Law is understood as a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate conduct, although its precise definition is a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously described as the art of justice. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. Legal systems vary with their differences analysed in comparative law. In civil law jurisdictions, a legislature or other central body consolidates the law.
In common law systems, judges make binding case law through precedent, although on occasion case law may be overturned by a higher court or the legislature. Religious law influenced secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Sharia law based on Islamic principles is used as the primary legal system in several countries, including Iran and Saudi Arabia. Law's scope can be divided into two domains. Public law concerns government and society, including constitutional law, administrative law, criminal law. Private law deals with legal disputes between individuals and/or organisations in areas such as contracts, torts/delicts and commercial law; this distinction is stronger in civil law countries those with a separate system of administrative courts. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice; the philosophy of law is known as jurisprudence. Normative jurisprudence asks "what should law be?", while analytic jurisprudence asks "what is law?"
John Austin's utilitarian answer was that law is "commands, backed by threat of sanctions, from a sovereign, to whom people have a habit of obedience". Natural lawyers on the other side, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, argue that law reflects moral and unchangeable laws of nature; the concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in connection with the notion of justice, re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas, notably his Treatise on Law. Hugo Grotius, the founder of a purely rationalistic system of natural law, argued that law arises from both a social impulse—as Aristotle had indicated—and reason. Immanuel Kant believed a moral imperative requires laws "be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature". Jeremy Bentham and his student Austin, following David Hume, believed that this conflated the "is" and what "ought to be" problem. Bentham and Austin argued for law's positivism. Kant was criticised by Friedrich Nietzsche, who rejected the principle of equality, believed that law emanates from the will to power, cannot be labelled as "moral" or "immoral".
In 1934, the Austrian philosopher Hans Kelsen continued the positivist tradition in his book the Pure Theory of Law. Kelsen believed that although law is separate from morality, it is endowed with "normativity", meaning we ought to obey it. While laws are positive "is" statements. Thus, each legal system can be hypothesised to have a basic norm instructing us to obey. Kelsen's major opponent, Carl Schmitt, rejected both positivism and the idea of the rule of law because he did not accept the primacy of abstract normative principles over concrete political positions and decisions. Therefore, Schmitt advocated a jurisprudence of the exception, which denied that legal norms could encompass all of political experience. In the 20th century, H. L. A. Hart attacked Austin for his simplifications and Kelsen for his fictions in The Concept of Law. Hart argued law is a system of rules, divided into secondary ones. Secondary rules are further divided into rules of adjudication, rules of change and the rule of recognition.
Two of Hart's students continued the debate: In his book Law's Empire, Ronald Dworkin attacked Hart and the positivists for their refusal to treat law as a moral issue. Dworkin argues that law is an "interpretive concept", that requires judges to find the best fitting and most just solution to a legal dispute, given their constitutional traditions. Joseph Raz, on the other hand, defended the positivist outlook and criticised Hart's "soft social thesis" approach in The Authority of Law. Raz argues that law is authority, identifiable purely through social sources and without reference to moral reasoning. In his view, any categorisation of rules beyond their role as authoritative instruments in mediation are best left to sociology, rather than jurisprudence. There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, Baron Hampstead suggested. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanvill
The National Museum of African American Music is a museum scheduled to open in Nashville, Tennessee in 2020. It is expected to showcase musical genres created, or influenced by African-Americans, its location at Fifth + Broadway in Downtown Nashville as opposed to Jefferson Street has been controversial. The museum will comprise "five permanent themed galleries" as well as "a 200-seat theater and traveling exhibits", its founding curator, Dr. Dina Bennett, was appointed in May 2018; the museum is expected to showcase more than fifty musical genres that were inspired, created, or influenced by African American culture, ranging from early American religious music to hip-hop and Rhythm and Blues. Its collection will include up to 1,400 artifacts, including clothes worn by Nat King Cole, Dorothy Dandridge, Whitney Houston, Lisa Lopes; the first traveling exhibit is expected to be about the Fisk Jubilee Singers. The museum received $500,000 from the Regions Foundation and $500,000 from the Mike Curb Foundation in February 2019.
The museum was supposed to be built at the intersection of Rosa Parks Boulevard and Jefferson Street, the historic center of the city's African-American community. After the location was changed to Downtown Nashville in 2016, the staff of the Tennessee Tribune, Nashville's African-American newspaper, explained: This city government once destroyed all of the African American Business on Jefferson Street where there was loss of income, businesses and the city turned its back; the city now wants to dictate to the African American Community where it wants the Museum and once again treat African Americans who elected them to office as 2nd class citizens with no rights or input for a project, the African American Community project. It is the most racist effort; the museum will be located at Fifth + Broadway in Downtown Nashville, where the Nashville Convention Center once stood. The new complex, expected to cost $450 million, is being developed by OliverMcMillan and Spectrum | Emery, a company owned by businessman Pat Emery.
The location, close to Broadway and the Ryman Auditorium, was praised by Senator Marsha Blackburn at a fundraising event in February 2019. Mayor David Briley added, "For Nashville to get past its history of racism and to start to move to an era where African-Americans both know and can tell their own history in our city, we have to invest in this museum."
WoLLIC, the Workshop on Logic, Language and Computation is an academic conference in the field of pure and applied logic and theoretical computer science. WoLLIC has been organised annually since 1994 in June or July. According to Computer Science Conference Ranking 2010, the conference is ranked "B" among over 1900 international conferences across the world, it is ranked "B" on The CORE Conference Ranking Exercise - CORE Portal. It is ranked 9th, Field-Rating 1, Algorithms & Theory, at Microsoft Academic Search - Conferences. On Google Scholar, the conference gets a score of 11 as its h5-index, a score of 18 as its h5-median. 1994: Recife, Brazil 1995: Recife, Brazil 1996: Salvador, Brazil 1997: Fortaleza, Brazil 1998: São Paulo, Brazil 1999: Itatiaia, Brazil 2000: Natal, Brazil 2001: Brasília, Brazil 2002: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2003: Ouro Preto, Brazil 2004: Fontainebleau, France 2005: Florianópolis, Brazil 2006: Stanford, United States 2007: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2008: Edinburgh, Scotland 2009: Tokyo, Japan 2010: Brasília, Brazil 2011: Philadelphia, USA 2012: Buenos Aires, Argentina 2013: Darmstadt, Germany 2014: Valparaiso, Chile 2015: Bloomington, Indiana, USA 2016: Puebla, Mexico 2017: London, Great Britain 2018: Bogotá, Colombia 2019: Utrecht, The Netherlands The meetings alternate between Latin America and US/Europe/Asia.
The following locations are planned for future meetings: 2020: Lima, Peru 2021: Chennai, India Logic, Language and Computation - 26th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2019, Rosalie Iemhoff, Michael Moortgat & Ruy de Queiroz, The Netherlands, July 2-5, 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 11541/2019, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-59533-6, ISBN 978-3-662-59532-9. Logic, Language and Computation - 25th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2018, Lawrence S. Moss, Ruy de Queiroz & Maricarmen Martínez, Bogotá, July 24–27, 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 10944/2018, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-57669-4, ISBN 978-3-662-57668-7. Logic, Language and Computation - 24th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2017, Juliette Kennedy & Ruy de Queiroz, London, UK, July 18–21, 2017. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 10388/2017, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-55386-2, ISBN 978-3-662-55385-5.
Logic, Language and Computation - 23rd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2016, Jouko Väänänen, Åsa Hirvonen & Ruy de Queiroz, Mexico, August 16–19, 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 9803/2016, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-52921-8, ISBN 978-3-662-52920-1. Logic, Language and Computation - 22nd International Workshop, WoLLIC 2015, Valeria de Paiva, Ruy de Queiroz, Lawrence Moss, Daniel Leivant & Anjolina de Oliveira, Indiana, USA, July 20–23, 2015. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 9160/2015, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-47709-0, ISBN 978-3-662-47708-3. Logic, Language and Computation - 21st International Workshop, WoLLIC 2014, Ulrich Kohlenbach, Pablo Barceló & Ruy de Queiroz, Valparaíso, September 1–4, 2014. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 8652/2014, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-44145-9, ISBN 978-3-662-44144-2.
Logic, Language and Computation - 20th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2013, Leonid Libkin, Ulrich Kohlenbach & Ruy de Queiroz, Germany, August 20–23, 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 8071/2013, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39992-3, ISBN 978-3-642-39992-3. Logic, Language and Computation - 19th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2012, Luke Ong & Ruy de Queiroz, Buenos Aires, September 3–6, 2012. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 7456/2012, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-32620-2, ISBN 978-3-642-32620-2. Logic, Language and Computation - 18th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2011, Lev D. Beklemishev & Ruy de Queiroz, Philadelphia, PA, USA, May 18–20, 2011. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 6642/2011, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20919-2, ISBN 978-3-642-20919-2. Logic, Language and Computation - 17th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2010, A. Dawar & R. de Queiroz, Brasília, July 6–9, 2010.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 6188/2010, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13823-2, ISBN 978-3-642-13823-2. Logic, Language and Computation - 16th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2009, H. Ono, M. Kanazawa & R. de Queiroz, Japan, June 21–24, 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, ISSN 0302-9743 ISSN 1611-3349, Volume 5514/2009, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-02261-6, ISBN 978-3-642-02260-9. Logic, Language and Computation - 15th International Workshop, WoLLIC 2008, W. Hodges & R. de Queiroz, Edinburgh, UK, July 1–4, 2008. Lecture Notes in Computer