Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. Consequentialism is non-prescriptive, meaning the moral worth of an action is determined by its potential consequence, not by whether it follows a set of written edicts or laws. One example would entail lying under the threat of government punishment to save an innocent person's life though it is illegal to lie under oath. Consequentialism is contrasted with deontological ethics, in that deontology, in which rules and moral duty are central, derives the rightness or wrongness of one's conduct from the character of the behaviour itself rather than the outcomes of the conduct, it is contrasted with virtue ethics, which focuses on the character of the agent rather than on the nature or consequences of the act itself, pragmatic ethics which treats morality like science: advancing over the course of many lifetimes, such that any moral criterion is subject to revision.
Consequentialist theories differ in. Some argue that consequentialist and deontological theories are not mutually exclusive. For example, T. M. Scanlon advances the idea that human rights, which are considered a "deontological" concept, can only be justified with reference to the consequences of having those rights. Robert Nozick argued for a theory, consequentialist, but incorporates inviolable "side-constraints" which restrict the sort of actions agents are permitted to do. Derek Parfit argued that in practice, when understood properly, rule consequentialism, Kantian deontology and contractualism would all end up prescribing the same, it is the business of the benevolent man to seek to promote what is beneficial to the world and to eliminate what is harmful, to provide a model for the world. What benefits. State consequentialism known as Mohist consequentialism, is an ethical theory which evaluates the moral worth of an action based on how much it contributes to the welfare of a state. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Mohist consequentialism, dating back to the 5th century BCE, is the "world's earliest form of consequentialism, a remarkably sophisticated version based on a plurality of intrinsic goods taken as constitutive of human welfare".
Unlike utilitarianism, which views utility as the sole moral good, "the basic goods in Mohist consequentialist thinking are... order, material wealth, increase in population". During Mozi's era and famines were common, population growth was seen as a moral necessity for a harmonious society; the "material wealth" of Mohist consequentialism refers to basic needs like shelter and clothing, the "order" of Mohist consequentialism refers to Mozi's stance against warfare and violence, which he viewed as pointless and a threat to social stability. Stanford sinologist David Shepherd Nivison, in The Cambridge History of Ancient China, writes that the moral goods of Mohism "are interrelated: more basic wealth more reproduction; the Mohists believed that morality is based on "promoting the benefit of all under heaven and eliminating harm to all under heaven". In contrast to Jeremy Bentham's views, state consequentialism is not utilitarian because it is not hedonistic or individualistic; the importance of outcomes that are good for the community outweigh the importance of individual pleasure and pain.
The term state consequentialism has been applied to the political philosophy of the Confucian philosopher Xunzi. On the other hand, the "Legalist" Han Fei "is motivated totally from the ruler's point of view". Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters and pleasure, it is. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne, they govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think... In summary, Jeremy Bentham states that people are driven by their interests and their fears, but their interests take precedence over their fears, their interests are carried out in accordance with how people view the consequences that might be involved with their interests. "Happiness" on this account is defined as the minimization of pain. It can be argued that the existence of phenomenal consciousness and "qualia" is required for the experience of pleasure or pain to have an ethical significance. Hedonistic utilitarianism is the paradigmatic example of a consequentialist moral theory.
This form of utilitarianism holds that. John Stuart Mill, in his exposition of hedonistic utilitarianism, proposed a hierarchy of pleasures, meaning that the pursuit of certain kinds of pleasure is more valued than the pursuit of other pleasures. However, some contemporary utilitarians, such as Peter Singer, are concerned with maximizing the satisfaction of preferences, hence "preference utilitarianism". Other contemporary forms of utilitarianism mirror the forms of consequentialism outlined below. Ethical egoism can be understood as a consequentialist theory according to which the consequences for the individual agent are taken to matter
Juliusz Zarębski was a Polish composer and pianist. Some of his manuscripts have been found in the National Library of Poland. Juliusz Zarębski was born on March 1854 in Zhytomyr, now Ukraine, he would die in the same city in 1885. His mother was his first piano teacher. In 1870, he completed his education at the gymnasium with honors and moved to Vienna to study composition with Franz Krenn and piano with Josef Dachs. Two years he graduated with two gold medals though his curriculum indicated a musical training of six years; the following year he moved to St. Petersburg and studied there for three more years, passed his examination and obtained his diploma of "free artist." A year he moved to Rome and stayed there until 1875. In Rome, he studied piano with his friend for some time; the Hungarian composer, who would orchestrate his Danses Galiciennes in 1881 helped Zarębski, appearing with him in concerts and using his contacts to publicize the works of the Polish composer. Zarębski's compositions evoke those of Chopin.
He set to music the writings of Włodzimierz Wolski. His career as a virtuoso pianist began in spring 1874 with concerts in Kiev, his performances in Rome, Constantinople, Paris and other European cities were a great success. He was interested in the two piano keyboards, a new invention of Edouard Mangeot, which in two months mastered, he developed his repertoire in this new instrument and performed on it with great acclaim in the 1878 Paris Exhibition. He established himself in Brussels, where he served as teacher of piano master classes at the Royal Conservatory. Two years before his death he had to put an end to his career as a virtuoso as he was diagnosed with tuberculosis, throwing himself into teaching and composing pieces such as the five movements of Les roses et les épines based on a more advanced harmony. Though he continued composing nearly for the piano, the summit of his output would be his cyclical Piano Quintet in G minor of 1885. Free scores by Juliusz Zarębski at the International Music Score Library Project
Thomas Lansing Masson was an American anthropologist and author. He was born at Essex and educated in the public schools of New Haven, he became literary editor of Life in 1893 and a regular contributor of humorous articles to various magazines. As an editor, he was responsible for Humorous Masterpieces of American Literature; the Yankee Navy.. In Marry Measure.. A Corner in Women and Other Follies.. Mary's Little Lamb.. The Von Blumers.. A Bachelor's Baby and Some Grown-Ups.. The New Plato.. Mr. Rum.. Well, Why Not?.. Listen to These.. That Silver Lining.. Why I Am a Spiritual Vagabond.. The City of Perfection.. Within.. "Shall we be Wrecked by Realism," The World's Work 43, pp. 435–439.. "Teaching Children to Teach Themselves," The World's Work 44, pp. 410–414. Works by or about Thomas Lansing Masson at Internet Archive Works by Thomas Lansing Masson, at Hathi Trust Works by Thomas Lansing Masson at LibriVox Works by Thomas Lansing Masson, at JSTOR Works by Thomas Lansing Masson, at Unz.org This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C..
"Thomas Masson". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead