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Constitution of Massachusetts

The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the fundamental governing document of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, one of the 50 individual state governments that make up the United States of America. As a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779, John Adams was the document's principal author. Voters approved the document on June 15, 1780, it became effective on October 25, 1780, remains the oldest functioning written constitution in continuous effect in the world. It was the first constitution anywhere to be created by a convention called for that purpose rather than by a legislative body. Only the Constitution of San Marino has sections still in force; the Massachusetts Constitution was written last of the original states' first constitutions. Rather than taking the form of a list of provisions, it was organized into a structure of chapters and articles, it served as a model for the Constitution of the United States of America, drafted seven years which used a similar structure.

It influenced revisions of many other state constitutions. The Massachusetts Constitution has four parts: a preamble, a declaration of rights, a description of the framework of government, articles of amendment, it has been amended 120 times, most in 2000. In the spring of 1775, Adams took the position that each state should call a special convention to write a constitution and submit it to a popular vote, he told the Continental Congress that: We must realize the theories of the Wisest Writers and invite the People, to erect the whole Building with their own hands upon the broadest foundation. That this could be done only by conventions of representatives chosen by the People.... Congress ought now to recommend to the People of every Colony to call such Conventions and set up Governments of their own, under their own Authority; the legislative body of Massachusetts, known as the Massachusetts General Court, instead drafted its own version of a constitution and submitted it to the voters, who rejected it in 1778.

That version did not provide for the separation of powers, nor did it include a statement of individual rights. The General Court organized the election of delegates from each town to participate in a convention that would draft a constitution and submit their work to a popular vote with the understanding that its adoption would require approval by two-thirds of the voters; the constitutional convention met in Cambridge in September 1779. The convention sat from September 1 to October 30, 1779, its 312 members chose a committee of thirty members to prepare a new constitution and declaration of rights. That committee asked Adams to draft a declaration of rights, it appointed a subcommittee of James Bowdoin, Samuel Adams, John Adams to draft the constitution and that trio delegated the drafting to John Adams alone. He wrote that he constituted a "sub-sub committee of one". An article on religion was referred to members of the clergy, which resulted in a form of religious establishment unlike that adopted at the federal level.

Adams advocated for an end to that establishment when revisions to the constitution were considered in 1820 and his views were adopted in 1832. Adams's draft declaration of rights read in part: "All men are born free and independent..." Before being adopted by the constitutional convention it was revised to read: "All men are born free and equal..." At the insistence of Adams, the document referred to the state as a "commonwealth."Male voters 21 years or older ratified the constitution and declaration of rights at the convention on June 15, 1780, it became effective on October 25, 1780. The preamble of the constitution provided a model, drawn on when the United States Constitution was composed a few years including some phrases near the end, it reads: The end of the institution and administration of government, is to secure the existence of the body politic, to protect it, to furnish the individuals who compose it with the power of enjoying in safety and tranquillity their natural rights, the blessings of life: and whenever these great objects are not obtained, the people have a right to alter the government, to take measures necessary for their safety and happiness.

The body politic is formed by a voluntary association of individuals: it is a social compact, by which the whole people covenants with each citizen, each citizen with the whole people, that all shall be governed by certain laws for the common good. It is the duty of the people, therefore, in framing a constitution of government, to provide for an equitable mode of making laws, as well as for an impartial interpretation, a faithful execution of them. We, the people of Massachusetts, with grateful hearts, the goodness of the great Legislator of the universe, in affording us, in the course of His providence, an opportunity and peaceably, without fraud, violence or surprise, of entering into an original and solemn compact with each other. "Part the First: A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts" consists of thirty articles. The first states: Article I. All men are born free and equal, have certain natural and unalienable rights.

Anne Pride

Anne Pride was a National Organization for Women activist and publisher. Pride was appointed president of the feminist publishing company KNOW, Inc. in 1969. She was on the board of directors of the Committee of Small Magazines Editors and Publishers for 1974-1976, she served as editor of Do It NOW, NOW's national newsletter from 1970-76. In 1977 she used the term "Take Back the Night" in a memorial she read at an anti-violence rally in Pittsburgh. In 1977, Pride became an associate of the Women's Institute for Freedom of the Press. WIFP is an American nonprofit publishing organization; the organization works to increase communication between women and connect the public with forms of women-based media. Anne married Edwin Kurlfink at the age of 16, but before her separation and divorce, wanted to change her name back to Huggett, her family name. Edwin accepted this but her father, John M. Huggett, didn't want his name to be associated with the women's movement. Upon her separation from Edwin in 1977, she changed her name to Pride.

Anne Pride, Papers of NOW Officers. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University; the Pittsburgh Press December 19, 1989. Obituary; the Pittsburgh Press April 26, 1990. Mother's Obituary. Erickson-Rochon & Nash

Canterbury Bight

Canterbury Bight is a 135 kilometres stretch of coastline between Dashing Rocks and the southern side of Banks Peninsula on the eastern side of the South Island, New Zealand. The bight faces southeast, which exposes it to high-energy storm waves originating in the Pacific Ocean; the most frequent wave approach direction for the Canterbury Bight is from the southeast and the most dominant the south with wave heights of over 2m common. The bight is a large curving bend of shoreline of mixed sand and gravel beaches; the MSG beaches are steep reflective and composed of alluvial gravel deposits. The alluvial gravels are the outwash products of multiple glaciations that occurred in the Southern Alps during the Pleistocene. Large braided rivers transported this material to the edge of the current continental shelf, due to sea level rise is 50 km seaward of the coasts current position; the MSG beaches of the Canterbury Bight therefore occur where the alluvial fans of the Canterbury Plains rivers are exposed to high-energy ocean swells.

The dominant rock ‘greywacke’ in the Southern Alps is the primary constituent of the MSG beaches, indurated sandstone of the Torlesse Supergroup. River-mouth lagoons are a common occurrence on the MSG beaches of the Canterbury Bight; the Canterbury Bight can be split into three distinct regions. The Southern Zone represents the southernmost part of the Canterbury Bight, which runs from Dashing Rocks to the Rangitata River mouth. Features of note along this section of the bight include the Washdyke Washdyke Lagoon; the Central Zone is the largest of the three zones and runs between the Rangitata River mouth and Taumutu on the Southern end of Kaitorete Spit. Unconsolidated alluvial cliffs interbedded with sands and silts, which back steep, narrow MSG beaches unify this zone; the cliffs are the result of erosion of the Rangitata River, Ashburton River and Rakaia River alluvial fans whose mouths are all encompassed by this region. Continued cliff erosion contributes around 70% of the coarse material supplied to the MSG beaches of the Canterbury Bight.

The Northern zone runs from Taumutu to Banks Peninsula and represents the ‘down-drift’ end of the Canterbury Bight. This zone is backed extensively by dune systems. Kaitorete ` Spit' encloses the fourth largest lake in New Zealand; this section of the bight is the only, not in a long-term erosional state. Speaking, there are six potential sediment sources for beach environments; these are longshore transport, onshore transport, wind transport, river transport, biogenous deposition and hydrogenous deposition. In the Canterbury Bight system, wind transport and biogenous and hydrogenous deposition can be excluded as agents of sediment inputs. Wind can be excluded as it acts to remove sediment from the beach although this is not a significant amount. Biogenous deposition can be excluded as the high-energy environment and coarse sediment deter shelled animals from occupying the area. Lastly, hydrogenous deposition is not considered important to the Canterbury Bight system; this means that rivers, longshore transport and onshore transport are the main sediment sources for the Canterbury Bight.

Erosion of the alluvial cliffs through the Central Zone of the Canterbury Bight is believed to provide the majority of coarse material to the beach system. This creates a conundrum, as rivers are accepted to be the main source of sediment to coasts and three large rivers discharge into the Canterbury Bight. Furthermore, the total amount of sediment that the rivers transport to the coast is proportional to other rivers worldwide; the first reason the rivers do not provide a significant amount of sediment to the coast is that the coarse sediment are transported offshore during floods where waves are unable to return it to the coast and/or it is deposited further inland within the river channel. The second reason is that the material capable of nourishing the coastline provided by rivers is estimated to only be around 176,700m3/yr although this value is speculative; this estimate of coarse sediment supply only equates for less than 10% of sediment supplied by the river systems. The remaining 90% is fine material, unable to nourish the Canterbury Bight and is transported offshore The erosion of alluvial cliffs found in the central zone is predominantly caused by sub-aerial processes followed by marine processes removing the eroded material.

This eroded material is subjected to longshore transport, which in the case of the Canterbury Bight is predominantly from south to north. Estimates for the rate of erosion vary along the coast but are averaged at about 8m/yr, although high erosion levels at one site may influence this value; the marine processes include swash and backwash, with the larger storm induced waves creating stronger swash/backwash, which removes more eroded material. The amount of gravel provided to the coast from the cliffs is estimated at around 666,400m3/yr although this value is specul

Abbas Zakour

Abbas Zakour is an Israeli Arab politician and a former member of the Knesset for the United Arab List. Born in Acre, Zakour gained a BA in Islamic Sciences at the Al-Quds University in 1990, he worked as director of the Almotak newspaper. For the 2006 Knesset elections, he was placed fourth on the United Arab List list, became a Knesset member when the party won four seats. In December 2008, he left the UAL and established a new party, the Arab Centre Party, to run in the 2009 Knesset elections. Zakour stated that the party would join "any leftist government that supports peace", hopes to win four seats. Labor Party MK Raleb Majadele turned the offer down, it was planned that Zakour would head the list, whilst former United Arab List and Arab National Party MK Muhamad Kanan would take second spot. However, Zakour joined Balad, winning fourth place on its list, the new party did not run. Balad won three seats in the election. In 2006, Zakour was stabbed and wounded by a gang of Russian immigrants shouting anti-Arab chants.

The attack was part of a "stabbing rampage", was described as a "hate crime". Zakour lives in Acre, is married. Abbas Zakour on the Knesset website

Scout handshake

The left-handed Scout handshake is a formal way of greeting other Scouts of both genders and is used by members of Scout and Guide organizations around the world. The handshake is offered as a token of friendship. In most situations, the handshake is made without interlocking fingers, many organizations only use this handshake when both people are in uniform. There are some variations of the handshake between national Scouting organizations and within some program sections; the 1935 Boy Scout Handbook says that "By agreement of the Scout Leaders throughout the world, Boy Scouts greet Brother Scouts with a warm left hand clasp." All World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members share the left handshake, when meeting other Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, it may be used in conjunction with the Scout sign done with the right hand. Various sources have attributed the origin of the handshake, as an ancient sign of bravery and respect, to Lord Baden-Powell's encounter after battle with Prempeh I, or to earlier published works by Ernest Thompson Seton.

There exist various versions of the Prempeh story, all centering on African warriors using the left hand to hold their shields and to lower it and shake the left hand of the person was to show they trusted each other. According to the Ashanti warrior version of the story, then-Colonel Baden-Powell saluted them with his right hand, but the Ashanti chiefs offered their left hands and said, "In our land only the bravest of the brave shake hands with the left hand, because to do so we must drop our shields and our protection." The Ashantis knew of Baden-Powell's bravery because they had fought against him and with him, they were proud to offer the left hand of bravery. Another version of the story is that the left-handed handshake was a homage paid to Chief Kweku Andoh, left-handed and had the tendency to shake hands with his left. Baden-Powell dedicated his account'The Downfall of Prempeh' to him: ". To Chief Andoh of Elmina. My Guide and Friend". Chief Kweku Andoh was the officer in the British Army that led the troops to Kumase when they captured Prempeh I and purportedly taught Baden-Powell how to scout in the jungle.

The term itself was used as the title of a work by Hilary Saint George Saunders, The Left Handshake: The Boy Scout Movement during the War, 1939–1945, because of the extraordinary courage shown during those times. According to the foreword by British Chief Scout Lord Rowallan, When Colonel Baden-Powell entered the capital city of the Ashanti people in 1890 he was met by one of the Chiefs who came to him holding out his left hand. B.-P. held out his right in return but the Chief said: "No, in my country the bravest of the brave shake with the left hand." So began the "left handshake" of the world-wide brotherhood of Scouts. In this book are told some of the stories of courage and endurance shown by Scouts in many different countries during the war of 1939–45. There would not be room in many books to tell them all. Many, can never be told, they remembered their Promise, to do their best to do their duty to God, their Country. So, when the time came, they were prepared in spirit to render their service.

Their record is unsurpassed. The left hand is closer to the heart, with that attendant symbolism. "Scout Requirements Study Guide". Retrieved 2019-02-15. "The Scout Salute". Den 2, Cub Scout Pack 3149. Hudsonville, MI. Retrieved 2019-02-15


Bisham is a village and civil parish in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. The village is located on the River Thames, around one mile south of Marlow in the neighbouring county of Buckinghamshire, around three miles northwest of Maidenhead. According to the 2001 Census, the population of the parish was 1,149, reducing to 1,099 at the 2011 Census. Bisham is home to one of Sport England's National Sports Centres; the National Sports Centre at Bisham is centred on Bisham Abbey, a 13th-century manor house built for the Knights Templar but the residence of the Montagu Earls of Salisbury and the Hoby family. Bisham has a local nature reserve on the western edge of the village, called Bisham Woods. Bisham Church and churchyard, as well as the Compleat Angler Hotel, are featured in episodes of the 1990s BBC television detective series, Pie in the Sky. During the Nationwide Building Society's summer advertising campaign of 2010, when they were official sponsors of the England football team at the World Cup, one of their television advertisements featured the England team playing on one of the pitches at Bisham Abbey.

The parish church was visible in the background. Theatrical couple Oscar Asche and Lily Brayton are buried in the graveyard of All Saints Church. A Ham class minesweeper, HMS Bisham, was named after the village. A short history of Bisham Church Royal Berkshire History: Bisham Royal Berkshire History: Bisham Church