structures.

These new conning towers were placed much higher in the ship, for superior visibility. There is no evidence that RN captains and admirals used the armoured conning towers on those ships that did have them during World War II, for example, Vice-Admiral Holland and Captain Kerr commanding Hood during the Battle of the Denmark Strait from her unarmoured bridge. In the United States Navy, battleship captains and admirals preferred to use the unarmoured bridge positions during combat; the USN had mixed opinions of the conning tower, pointing out that its weight, high above the ship's center of gravity, did not contribute directly to fighting ability. Beginning in the late 1930s, as radar surpassed visual sighting as the primary method of detecting other ships, battleships began reducing or eliminating the conning tower; the battle of Guadalcanal during World War II slowed this trend: when the Japanese battleship Kirishima hit USS South Dakota on the superstructure, many exposed crewmen were killed or wounded yet Admiral Lee and Captain Davis of USS Washington declined to use the armoured conning tower during the battle.

Soon the heavy battleship conning towers were removed from USS Pennsylvania, USS Tennessee, USS California, USS West Virginia during their post-Pearl Harbor attack reconstructions and replaced with much lighter cruiser-style conning towers. By the end of World War II, US ships were designed with expanded weather bridges enclosing the armored conning towers. On Iowa-class battleships, the conning tower is a 17.3-inch thick vertical armor-plated cylinder with slit windows located in the middle of the bridge, climbing from deck 03 all the way up to the flying bridge on 05. With the demise of battleships after World War II, along with the advent of missiles and nuclear weapons during the Cold War, modern warships no longer feature conning towers; the conning tower of a submarine was a small watertight compartment within its sail equipped with instruments and controls and from which the periscopes were used to direct the boat and launch torpedo attacks. It should not be confused with the submarine's control room, directly below it in the main pressure hull.

As improvements in technology allowed the periscopes to be made longer it became unnecessary to raise the conning station above the main pressure hull. USS Triton was the last American submarine to have a conning tower; the additional conning tower pressure hull was eliminated and its functions were added to the command and control center. Thus it is incorrect to refer to the sail of a modern submarine as a conning tower. "Conning Tower". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914

The Recording at NHK CR-509 Studio

The Recording at NHK CR-509 Studio is the first live album by Japanese rock band, Asian Kung-Fu Generation and was released on September 11, 2013. They recorded it when they performed in NHK BS's special program, "The Recording Asian Kung-Fu Generation" on April 27, 2013 and Masafumi Gotō announced it as live album on twitter; this is the first time the band didn't use Yusuke Nakamura's artwork on their work, instead they just used a picture of the recording. All lyrics are written by Masafumi Gotō. All lyrics are written by Masafumi Gotō. Masafumi Gotō – vocals, Kensuke Kitaguitar, vocals Takahiro Yamadabass, vocals Kiyoshi Ijichidrums

Annie Isherwood

Annie Cecile Ramsbottom Isherwood was an Anglican nun and founder of the Community of the Resurrection of our Lord in Grahamstown. She was known as Mother Cecile CR. Annie Isherwood was born in Uxbridge, England on 14 November 1862 to Richard Ramsbottom-Isherwood and Anna Clarendon. One of her older siblings was future England rugby international and cricketer Francis Ramsbottom-Isherwood. Annie was educated and with the death of her mother in 1870 and father in 1875 she was orphaned by the age of 12, she was brought up by relatives in London where she attended Eaton Square. Isherwood was 21 when Allan Becher Webb, Bishop of Grahamstown, came to preach in St Peter's on the text "I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision", it was at this service she felt called to leave England and undertake work in his diocese, it was agreed that she would start an order of sisters to be known as the Community of the Resurrection of our Lord. She was clothed as a novice on St. Mark’s Day, 25 April 1884, made her final profession on 14 November 1887.

Isherwood became the mother superior of the order and was styled Mother Cecile CR. The Sisters of the Community of the Resurrection of Our Lord opened St Peter's School, the Good Shepherd School a boarding house for the children of railway workers and an orphanage. Mother Cecile CR died at 43 of cancer exacerbated by overwork. In 1894 the Community founded the Grahamstown Training College, an institution which played a valuable part in the development of education in southern Africa, it was forced to close down in 1975. Mother Cecile CR is commemorated in the Calendar of saints on the 20th of February, her image is featured in a stained glass window in St. George's Cathedral, Cape Town and in All Saints' Church, Cambridge. History of Allan Webb Hall Dictionary of African Christian Biography