SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Constitution

A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; some constitutions are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign countries to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted. Within states, a constitution defines the principles upon which the state is based, the procedure in which laws are made and by whom; some constitutions codified constitutions act as limiters of state power, by establishing lines which a state's rulers cannot cross, such as fundamental rights.

The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any country in the world, containing 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 124 amendments, with 146,385 words in its English-language version. The Constitution of Monaco is the shortest written constitution, containing 10 chapters with 97 articles, a total of 3,814 words; the term constitution comes through French from the Latin word constitutio, used for regulations and orders, such as the imperial enactments. The term was used in canon law for an important determination a decree issued by the Pope, now referred to as an apostolic constitution; every modern written constitution confers specific powers on an organization or institutional entity, established upon the primary condition that it abides by the constitution's limitations. According to Scott Gordon, a political organization is constitutional to the extent that it "contain institutionalized mechanisms of power control for the protection of the interests and liberties of the citizenry, including those that may be in the minority".

Activities of officials within an organization or polity that fall within the constitutional or statutory authority of those officials are termed "within power". For example, a students' union may be prohibited as an organization from engaging in activities not concerning students. An example from the constitutional law of sovereign states would be a provincial parliament in a federal state trying to legislate in an area that the constitution allocates to the federal parliament, such as ratifying a treaty. Action that appears to be beyond power may be judicially reviewed and, if found to be beyond power, must cease. Legislation, found to be beyond power will be "invalid" and of no force. In this context, "within power", intra vires, "authorized" and "valid" have the same meaning. In most but not all modern states the constitution has supremacy over ordinary statutory law, it was never "law" though, if it had been a statute or statutory provision, it might have been adopted according to the procedures for adopting legislation.

Sometimes the problem is not that a statute is unconstitutional, but that the application of it is, on a particular occasion, a court may decide that while there are ways it could be applied that are constitutional, that instance was not allowed or legitimate. In such a case, only that application may be ruled unconstitutional; the remedies for such violations have been petitions for common law writs, such as quo warranto. Excavations in modern-day Iraq by Ernest de Sarzec in 1877 found evidence of the earliest known code of justice, issued by the Sumerian king Urukagina of Lagash ca 2300 BC; the earliest prototype for a law of government, this document itself has not yet been discovered. For example, it is known that it relieved tax for widows and orphans, protected the poor from the usury of the rich. After that, many governments ruled by special codes of written laws; the oldest such document still known to exist seems to be the Code of Ur-Nammu of Ur. Some of the better-known ancient law codes include the code of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, the code of Hammurabi of Babylonia, the Hittite code, the Assyrian code and Mosaic law.

In 621 BC, a scribe named. In 594 BC, the ruler of Athens, created the new Solonian Constitution, it eased the burden of the workers, determined that membership of the ruling class was to be based on wealth, rather than on birth. Cleisthenes again reformed the At

115 King William Street

115 King William Street is a high-rise building located on the west side of King William Street in the Adelaide city centre between Waymouth and Currie streets. It rises 87 metres to 91 metres to the antenna spire; the building has 26 storeys. Construction of the building began in 2015 and was completed in 2016. 115 King William Street is the sixth tallest building in Adelaide. It is owned by Brinz Holdings Pty Ltd. 115 King William Street has been an address associated with commercial offices. In the nineteenth century it was the home of a solicitor, George Michell. In the early twentieth century, it was the site of Commercial Union Chambers, which hosted a range of commercial offices, including its main tenant the Commercial Union Assurance Company. From the 1930s onwards, it became associated with the premises of Scrymgour & Sons, a printing business.115 King William Street was approved by the Development Assessment Commission on 12 July 2010, with its original design only being 64 metres and 16 storeys tall.

On, the building was approved to be 25 floors high and in August 2015 was granted permission to have another 1 storey making it 26 storeys high. List of tallest buildings in Adelaide King William Street

Foxon Park

Foxon Park is a soft drink brand produced by Foxon Park Beverage Company. The company is located in East Haven and has been in business for more than 90 years, their sodas are a traditional accompaniment to the New Haven-style pizza sold throughout the area. They are served at Louis' Lunch and Foe Foods & Catering. Flavors include: cream soda, white birch, orange, ginger ale, gassosa, lemon-lime, root beer, iron brew, sparkling water, tonic water, cherry. Foxon Park is noted for using natural ingredients as well as utilizing cane sugar as a sweetener, unlike most soft drinks which use high fructose corn syrup, their slogan is "All-Ways in Good Taste." Foxon Park was founded in 1922 in East Haven, Connecticut by Matteo Naclerio, an immigrant from Italy. The beverage company Naclerio opened was named after the street. Home delivery was offered, as were some unique flavors such as gassosa. Foxon Park still remains a family-owned business. Official Foxon Park Website